New York metropolitan area

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New York metropolitan area

New York–Newark–Bridgeport, NY, NJ, CT, PA
New York City, described as the cultural, financial, and media capital[1][2] of the world,[3][4][5][6][7] the world's most economically powerful city,[8][9][10] and the greatest city in the world.[11][12]
New York City, described as the cultural, financial, and media capital[1][2] of the world,[3][4][5][6][7] the world's most economically powerful city,[8][9][10] and the greatest city in the world.[11][12]
Location of New York metropolitan area
Coordinates: 40°48′31″N 74°1′13.39″W / 40.80861°N 74.0203861°W / 40.80861; -74.0203861Coordinates: 40°48′31″N 74°1′13.39″W / 40.80861°N 74.0203861°W / 40.80861; -74.0203861
Country United States
States New York
 New Jersey
Principal municipalitiesNew York City
*The Bronx
*Staten Island
East Windsor
Fair Lawn
Fort Lee
Glen Cove
Jersey City
Long Beach
Mount Kisco
Mount Vernon
New Brunswick
New Haven
New Rochelle
North Hempstead
Old Bridge
Oyster Bay
West New York
Basking Ridge
West Windsor
White Plains
 • Total13,318 sq mi (34,490 km2)
 • Density1,781.3/sq mi (687.8/km2)
 • MSA (2017)
20,320,876[13] (1st)
 • CSA (2016)
23,689,255[14] (1st)
Time zoneUTC-5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-4 (EDT)
Area code(s)201, 203, 212, 272, 347, 475, 484, 516, 551, 570, 609, 610, 631, 646, 718, 732, 845, 848, 860, 862, 908, 914, 917, 929, 973
GDP$1.718 trillion (2017)[15]
GDP per capita$84,547 (2017)
Highest elevation 4,180 ft/1,274 m (Slide Mountain (Ulster County, New York), in the Catskill Mountains).
Lowest elevation 0 ft/0 m (sea level) at the Atlantic Ocean, Long Island Sound, and at Hudson River estuary waterways.
Interactive map of the New York metropolitan area

The New York metropolitan area is the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass, at 4,495 sq mi (11,640 km2).[16] The metropolitan area includes New York City (the most populous city in the United States), Long Island, and the Mid and Lower Hudson Valley in the state of New York; the five largest cities in New Jersey: Newark, Jersey City, Paterson, Elizabeth, and Edison, and their vicinities; six of the seven largest cities in Connecticut: Bridgeport, New Haven, Stamford, Waterbury, Norwalk, and Danbury, and their vicinities.

The New York metropolitan area remains, by a significant margin, the most populous in the United States, as defined by both the Metropolitan Statistical Area (20.3 million residents in 2017)[13] and the Combined Statistical Area (23.7 million residents in 2016).[17] It is the largest urban agglomeration in the Americas and the tenth largest in the world.[18][19][20] The New York metropolitan area continues to be the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States,[21][22][23][24] with the largest foreign-born population of any metropolitan region in the world. The MSA covers 6,720 sq mi (17,405 km2), while the CSA area is 13,318 sq mi (34,493 km2), encompassing an ethnically and geographically diverse region. The New York metropolitan area's population is larger than that of the state of New York, and the metropolitan airspace accommodated over 130 million passengers in 2016.[25]

As a center of many industries, including finance, international trade, news and traditional media, real estate, education, fashion, entertainment, tourism, biotechnology, law, and manufacturing, the New York City metropolitan region is one of the most important economic regions in the world; in 2015, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of nearly US$1.60 trillion,[26] while in 2015, the CSA[27] had a GMP of over US$1.83 trillion, both ranking first nationally by a wide margin and behind the GDP of only nine nations and seven nations, respectively.[28] In 2012, the New York metropolitan area was also home to seven of the 25 wealthiest counties in the United States by median household income, according to the American Community Survey.[29] According to Forbes, in 2014, the New York City metropolitan area was home to eight of the top ten ZIP codes in the United States by median housing price, with six in Manhattan alone.[30] The New York Metropolitan Area also houses five of the top ten richest places in America, according to Bloomberg. These are Scarsdale, NY; Short Hills, NJ; Old Greenwich, CT; Bronxville, NY; and Darien, CT.[31]

The New York metropolitan region's higher education network comprises hundreds of colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Princeton University, and Yale University, which are ranked among the top 3 universities in the United States and top 10 in the world.[32][33] Institutions such as New York University, Rockefeller University, and the Cornell Tech campus of Cornell University additionally have been ranked among the top 40 in the world.[34][35]


Metropolitan Statistical Area[edit]

Satellite imagery showing the New York metropolitan area at night. Long Island extends to the east of Manhattan, the central core of the metropolitan area.
Part of the Palisades Interstate Park, the cliffs of the New Jersey Palisades of Bergen County overlook the Hudson River as well as The Bronx and Upper Manhattan in New York City.
Enveloped by the Atlantic Ocean and Long Island Sound, New York City and Long Island alone are home to approximately 11 million residents conjointly.
The Bear Mountain Bridge connecting Westchester and Rockland Counties, New York, across the Hudson River, as seen from Bear Mountain

The U.S. Office of Management and Budget utilizes two definitions of the area: the Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) and the Combined Statistical Area (CSA). The MSA definition is titled the New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA Metropolitan Statistical Area, and includes a population of 20.3 million people by 2017 Census estimates, roughly 1 in 16 Americans and nearly 7 million more than the second-place Los Angeles metropolitan area in the United States.[13] The MSA is further subdivided into four metropolitan divisions. The 26-county MSA includes 12 counties in New York State (coextensive with the five boroughs of New York City, the two counties of Long Island, and five counties in the lower Hudson Valley); 13 counties in Northern and Central New Jersey; and 1 county in northeastern Pennsylvania. The largest urbanized area in the United States is at the heart of the metropolitan area, the New York–Newark, NY–NJ–CT Urbanized Area (estimated to have an area of 6,720 square miles).

The counties and county groupings constituting the New York metropolitan area are listed below, with 2012 population estimates:

New York–Newark–Jersey City, NY–NJ–PA Metropolitan Statistical Area (19,831,858) (Note: 20,182,305 estimated in 2015[13])

Combined statistical area[edit]

Counties composing the New York–Newark, NY–NJ–CT–PA combined statistical area
New York–Jersey City–White Plains, NY–NJ metropolitan division
Dutchess County–Putnam County, NY metropolitan division
Nassau County–Suffolk County, NY metropolitan division
Newark, NJ–PA metropolitan division
Remainder of the New York–Newark, NY–NJ–CT–PA combined statistical area

Combined statistical areas (CSAs) group together adjacent core-based statistical areas with a high degree of economic interconnection.[36] The New York–Newark, NY–NJ–CT–PA Combined Statistical Area had an estimated population of 23.7 million as of 2014.[17] About one out of every fifteen Americans resides in this region, which includes ten additional counties in New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Pennsylvania. This area, less the Pennsylvania portion, is often referred to as the tri-state area and less commonly the tri-state region. The New York City television designated market area (DMA) includes Pike County, Pennsylvania,[37] which is also included in the CSA.

In addition to the New York–Newark–Jersey City, NY–NJ–PA metropolitan statistical areas (MSA), the following core-based statistical areas are also included in the New York–Newark, NY–NJ–CT–PA CSA:


High Point Monument as seen from Lake Marcia at High Point, Sussex County, the highest elevation in New Jersey at 1,803 feet (550 m) above sea level.[38]

The area is frequently divided into the following subregions:[39][40]

All eight subregions are often further divided. For instance, Long Island can be divided into its South and North Shores (usually when speaking about Nassau County and western Suffolk County) and the East End. The Hudson Valley and Connecticut are sometimes grouped together and referred to as the Northern Suburbs, largely because of the shared usage of the Metro-North Railroad system.[41]


New York City[edit]

The geographical, cultural, and economic center of the metropolitan area is New York City, which consists of five boroughs, each of which is also a county of New York State.[42] The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, the Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898.[43] With a Census-estimated population of 8,550,405 in 2015 (8,491,079 in 2014[44][45]), distributed over a land area of just 305 square miles (790 km2),[46] New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States.[47] A global power city,[48] New York City exerts a significant impact upon commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and entertainment, its fast pace[49][50] defining the term New York minute.[51] Home to the headquarters of the United Nations,[52] New York is an important center for international diplomacy.[53] New York City is a global city[54] and has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital[55][56] of the world,[57][58][9] the world's most economically powerful city,[8][9][59] and the greatest city in the world.[11][12]

Long Island[edit]

The Village of Garden City in Nassau County, Long Island's Town of Hempstead, which with over 770,000 people is the New York metropolitan area's most populous individual municipality outside New York City.[60]

Long Island is an island located just off the northeast coast of the United States and a region wholly within both the U.S. state of New York and the New York City metropolitan area. Stretching east-northeast from New York Harbor into the Atlantic Ocean, the island comprises four counties: Kings and Queens (these form the New York City boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, respectively) to the west; then Nassau and Suffolk to the east. However, most people in the New York metropolitan area (even those living in Queens and Brooklyn) colloquially use the term "Long Island" (or "The Island") exclusively to refer to the Nassau-Suffolk county area collectively, which is mainly suburban in character.[61] North of the island is Long Island Sound, across which are the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island.

With a Census-estimated population of 7,838,722 in 2015, constituting nearly 40% of New York State's population,[62][63][64][65][66] the majority of New York City residents, 58% as of 2015, now live on Long Island, namely the estimated 4,896,398 residents living in the New York City boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens.[67] Long Island is the most populated island in any U.S. state or territory, and the 17th-most populous island in the world (ahead of Ireland, Jamaica, and Hokkaidō). Its population density is 5,571 inhabitants per square mile (2,151/km2). If Long Island geographically constituted an independent metropolitan statistical area, it would rank fourth most populous in the United States; while if it were a U.S. state, Long Island would rank 13th in population and first in population density. Queens is the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world.[68][69] The Town of Hempstead in Nassau County, with an estimated population of 770,367 in 2016, is the most populous municipality in the New York metropolitan area outside of New York City.[60]

Long Island is the most populated island in the United States and the 17th most populous island in the world, but is more prominently known for recreation, boating, and miles of public beaches, including numerous town, county, and state parks, as well as Fire Island National Seashore and wealthy and expensive coastal residential enclaves. Along the north shore, the Gold Coast of Long Island, featured in the film The Great Gatsby, is an upscale section of Nassau and western Suffolk counties that once featured many lavish mansions built and inhabited by wealthy business tycoons in the earlier years of the 20th century, of which only a few remain preserved as historic sites. The East End of Long Island (known as the "Twin Forks" because of its physical shape) boasts open spaces for farmland and wineries. The South Fork, in particular, comprises numerous towns and villages known collectively as "The Hamptons" and has an international reputation as a "playground for the rich and famous", with some of the wealthiest communities in the United States. In 2015, according to Business Insider, the 11962 zip code encompassing Sagaponack, within Southampton, was listed as the most expensive in the U.S. by real estate-listings site Property Shark, with a median home sale price of $5,125,000.[70] During the summer season, many celebrities and the wealthy visit or reside in mansions and waterfront homes, while others spend weekends enjoying the beaches, gardens, bars, restaurants, and nightclubs.

Long Island is served by a network of parkways and expressways, with the Long Island Expressway, Northern State Parkway, and Southern State Parkway being major east-west routes across significant portions of the island. Passenger rail access is provided by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) Long Island Rail Road, one of the largest commuter railroads in the United States. Air travel needs are served by several airports. Within Queens, the island is home to John F. Kennedy International Airport and LaGuardia Airport, two of the three major airline hubs serving the New York City area (with Newark Liberty International Airport being the third; all three major airports are operated by The Port Authority of New York & New Jersey). Long Island MacArthur Airport (serving commercial airlines) and Farmingdale/Republic Airport (private and commuter flights) are both located in Suffolk County.

Northern New Jersey[edit]

The Great Falls of the Passaic River in Paterson, Passaic County, New Jersey, dedicated as a National Historical Park in November 2011, incorporates one of the largest waterfalls in the eastern United States.[71]

Northern New Jersey, also known colloquially as North Jersey, is typically defined as comprising the following counties:

The New Jersey State Department of Tourism splits North Jersey into the urban Gateway Region and the more rural Skylands Region. Northern New Jersey is home to four of the largest cities of that state: Newark, Jersey City, Paterson, and Elizabeth.

The region is geographically diverse with wetlands, mountains, and valleys throughout the area. It has a large network of expressways and public transportation rail services, mostly operated by New Jersey Transit. Northern New Jersey also contains the second busiest airport in the New York City metropolitan area, Newark Liberty International Airport.

Downtown Trenton in Mercer County, including the New Jersey State House topped by its golden dome, alongside the Delaware River
Downtown New Brunswick, Middlesex County, New Jersey, an educational and cultural district undergoing gentrification

Although it is a suburban and rural region of New York City, much of the Gateway Region is highly urbanized. The entirety of Hudson County, eastern Essex County, southern Passaic County as well as Elizabeth in Union County are all densely populated areas.

Central New Jersey[edit]

Central Jersey is the middle portion of the state of New Jersey. Municipalities including Trenton (the state capital of New Jersey and the only U.S. state capital within the New York metropolitan area) and Princeton (home to Princeton University) are located in this subregion, as is a significant portion of the Jersey Shore.

The Mohonk Mountain House, Ulster County, New York, in the Hudson Valley, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1986.[72]

Lower Hudson Valley[edit]

Known for its hilly terrain, picturesque settings, and quaint small towns and villages, the Lower Hudson Valley is centered around the Hudson River north of New York City and lies within New York State. Westchester and Putnam counties are located on the eastern side of the river, and Rockland and Orange counties are located on the western side of the river. Westchester and Rockland counties are connected by the heavily trafficked New Tappan Zee Bridge, as well as by the Bear Mountain Bridge near their northern ends. Several branches of the MTA Metro-North Railroad serve the region's rail commuters. Southern Westchester County contains more densely populated areas and includes the cities of Yonkers, Mount Vernon, New Rochelle, and White Plains. Although many of the suburban communities of Westchester are known for their affluence and expense (some examples: Bronxville, Scarsdale, Chappaqua, Armonk, Katonah, and Briarcliff Manor), the Lower Hudson Valley as a whole is one of the fastest-growing areas in the metropolitan area because of high housing costs in New York City and the inner suburbs.

Historically, the valley was home to many factories, including paper mills, but a significant number have closed. After years of lingering pollution, cleanup efforts to improve the Hudson River water quality are currently planned and will be supervised by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).[73]

Mid-Hudson Valley[edit]

The Mid-Hudson Valley region of the State of New York is midway between New York City and the state capital of Albany. The area includes the counties of Dutchess, Ulster, and Sullivan, as well as the northern portions of Orange County, with the region's main cities being Poughkeepsie, Newburgh, Kingston, and Beacon. The Walkway over the Hudson, which is one of the longest footbridges in the world, crosses the Hudson River connecting Poughkeepsie and Highland. The 13 mile-long Dutchess Rail Trail stretches from Hopewell Junction to the beginning of the Walkway over the Hudson in Poughkeepsie. The area is home to the Wappingers Central School District, which the second largest school district in the state of New York. The Newburgh Waterfront in the City of Newburgh is home to many high-end restaurants. The City of Beacon is home to many neat eateries and shops.

U.S. Route 9, I-84, and the Taconic State Parkway all run through Dutchess County. Metro-North Railroad train station, New Hamburg, is located in the Town of Poughkeepsie and runs from Poughkeepsie to Grand Central Station in New York City.

Western Connecticut[edit]

Fairfield, New Haven, and Litchfield counties are in western Connecticut. Large businesses are scattered throughout the area, though mostly contained within affluent Fairfield County. The three counties (and Connecticut in general) are known for affluence. Geographically, the areas are flat along the coast with low hills eventually giving way to larger hills such as The Berkshires further inland, to the Massachusetts border. Most of the largest cities in the state are located within New Haven County (home to Yale University) and Fairfield County.

Monroe and Pike Counties, Pennsylvania[edit]

Pike County is located in northeastern Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 57,369.[74] Its county seat is Milford.[75] Part of the Pocono Mountains region lies within Pike County, which has ranked among the fastest-growing counties of Pennsylvania.[76]

Monroe County was added to the CMSA in March 2013, as was the Lehigh Valley. Monroe's county seat is Stroudsburg, and its largest borough is East Stroudsburg. Monroe and Pike are the fastest-growing counties in Pennsylvania and are home to many residents who commute to jobs in Northern New Jersey and New York City. They are located largely in the Pocono Mountains and have multiple state parks as well as most of the Pennsylvania portion of the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. Efforts continue to resume passenger rail service on the Lackawanna Cutoff route between Scranton and Northern New Jersey via Monroe County.

Lehigh Valley[edit]

The Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton MSA (better known as the Lehigh Valley) consists of Carbon, Lehigh, and Northampton counties. It constitutes the third-most populous metropolitan area of Pennsylvania, after the Philadelphia metropolitan area and the Pittsburgh metropolitan area; and Allentown is the state's third-most populous city, after Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. The region is important for east-west transportation between New York City, northern and central New Jersey, the Harrisburg metropolitan area, and points west, both by rail and Interstate 78. It is also critical for north-south road traffic via Interstate 476 and the Route 33 Expressway. The Lehigh Valley is in the process of major urban economic redevelopment, including development of the logistics industry as well as the Two Rivers Landing in downtown Easton, the Steel Stacks/Sands complex on the south side of Bethlehem, and a multi-purpose arena (which hosted its first event on September 12, 2014) in downtown Allentown. In 2010 the population was 712,481 for the PA portion and 821,173 in the MSA as a whole. While a large portion of Carbon County is in the Pocono Mountains, it is also in the Lehigh River valley and the employment interchange is mainly with Lehigh and Northampton Counties.

Urban areas of the region[edit]

The combined statistical area is a multicore metropolitan region containing several urban areas.

Aerial view of Newark, Essex County, New Jersey's most populous city
Public Library in Yonkers, Westchester County, New York
Barnum Museum in Bridgeport, Fairfield County, Connecticut's most populous city
Paterson, Passaic County, New Jersey, known as the "Silk City",[78] seen here from Garret Mountain Reservation, is a prime destination for a diverse pool of international immigrants.[79][80]
Allentown in Lehigh County is Pennsylvania's largest city within the New York metropolitan area.
Urbanized area State(s) 2010
1 New York–Newark NYNJCT 18,351,295
48 Bridgeport–Stamford CTNY 923,311
61 Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton PA-NJ 664,651
72 New Haven CT 562,839
89 Poughkeepsie–Newburgh NY 423,566
128 Trenton NJ 296,668
185 Waterbury CT 194,535
201 Danbury CTNY 168,136
429 Twin Rivers-Hightstown NJ 64,037
453 Middletown NY 58,381
457 Kingston NY 57,442

Main cities[edit]

The following is a list of "principal cities" and their respective population estimates from the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau publication. Principal cities are generally those where there is a greater number of jobs than employed residents.[81][82][83][84]


Under the Köppen climate classification, New York City, western (and parts of eastern) Long Island, coastal Connecticut and the Jersey Shore experience a temperate or humid subtropical climate (Cfa),[85][86] and New York is thus the northernmost major city on the North American continent with this climate type.

Much of the remainder of the metropolitan area lies in the transition zone from a temperate/humid subtropical (Cfa) to a humid continental climate (Dfa),[85][86] and it is only the inland, more exurban areas far to the north and west such as Sussex County, New Jersey, that have a January daily average of −3 °C (26.6 °F) or below and are fully humid continental; the Dfb (warm summer subtype) regime is only found inland at a higher elevation,[85] and receives greater snowfall[87] than the Dfa region. Carbon, Monroe, and Pike Counties in Pennsylvania also have a fully humid continental climate, as do colder areas of Lehigh and Northampton Counties.

The oceanic climate zone (Cfb) only exists on the North Fork, islands in Peconic Bay, and Fishers Island. It is rare in eastern North America.

Summers in the area are typically hot and humid. Nighttime conditions in and around the five boroughs of New York City are often exacerbated by the urban heat island phenomenon, and temperatures exceed 90 °F (32 °C) on average of 7–8 days (on the immediate Long Island Sound and Atlantic coasts), up to in excess of 27 days (inland suburbs in New Jersey) each summer and may exceed 100 °F (38 °C).[citation needed]. Normally, warm to hot temperatures begin in mid May, and last through early October. Summers also feature passing thundershowers which build in the heat of the day, then drop brief, but intense rainfall.

Winters are cool to cold, with a mix of rain and occasional snow. Although prevailing winds in winter are offshore, and temper the moderating effects of the Atlantic Ocean, the Atlantic and the partial shielding by the Appalachians from colder air keep the New York area warmer in the winter than inland North American metropolitan areas located at similar or lesser latitudes including Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis. Warm periods with 50 °F (10 °C)+ temperatures may occasionally occur during winter as well.[88]

Almost all of the metropolitan area receives at least 42 inches (1,070 mm) of precipitation annually, which is relatively evenly spread throughout the year, and many areas receive upwards of 50 in (1,270 mm). Average winter snowfall for 1981 to 2010 ranges from just under 25 inches (64 cm) along the coast of Long Island to more than 50 in (127 cm) in some inland areas, but this usually varies considerably from year to year.[89] Hurricanes and tropical storms have impacted the Tri-State area in the past, though a direct hit is rare. Several areas on Long Island, New Jersey, and the Connecticut coast have been impacted by serious storm surges in the past. Inland areas have been impacted by heavy rain and flooding from tropical cyclones.[90]

The New York metropolitan area averages 234 days with at least some sunshine and 59% of possible sunlight annually,[91] accumulating 2,400 to 2,800 hours of sunshine per annum.[92]


A pen drawing of two men in 16th-century Dutch clothing presenting an open box of items to a group of Native Americans in feather headdresses stereotypical of plains tribes.
Peter Minuit is credited with the purchase of the island of Manhattan in 1626.
A painting of a coastline dotted with red roof houses and a windmill, with several masted ships sailing close to shore under blue sky
New Amsterdam, centered in the eventual Lower Manhattan, in 1664, the year England took control and renamed it New York
Little Italy, Lower East Side, Manhattan, circa 1900.
Liberty Enlightening the World, known as the Statue of Liberty, on Liberty Island in New York Harbor, is a globally recognized symbol of both the United States and ideals such as freedom, democracy, and opportunity.[101]
The World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan during the September 11 attacks in 2001, which caused nearly 3,000 deaths, mostly residents of the metropolitan region.
One World Trade Center, built in its place and opened in 2014.

During the Wisconsinan glaciation, the region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the geologic foundation for much of the New York City metropolitan region today. Later on, the ice sheet would help split apart what are now Long Island and Staten Island.

At the time of European contact the region was inhabited by Native Americans, predominantly the Lenape,[104] and others. The Native Americans used the abundant waterways in the area for many purposes, such as fishing and trade routes. Sailing for France in 1524, Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to enter the local waters and encounter the residents, but he did not make landfall. Henry Hudson, sailing for the Dutch in 1609, visited the area and built a settlement on Lower Manhattan Island that was eventually renamed New Amsterdam by Dutch colonists in 1626.[105] In 1664, the area went under English control,[105][106] and was later renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York.[107][108]

As the fur trade expanded further north, New York became a trading hub, which brought in a diverse set of ethnic groups including Africans, Jews, and Portuguese. The island of Manhattan had an extraordinary natural harbor formed by New York Bay (actually the drowned lower river valley of the Hudson River, enclosed by glacial moraines), the East River (actually a tidal strait), and the Hudson River, all of which merge at the southern tip, from which all later development spread. During the American Revolution, the strategic waterways made New York vitally important as a wartime base for the British navy. Many battles such as the Battle of Long Island and the Battle of New York were fought in the region to secure it. New York City was captured by the British early in the war, becoming a haven for Loyalist refugees from other parts of the country, and remained in the hands of the British until the war ended in 1783. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790,[109] after which the capital moved to Philadelphia. New York City has been the country's largest city since 1790.[110] In 1792, the Buttonwood Agreement, made by a group of merchants, created what is now the New York Stock Exchange in Lower Manhattan. Today, many people in the metropolitan area work in this important stock exchange.

The Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor greeted millions of immigrants as they came to America by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries[111] and is a globally recognized symbol of the United States and its democracy.[112] Large-scale immigration into New York was a result of a large demand for manpower. A cosmopolitan attitude in the city created tolerance for various cultures and ethnic groups. German, Irish, and Italian immigrants were among the largest ethnic groups. Today, many of their descendants continue to live in the region. Cultural buildings such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Metropolitan Opera, and the American Museum of Natural History were built. New York newspapers were read around the country as media moguls James Gordon Bennett, Sr., Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst battled for readership. In 1884, over 70% of exports passed through ports in New York or in one of the surrounding towns. The five boroughs of New York City — The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island — were consolidated into a single city in 1898.[113][114]

The newly unified New York City encouraged both more physical connections between the boroughs and the growth of bedroom communities. The New York City Subway began operating in 1904 as the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, one of three systems (the other two being the Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit Corporation and the Independent Subway System) that were later taken over by the city. Railroad stations such as Grand Central Terminal and Pennsylvania Station helped fuel suburban growth. During the era of the Prohibition, when alcohol was banned nationwide, organized crime grew to supply the high demand for bootleg alcohol. The Broadway Theater District developed with the showing of the musical, Show Boat.

The Great Depression suspended the region's fortunes as a period of widespread unemployment and poverty began. City planner Robert Moses began his automobile-centered career of building bridges, parkways, and later expressways. During World War II, the city economy was hurt by blockades of German U-Boats, which limited shipping with Europe.

After its population peaked in 1950, much of the city's population began leaving for the suburbs of New York City. The effects were a result of white flight. Industry and commerce also declined in this era, with businesses leaving for the suburbs and other cities. The city, particularly Brooklyn, was dealt a psychological as well as an economic blow with the loss of the iconic Brooklyn Dodgers major-league baseball team, which moved to Los Angeles after the 1957 season. Crime affected the city severely. Urban renewal projects alleviated the decay in Midtown Manhattan to a certain extent, but later failed. There was little reported social disruption during the Northeast Blackout of 1965, but the New York City Blackout of 1977 caused massive rioting in some parts of the city. A rare highlight was the completion of the former World Trade Center, which once stood as the tallest buildings in the world.

In the 1980s, the city economy was booming. Wall Street was fueling an economic surge in the real estate market. Despite this, crime was still an issue. Beginning in the 1990s, however, crime dropped substantially. Crime in New York City has continued to decline through the 21st century.

A flooded Avenue C in Manhattan just moments before the explosion at an electrical substation caused by Hurricane Sandy on October 29, 2012.[115]

A major event in the region's and the nation's history was the September 11th attacks in 2001, which killed nearly 3,000 people as two planes crashed into the former World Trade Center and caused the towers to collapse. Businesses led an exodus from Lower Manhattan because of this but were replaced by an increased number of high-rise residences. In 2003, another blackout occurred, the 2003 North America blackout, but the city suffered no looting and a building boom in New York City continues to this day.

On October 29 and 30, 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused extensive destruction in the metropolitan area, ravaging portions of the Atlantic coastline with record-high storm surge, severe flooding, and high winds, causing power outages for millions of residents via downed trees and power lines and malfunctions at electrical substations, leading to gasoline shortages and snarling mass transit systems. Damage to New York and New Jersey in terms of physical infrastructure and private property as well as including interrupted commerce was estimated at several tens of billions of dollars.[116] The storm and its profound impacts have prompted the discussion of constructing seawalls and other coastal barriers around the shorelines of the metropolitan area to minimize the risk of destructive consequences from another such event in the future.[117][118]

Statistical history[edit]

The U.S. Census Bureau first designated metropolitan areas in 1950 as standard metropolitan areas (SMAs). The "New York–Northeastern NJ SMA" was defined to include 17 counties: 9 in New York (the five boroughs of New York City, Nassau, Suffolk, Westchester, and Rockland) and 8 in New Jersey (Bergen, Hudson, Passaic, Essex, Union, Morris, Somerset, and Middlesex). In 1960, the metropolitan area standards were modified and renamed standard metropolitan statistical areas (SMSAs). The new standards resulted in the splitting of the former SMA into several pieces: the nine New York counties became the "New York SMSA"; three of the New Jersey counties (Essex, Union, and Morris) became the "Newark SMSA"; two other New Jersey counties (Bergen and Passaic) became the "Paterson–Passaic–Clifton SMSA"; Hudson County was designated the "Jersey City SMSA"; and Middlesex and Somerset counties lost their metropolitan status. In 1973, a new set of metropolitan area standards resulted in further changes: Nassau and Suffolk counties were split off as their own SMSA ("Nassau–Suffolk SMSA"); Bergen County (originally part of the Paterson–Clifton–Passaic SMSA) was transferred to the New York SMSA; the New York SMSA also received Putnam County (previously non-metropolitan); Somerset County was added to the Newark SMSA; and two new SMSAs, the "New Brunswick–Perth Amboy–Sayreville SMSA" (Middlesex County) and "Long Branch–Asbury Park SMSA" (Monmouth County), were established. In 1983, the concept of a consolidated metropolitan statistical area (CMSA) was first implemented. A CMSA consisted of several primary metropolitan statistical areas (PMSAs), which were individual employment centers within a wider labor market area. The "New York–Northern New Jersey–Long Island CMSA" consisted of 12 PMSAs. Seven PMSAs were based on the original 1950 New York SMA that were split up: New York, Bergen–Passaic, Jersey City, Middlesex–Somerset–Hunterdon (Hunterdon added for the first time), Monmouth–Ocean (Ocean added for the first time), Nassau–Suffolk, and Newark (Sussex added for the first time). One additional PMSA was the Orange County PMSA (previously the Newburgh–Middletown SMSA). The other four PMSAs were former SMSAs in Connecticut: Bridgeport, Stamford, Norwalk, and Danbury. In 1993, four PMSAs were added to the New York–Northern New Jersey–Long Island CMSA: Trenton PMSA (Mercer County), Dutchess County PMSA, Waterbury PMSA, and New Haven PMSA. Several new counties were also added to the CMSA: Sussex, Warren, and Pike. The CMSA model was originally utilized for tabulating data from the 2000 census. In 2003, a new set of standards was established using the Core Based Statistical Area (CBSA) model was adopted and remains in use as of 2010. The CBSA model resulted in the splitting up of the old CMSA into several metropolitan statistical areas: New York–Northern New Jersey–Long Island, Poughkeepsie–Newburgh–Middletown, Trenton–Ewing, Bridgeport–Stamford–Norwalk (includes Danbury), and New Haven–Milford (includes Waterbury). In 2013, the Census Bureau added Carbon, Lehigh, Northampton, and Monroe counties in Pennsylvania, and Warren County, New Jersey (encompassing collectively the Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ MSA and the East Stroudsburg, PA MSA), to the Combined Statistical Area,[119] and assimilated Poughkeepsie–Newburgh–Middletown into the larger New York–Northern New Jersey–Long Island–NY–NJ–PA MSA.


Historical populations - New York Metropolitan Area (MSA)
Census Pop.
U.S. Decennial Census
2011 estimate
Several men in red and yellow outfits carry a colorful paper dragon in the street while onlookers watch behind police barriers.
Chinatown, Manhattan (紐約華埠). The New York City metropolitan area is home to the largest population of overseas Chinese outside of Asia, over three-quarters of a million in 2013.[120][121]
Bergen County (버겐 카운티), New Jersey, is home to all of the nation's top ten municipalities by percentage of Korean population, led by Palisades Park (벼랑 공원) (above), a borough where Koreans comprise the majority (52%) of the population.[122][123]
India Square, Jersey City, New Jersey, known as Little Bombay,[124] home to the highest concentration of Asian Indians in the Western Hemisphere.[125]

2010 Census[edit]

Racial composition 2010
White 73.4%
 —Non-Hispanic White 51.7%
 —Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 21.7%
Black or African-American 15.3%
Asian 9%
Native American or Alaskan Native 0.2%
Other 0.5%
Two or more races 1.6%

As of the 2010 Census, the metropolitan area had a population of 22,085,649. The population density was 1,865 per square mile. The racial markup was 51.7% White (non-Latino), 21.7% Latino, 15.3% African-American, 9.0% Asian-American, 0.16% Native American and Alaskan Native, 0.03% Pacific Islands American, 0.5% Other, and 1.6% Multiracial.[126]

The median age was 37.9. 25.5% were under 18, 9.5% were 18 to 24 years, 28% were 25 to 44 years of age, 26.6% were 45 to 64 years old, and 13.2% were over the age of 65. Males composed 48.3% of the population while females were 51.7% of the population.[citation needed]

97.7% of the population were in households, 2.3% were in group quarters, and 1% were institutionalized. There were 8,103,731 households of which 30.2% or 2,449,343 had children. 46.1% or 3,736,165 were composed of opposite sex and married couples. Male households with no wife composed 4.9% or 400,534. 15.0% or 1,212,436 were female households with no husbands. 34% or 2,754,596 were non-family households. The household density was 684 per square mile. 91.9% of housing units were occupied with a 3.8% vacancy rate. The average household size was 2.65 per household. The average income for non-family households was $90,335, and the average income for families was $104,715. 13.3% or 2,888,493 of the population were below the poverty line.[citation needed]

26.7% or 5,911,993 of the population were born outside the United States. Out of this, most (50.6% or 2,992,639) were born in Latin America, 27.0% or 1,595,523 were born in Asia, 17.4% or 1,028,506 were born in Europe, 3.8% or 224,109 were born in Africa, and 0.2% or 11,957 were born in Oceania.[citation needed]

Population estimates[edit]

As of July 1, 2015, the United States Census Bureau estimated the population of the New York City metropolitan area at 23,723,696, an increase of 647,032 from 2010.[17]

The New York City metropolitan region is ethnically diverse. Asian Americans in New York City, according to the 2010 Census, number more than one million, greater than the combined totals of San Francisco and Los Angeles.[127] New York contains the highest total Asian population of any U.S. city proper.[128] The New York City borough of Queens is home to the state's largest Asian American population and the largest Andean (Colombian, Ecuadorian, Peruvian, and Bolivian) populations in the United States, and is also the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world.[129][130] The Han Chinese population constitutes the fastest-growing ethnicity in New York State; multiple satellites of the original Manhattan Chinatown (紐約華埠), in Brooklyn (布鲁克林華埠), and around Flushing, Queens (法拉盛華埠), are thriving as traditionally urban enclaves, while also expanding rapidly eastward into suburban Nassau County.[131] on Long Island,[132] as the New York metropolitan region and New York State have become the top destinations for new Chinese immigrants, respectively, and large-scale Chinese immigration continues into New York City and surrounding areas.[133][134][135][136][137][138] In 2012, 6.3% of New York City was of Chinese ethnicity, with nearly three-fourths living in either Queens or Brooklyn, geographically on Long Island.[139] In particular, the New York area has over 100,000 Fuzhounese people.[140] A community numbering 20,000 Korean-Chinese (Chaoxianzu (Chinese: 朝鲜族) or Joseonjok (Hangul조선족)) is centered in Flushing, Queens, while New York City is also home to the largest Tibetan population outside China, India, and Nepal, also centered in Queens.[141] Koreans made up 1.2% of the city's population, and Japanese 0.3%. Filipinos were the largest Southeast Asian ethnic group at 0.8%, followed by Vietnamese, who made up 0.2% of New York City's population in 2010. Indians are the largest South Asian group, comprising 2.4% of the city's population, with Bangladeshis and Pakistanis at 0.7% and 0.5%, respectively.[142] Queens is the preferred borough of settlement for Asian Indians, Koreans, and Filipinos,[143] as well as Malaysians[21] and other Southeast Asians;[144] while Brooklyn is receiving large numbers of both West Indian as well as Asian Indian immigrants.

New York City has the largest European and non-Hispanic white population of any American city. At 2.7 million in 2012, New York's non-Hispanic white population is larger than the non-Hispanic white populations of Los Angeles (1.1 million), Chicago (865,000), and Houston (550,000) combined.[145] The European diaspora residing in the city is very diverse. According to 2012 Census estimates, there were roughly 560,000 Italian Americans, 385,000 Irish Americans, 253,000 German Americans, 223,000 Russian Americans, 201,000 Polish Americans, and 137,000 English Americans. Additionally, Greek and French Americans numbered 65,000 each, with those of Hungarian descent estimated at 60,000 people. Ukrainian and Scottish Americans numbered 55,000 and 35,000, respectively. People identifying ancestry from Spain numbered 30,838 total in 2010.[146] People of Norwegian and Swedish descent both stood at about 20,000 each, while people of Czech, Lithuanian, Portuguese, Scotch-Irish, and Welsh descent all numbered between 12,000–14,000 people.[147] Arab Americans number over 160,000 in New York City,[148] with the highest concentration in Brooklyn. Central Asians, primarily Uzbek Americans, are a rapidly growing segment of the city's non-Hispanic white population, enumerating over 30,000, and including over half of all Central Asian immigrants to the United States,[149] most settling in Queens or Brooklyn. Albanian Americans are most highly concentrated in the Bronx.[150]

The New York City metropolitan area is home to the largest gay and bisexual community in the United States and one of the world's largest.[151][152]

The wider New York City metropolitan area is also ethnically diverse.[153] The New York region continues to be by far the leading metropolitan gateway for legal immigrants admitted into the United States, substantially exceeding the combined totals of Los Angeles and Miami, the next most popular gateway regions.[154][155][156][157] It is home to the largest Jewish as well as Israeli communities outside Israel, with the Jewish population in the region numbering over 1.5 million in 2012 and including many diverse Jewish sects from around the Middle East and Eastern Europe.[141] The metropolitan area is also home to 20% of the nation's Indian Americans and at least 20 Little India enclaves, as well as 15% of all Korean Americans and four Koreatowns;[158][159] the largest Asian Indian population in the Western Hemisphere; the largest Russian American,[133] Italian American, and African American populations; the largest Dominican American, Puerto Rican American, and South American[133] and second-largest overall Hispanic population in the United States, numbering 4.8 million;[146] and includes at least 6 established Chinatowns within New York City alone,[160] with the urban agglomeration comprising a population of 819,527 uniracial overseas Chinese as of 2014 Census estimates,[161] the largest outside of Asia.[120][121]

Ecuador, Colombia, Guyana, Peru, and Brazil were the top source countries from South America for legal immigrants to the New York City region in 2013; the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Haiti, and Trinidad and Tobago in the Caribbean; Egypt, Ghana, and Nigeria from Africa; and El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala in Central America.[162] Amidst a resurgence of Puerto Rican migration to New York City, this population had increased to approximately 1.3 million in the metropolitan area as of 2013.

The New York metropolitan area is home to a self-identifying gay and bisexual community estimated at 568,903 individuals, the largest in the United States and one of the world's largest.[151][152] Same-sex marriages in New York were legalized on June 24, 2011 and were authorized to take place beginning 30 days thereafter.[163] The annual New York City Pride March (or gay pride parade) traverses southward down Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, ending at Greenwich Village, and rivals the Sao Paulo Gay Pride Parade as the largest pride parade in the world, attracting tens of thousands of participants and millions of sidewalk spectators each June.[164]


Brooklyn's rapidly growing Orthodox Jewish (יהודי) community is the largest in the United States, with approximately 600,000 individuals.[165]
The Chuang Yen Monastery (莊嚴寺), in Kent, Putnam County, houses the largest indoor statue of Buddha in the Western Hemisphere.[166]
Atheism, promoted on an electronic billboard in Times Square, is observed by a significant proportion of New Yorkers.

The 2014 Pew Religious Landscape Survey showed that the religious makeup of the New York City metro area was as follows:

Religious affiliation in the New York City metro area (2014)[167]
Affiliation % of New York population
Christian 59 59
Catholic 33 33
Protestant 23 23
Evangelical Protestant 9 9
Mainline Protestant 8 8
Black church 6 6
Other Christian 3 3
Unaffiliated 24 24
Nothing in particular 15 15
Agnostic 4 4
Atheist 4 4
Jewish 8 8
Hindu 3 3
Muslim 3 3
Buddhist 1 1
Other faiths 1 1
Don't know/refused answer 1 1
Total 100 100
County 2016 Estimate 2010 Census Change Area Density
Bronx County, New York 1,455,720 1,385,108 +5.10% 42.10 sq mi (109.0 km2) 34,578/sq mi (13,351/km2)
Dutchess County, New York 294,473 297,488 −1.01% 795.63 sq mi (2,060.7 km2) 370/sq mi (143/km2)
Kings County, New York 2,629,150 2,504,700 +4.97% 70.82 sq mi (183.4 km2) 37,124/sq mi (14,334/km2)
Nassau County, New York 1,361,500 1,339,532 +1.64% 284.72 sq mi (737.4 km2) 4,782/sq mi (1,846/km2)
New York County, New York 1,643,734 1,585,873 +3.65% 22.83 sq mi (59.1 km2) 71,999/sq mi (27,799/km2)
Orange County, New York 379,210 372,813 +1.72% 811.69 sq mi (2,102.3 km2) 467/sq mi (180/km2)
Putnam County, New York 98,900 99,710 −0.81% 230.31 sq mi (596.5 km2) 429/sq mi (166/km2)
Queens County, New York 2,333,054 2,230,722 +4.59% 108.53 sq mi (281.1 km2) 21,497/sq mi (8,300/km2)
Richmond County, New York 476,015 468,730 +1.55% 58.37 sq mi (151.2 km2) 8,155/sq mi (3,149/km2)
Rockland County, New York 326,780 311,687 +4.84% 173.55 sq mi (449.5 km2) 1,883/sq mi (727/km2)
Suffolk County, New York 1,492,583 1,493,350 −0.05% 912.05 sq mi (2,362.2 km2) 1,637/sq mi (632/km2)
Westchester County, New York 974,542 949,113 +2.68% 430.50 sq mi (1,115.0 km2) 2,264/sq mi (874/km2)
Bergen County, New Jersey 939,151 905,116 +3.76% 233.01 sq mi (603.5 km2) 4,031/sq mi (1,556/km2)
Essex County, New Jersey 796,914 783,969 +1.65% 126.21 sq mi (326.9 km2) 6,212/sq mi (2,398/km2)
Hudson County, New Jersey 677,983 634,266 +6.89% 46.19 sq mi (119.6 km2) 14,678/sq mi (5,667/km2)
Hunterdon County, New Jersey 124,676 128,349 −2.86% 427.82 sq mi (1,108.0 km2) 291/sq mi (113/km2)
Middlesex County, New Jersey 837,073 809,858 +3.36% 308.91 sq mi (800.1 km2) 2,710/sq mi (1,046/km2)
Monmouth County, New Jersey 625,846 630,380 −0.72% 468.79 sq mi (1,214.2 km2) 1,335/sq mi (515/km2)
Morris County, New Jersey 498,423 492,276 +1.25% 460.18 sq mi (1,191.9 km2) 1,083/sq mi (418/km2)
Ocean County, New Jersey 592,497 576,567 +2.76% 628.78 sq mi (1,628.5 km2) 917/sq mi (354/km2)
Passaic County, New Jersey 507,945 501,226 +1.34% 184.59 sq mi (478.1 km2) 2,752/sq mi (1,062/km2)
Somerset County, New Jersey 333,751 323,444 +3.19% 301.81 sq mi (781.7 km2) 1,106/sq mi (427/km2)
Sussex County, New Jersey 142,522 149,265 −4.52% 519.01 sq mi (1,344.2 km2) 275/sq mi (106/km2)
Union County, New Jersey 555,630 536,499 +3.57% 102.85 sq mi (266.4 km2) 5,402/sq mi (2,086/km2)
Pike County, Pennsylvania 55,562 57,369 −3.15% 544.96 sq mi (1,411.4 km2) 102/sq mi (39/km2)
Total 20,153,634 19,567,410 +3.00% 8,294.21 sq mi (21,481.9 km2) 2,430/sq mi (938/km2)


Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory on the North Shore of Long Island is an internationally renowned biomedical research facility and home to eight scientists awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

The New York City regional economy is the largest in the United States and one of the most important in the world. In 2015, the CSA had a GDP of $1.83 trillion, which would rank 8th among countries. Many Fortune 500 corporations are headquartered in New York City,[168] as are a large number of foreign corporations. One out of ten private sector jobs in the city is with a foreign company.[169] In 2012 and 2015, New York City topped the first and second Global Economic Power Index lists, respectively, as published by The Atlantic, with cities ranked according to criteria reflecting their presence on five different lists as published by five separate entities.[8][170] Finance, international trade, new and traditional media, real estate, education, fashion and entertainment, tourism, biotechnology, and manufacturing are the leading industries in the area.

Along with its wealth, the area has a cost of living that is among the highest in the United States.[171]

The New York Stock Exchange on Wall Street, the world's largest stock exchange per total market capitalization of its listed companies.[172][173]

Wall Street[edit]

New York City's most important economic sector lies in its role as the headquarters for the U.S. financial industry, metonymously known as Wall Street. Anchored by Wall Street, in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world,[8][174][175][176][177] and the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.[172][173] The city's securities industry, enumerating 163,400 jobs in August 2013, continues to form the largest segment of the city's financial sector and an important economic engine, accounting in 2012 for 5 percent of the city's private sector jobs, 8.5 percent (US$3.8 billion) of its tax revenue, and 22 percent of the city's total wages, including an average salary of US$360,700.[178]

Manhattan had approximately 520 million square feet (48.1 million m2) of office space in 2013,[179] making it the largest office market in the United States,[180] while Midtown Manhattan is the largest central business district in the nation.[181]

Lower Manhattan is the third largest central business district in the United States and is home to both the New York Stock Exchange, on Wall Street, and the NASDAQ, at 165 Broadway, representing the world's largest and second largest stock exchanges, respectively, when measured both by overall average daily trading volume and by total market capitalization of their listed companies in 2013.[173] Wall Street investment banking fees in 2012 totaled approximately US$40 billion,[182] while in 2013, senior New York City bank officers who manage risk and compliance functions earned as much as US$324,000 annually.[183]

In July 2013, NYSE Euronext, the operator of the New York Stock Exchange, took over the administration of the London interbank offered rate from the British Bankers Association.[184]

Many Wall Street firms have added or moved auxiliary financial or technical operations into Jersey City, to take advantage of New Jersey's relatively lower commercial real estate and rental prices, while offering continued geographic proximity to Manhattan's financial industry ecosystem.[185]

Manhattan's Flatiron District was the cradle of Silicon Alley, now metonymous for the New York metropolitan region's high tech sector, which has since expanded beyond the area.[186]

Silicon Alley[edit]

Silicon Alley, centered in New York City, has evolved into a metonym for the sphere encompassing the metropolitan region's high technology industries[187] involving the Internet, new media, financial technology (fintech), telecommunications, digital media, software development, biotechnology, game design, and other fields within information technology that are supported by its entrepreneurship ecosystem and venture capital investments. In 2015, Silicon Alley generated over US$7.3 billion in venture capital investment,[188] most based in Manhattan, as well as in Brooklyn, Queens, and elsewhere in the region. High technology startup companies and employment are growing in New York City and across the metropolitan region, bolstered by the city's emergence as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship,[188] social tolerance,[189] and environmental sustainability,[190][191] as well as New York's position as the leading Internet hub and telecommunications center in North America, including its vicinity to several transatlantic fiber optic trunk lines,[192] the city's intellectual capital, and its extensive outdoor wireless connectivity.[193] Verizon Communications, headquartered at 140 West Street in Lower Manhattan, was at the final stages in 2014 of completing a US$3 billion fiberoptic telecommunications upgrade throughout New York City.[194]

Butler Library at Columbia University, described as one of the most beautiful college libraries in the United States.[195]

The biotechnology sector is also growing in the New York metropolitan region, based upon its strength in academic scientific research and public and commercial financial support. On December 19, 2011, then-New York mayor Michael Bloomberg announced his choice of Cornell University and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology to build Cornell Tech, a US$2 billion graduate school of applied sciences on Roosevelt Island, Manhattan with the goal of transforming New York City into the world's premier technology capital.[196][197] By mid-2014, Accelerator, a biotech investment firm, had raised more than US$30 million from investors, including Eli Lilly and Company, Pfizer, and Johnson & Johnson, for initial funding to create biotechnology startups at the Alexandria Center for Life Science, which encompasses more than 700,000 square feet (65,000 m2) on East 29th Street and promotes collaboration among scientists and entrepreneurs at the center and with nearby academic, medical, and research institutions. The New York City Economic Development Corporation's Early Stage Life Sciences Funding Initiative and venture capital partners, including Celgene, General Electric Ventures, and Eli Lilly, committed a minimum of US$100 million to help launch 15 to 20 ventures in life sciences and biotechnology.[198] Westchester County has also developed a burgeoning biotechnology sector in the 21st century, with over US$1 billion in planned private investment as of 2016,[199] earning the county the nickname Biochester.[200]

Low Library, the Neoclassical centerpiece of the Columbia University campus
The bronze clock on Harkness Tower at Yale University, a structure reflecting the Collegiate Gothic architectural genre
Watercolor of Cleveland Tower, Princeton University, seen in the noon autumn sun

Port of New York and New Jersey[edit]

The Port of New York and New Jersey is the port district of the New York metropolitan area, encompassing the region within approximately a 25-mile (40 km) radius of the Statue of Liberty National Monument. A major economic engine for the New York metropolitan area, the port includes the system of navigable waterways in the estuary along 650 miles (1,050 km) of shoreline in the vicinity of New York City and the Gateway Region of northeastern New Jersey, as well as the region's airports and supporting rail and roadway distribution networks. In 2010, 4,811 ships entered the harbor carrying over 32.2 million metric tons of cargo valued at over $175 billion.[201] The port handled $208 billion in shipping cargo in 2011. Approximately 3,200,000 TEUs of containers and 700,000 automobiles are handled per year.[202] In the first half of 2014, the port handled 1,583,449 containers, a 35,000-container increase above the six-month record set in 2012,[203] while the port handled a monthly record of 306,805 containers in October 2014.[204]

Water purity and availability[edit]

Water purity and availability are a lifeline for the New York City metropolitan region. New York City is supplied with drinking water by the protected Catskill Mountains watershed.[205] As a result of the watershed's integrity and undisturbed natural water filtration system, New York is one of only four major cities in the United States the majority of whose drinking water is pure enough not to require purification by water treatment plants.[206] The Croton Watershed north of the city is undergoing construction of a US$3.2 billion water purification plant to augment New York City's water supply by an estimated 290 million gallons daily, representing a greater than 20% addition to the city's current availability of water.[207] The ongoing expansion of New York City Water Tunnel No. 3, an integral part of the New York City water supply system, is the largest capital construction project in the city's history,[208] with segments serving Manhattan and The Bronx completed, and with segments serving Brooklyn and Queens planned for construction in 2020.[209] Much of the fresh water for northern and central New Jersey is provided by reservoirs, but numerous municipal water wells exist which accomplish the same purpose.


The New York metropolitan area is home to many prestigious institutions of higher education. Three Ivy League universities: Columbia University in Manhattan, New York City; Princeton University in Princeton, New Jersey; Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut – all ranked amongst the top 3 U.S. national universities as per U.S. News & World Report as of 2018[210] – reside in the region,[211] as well as New York University and The Rockefeller University, both located in Manhattan; all of the above have been ranked amongst the top 35 universities in the world.[212] Rutgers University, a global university located 27 mi (43 km) southwest of Manhattan in New Brunswick, New Jersey, is by far the largest university in the region.[213] New York Institute of Technology is located on two campuses, one in Old Westbury, Long Island and one near Columbus Circle in Manhattan. Hofstra University is Long Island's largest private university.[214] Fordham University, also a Tier-1 university,[215] is the oldest Catholic institution of higher education in the northeastern United States,[216] and the third-oldest university in New York.[217] The New York City Department of Education is the largest school district in the United States serving over 1.2 million students.[218] The overall region also hosts many public high schools, some of which have been described as among the most prestigious in the country.[219]


According to the 2010 American Community Survey, of the 14,973,063 persons in this area over 25 years of age, 14.8% (2,216,578) had a graduate or professional degree, 21.1% (3,166,037) had a bachelor's degree, 6.4% (962,007) had an associate degree, 16.0% (2,393,990) had some college education but no degree, 26.8% (4,009,901) had a high school diploma or equivalent, 14.8% (2,224,557) had less than a high school education.[220] In 2010, CNN Money ranked the area as one of the top 10 smartest regions in the United States.[221]


The New York City Subway is the world's largest rapid transit system by length of routes and by number of stations.
The Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH) rapid transit rail system connects Manhattan and metropolitan northern New Jersey beneath the Hudson River.
An Acela Express train going to New York City. The Acela Express, operated by Amtrak through the Northeast Corridor, is the sole high-speed rail service in the country.

The depth and intricacy of the transportation network in the New York City region parallel the size and complexity of the metropolis itself.

In 2013, the New York-Newark-Jersey City metropolitan statistical area (New York City MSA) had the lowest percentage of workers who commuted by private automobile (56.9 percent), with 18.9 percent of area workers traveling via rail transit. During the period starting in 2006 and ending in 2013, the New York City MSA had a 2.2 percent decline of workers commuting by automobile.[222]


About one in every three users of mass transit in the United States and two-thirds of the nation's rail riders live in the New York City metropolitan area.[223][224]

New York City Subway[edit]

The New York City Subway is the largest rapid transit system in the world when measured by stations in operation, with 472, and by length of routes. In 2006 it was the third largest when measured by annual ridership (1.5 billion passenger trips in 2006),[225] However, in 2013, the subway delivered over 1.71 billion rides,[226] but slipped to being the seventh busiest rapid transit rail system in the world.[227] New York's subway is also notable because nearly the entire system remains open 24 hours a day, in contrast to the overnight shutdown common to systems in most cities, including Hong Kong,[228][229] London, Seoul,[230][231] Tokyo, and Toronto.


PATH is a rapid transit system connecting the cities of Newark, Harrison, Hoboken, and Jersey City, in metropolitan northern New Jersey, with the lower and midtown sections of Manhattan in New York City. The PATH is operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. PATH trains run 24 hours a day and 7 days a week.[232] The system has a total route length of 13.8 mi (22.2 km), not double-counting route overlaps.[233]

Commuter rail[edit]

The metropolitan area is also fundamentally defined by the areas from which people commute into New York City. The city is served by three primary commuter rail systems plus Amtrak.

The Long Island Rail Road (LIRR), the busiest commuter railroad in the United States as of 2015,[234] is operated by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA), an agency of the State Government of New York that focuses on New York City-area transit). It has two major terminals at Pennsylvania Station in Midtown Manhattan and Atlantic Terminal in Downtown Brooklyn, with a minor terminal at the Long Island City station and a major transfer point at the Jamaica station in Queens.

New Jersey Transit (NJT), the second busiest commuter railroad in the United States as of 2015,[234] is operated by the New Jersey Transit Corporation, an agency of the state of New Jersey, in conjunction with Metro-North Railroad and Amtrak. It has major terminals at Pennsylvania Station in Manhattan, Hoboken Terminal, and Newark Pennsylvania Station, with a major transfer point at Secaucus Junction in Hudson County, New Jersey. New Jersey Transit also operates the Hudson–Bergen Light Rail through Hudson County, the Newark City Subway, and the River Line that runs along tracks shared with Conrail Shared Assets Operations from Trenton to Camden in southern New Jersey. NJ Transit also has commuter buses operating in and out of Manhattan.

Metro-North Railroad (MNRR), the third busiest commuter railroad in the United States as of 2015,[234] is also operated by the MTA, in conjunction with the Connecticut Department of Transportation and New Jersey Transit. Its major terminal is Grand Central Terminal. Trains on the Port Jervis Line and Pascack Valley Line terminate at Hoboken Terminal in Hoboken, New Jersey; commuters may transfer at either Secaucus Junction for New Jersey Transit trains to New York Pennsylvania Station or at Hoboken Terminal for PATH trains into Manhattan.

Amtrak's Northeast Corridor offers service to Philadelphia, New Haven, and other points between and including Boston and Washington, D.C.

Major stations in the metropolitan area include:

Station Railroad(s) State County Type
New York Pennsylvania Station Amtrak, LIRR, NJT NY New York Terminal and Transfer
Grand Central Terminal MNRR NY New York Terminal
Newark Pennsylvania Station Amtrak, NJT, PATH NJ Essex Transfer
Hoboken Terminal NJT, MNRR, PATH NJ Hudson Terminal
Atlantic Terminal LIRR NY Kings Terminal
Hunterspoint Avenue LIRR NY Queens Terminal
Woodside Station LIRR NY Queens Transfer
Jamaica Station LIRR NY Queens Transfer
Secaucus Junction NJT, MNRR NJ Hudson Transfer
New Haven Union Station Amtrak, MNRR, Shore Line East CT New Haven Terminal and Transfer
Trenton Station Amtrak, NJT, SEPTA NJ Mercer Terminal and Transfer

The following table shows all train lines operated by these commuter railroads in the New York metropolitan area. New Jersey Transit operates an additional train line in the Philadelphia metropolitan area. (Shown counterclockwise from the Atlantic Ocean):

Line or Branch Railroad Counties
Far Rockaway LIRR Kings, Queens, Nassau
Long Beach LIRR Nassau
Montauk LIRR Suffolk
Babylon LIRR Nassau, Suffolk
West Hempstead LIRR Kings (weekdays), Queens, Nassau
Hempstead LIRR Kings, Queens, Nassau
Ronkonkoma (Main Line) LIRR Nassau, Suffolk
Port Jefferson LIRR Nassau, Suffolk
Oyster Bay LIRR Nassau
Port Washington LIRR Queens, Nassau
New Haven MNRR, Shore Line East, Amtrak Westchester, Fairfield, New Haven
Harlem MNRR New York, Bronx, Westchester, Putnam, Dutchess
Hudson MNRR, Amtrak Bronx, Westchester, Putnam, Dutchess
Pascack Valley MNRR, NJT Hudson, Bergen, Rockland
Port Jervis / Main Line / Bergen County MNRR, NJT Hudson, Bergen, Passaic, Rockland, Orange
Montclair–Boonton NJT New York, Hudson, Essex, Passaic, Morris, Warren
Morris & Essex (Morristown Line and Gladstone Branch) NJT New York, Hudson, Essex, Union, Morris, Somerset, Warren
Raritan Valley NJT Hudson, Essex, Union, Middlesex, Somerset, Hunterdon
Northeast Corridor and Princeton Branch NJT, Amtrak New York, Hudson, Essex, Union, Middlesex, Mercer
North Jersey Coast NJT New York, Hudson, Essex, Union, Middlesex, Monmouth, Ocean

Major highways[edit]

The following highways serve the region:

The George Washington Bridge, connecting Washington Heights in Upper Manhattan across the Hudson River to Fort Lee in Bergen County, New Jersey, is the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge.[235][236] Interstate 95 and U.S. Route 1/9 cross the river via the bridge, while U.S. Route 46, which lies entirely within New Jersey, ends halfway across the bridge at the state border with New York.
The Walkway over the Hudson, the world's longest pedestrian bridge,[237] connects Ulster and Dutchess counties in New York.


U.S. Routes[edit]

State Routes[edit]

Other limited-access roads[edit]

Heavy traffic on the Garden State Parkway in Wall Township, Monmouth County, New Jersey

Some of these roads have a numerical designation assigned to it:

Named bridges and tunnels[edit]

The Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge, one of the world's longest suspension bridges,[238][239] connects Brooklyn and Staten Island across The Narrows.
The Great South Bay Bridge, in Suffolk County, connects the mainland of Long Island to barrier islands across the Great South Bay.

Commuter bus[edit]

New Jersey Transit, Academy Bus, Coach USA, Spanish Transportation, Trailways of New York, and several other companies operate commuter coaches into the Port Authority Bus Terminal in Manhattan, and many other bus services in New Jersey. Bus services also operate in other nearby counties in the states of New York and Connecticut, but most terminate at a subway terminal or other rail station.

Major airports[edit]

The three busiest airports in the New York metropolitan area include John F. Kennedy International Airport, Newark Liberty International Airport, and LaGuardia Airport; 130.5 million travelers used these three airports in 2016, and the metropolitan area's airspace is the busiest in the nation.[25]

Airport IATA code ICAO code County State
John F. Kennedy International Airport JFK KJFK Queens New York
Newark Liberty International Airport EWR KEWR Essex/Union New Jersey
LaGuardia Airport LGA KLGA Queens New York

The following smaller airports are also in the metro area and provide daily commercial service:

Airport IATA code ICAO code County State
Lehigh Valley International Airport ABE KABE Lehigh Pennsylvania
Long Island MacArthur Airport ISP KISP Suffolk New York
Stewart International Airport SWF KSWF Orange New York
Trenton-Mercer Airport TTN KTTN Mercer New Jersey
Tweed New Haven Regional Airport HVN KHVN New Haven Connecticut
Westchester County Airport HPN KHPN Westchester New York

Commuter usage[edit]

According to the 2010 American Community Survey, 54.3% (5,476,169) of commuters used a car or other private vehicle alone, 7.0% (708,788) used a carpool, 27.0% (2,721,372) used public transportation, 5.5% (558,434) walked to work, 2.0% (200,448) used some other means of transportation such as a bicycle to get to work.[244]

Culture and contemporary life[edit]

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, part of Museum Mile in the Carnegie Hill neighborhood of Manhattan's Upper East Side, is one of the largest museums in the world.[245]
Yankee Stadium in the South Bronx is the home of the New York Yankees.
MetLife Stadium, in East Rutherford, New Jersey, home to the New York Giants and New York Jets, is the most expensive stadium ever built,[246] at approximately $1.6 billion.[247]
The New York Knicks, Rangers, and Liberty sports teams play at Madison Square Garden in Midtown Manhattan.
According to Travel + Leisure magazine's October 2011 survey, Times Square in Midtown Manhattan, iconified as the "Crossroads of the World",[248][249][250][251][252] is the world's most visited tourist attraction, bringing in over 39 million visitors annually.[253]

New York City has been described as the cultural capital of the world by the diplomatic consulates of Iceland[254] and Latvia[255] and by New York's own Baruch College.[256] A book containing a series of essays titled New York, culture capital of the world, 1940–1965 has also been published as showcased by the National Library of Australia.[257] Tom Wolfe has quoted regarding New York's culture that "Culture just seems to be in the air, like part of the weather."[258]

Although Manhattan remains the epicenter of cultural life in the metropolitan area, the entire region is replete with prominent cultural institutions, with artistic performances and ethnically oriented events receiving international attention throughout the year.

Sports teams[edit]

New York City is home to the headquarters of the National Football League,[259] Major League Baseball,[260] the National Basketball Association,[261] the National Hockey League,[262] and Major League Soccer.[263] Four of the ten most expensive stadiums ever built worldwide (MetLife Stadium, the new Yankee Stadium, Madison Square Garden, and Citi Field) are located in the New York metropolitan area.[246] The New York metropolitan area has the highest total number of professional sports teams in these five leagues.

Listing of the professional sports teams in the New York metropolitan area:


The New York City metropolitan area is home to the headquarters of several well-known media companies, subsidiaries, and publications, including Thomson Reuters, The New York Times Company, the Associated Press, Time Warner, NBCUniversal, the Hearst Corporation, Viacom, News Corporation, The Wall Street Journal, Fox News, ABC, CBS, and NBC. Local television channels broadcasting to the New York market include WCBS-TV 2 (CBS), WNBC 4 (NBC), WNYW 5 (FOX), WABC-TV 7 (ABC), WWOR-TV 9 (MyNetworkTV), WPIX 11 (CW), WNET 13 (PBS), WNYE-TV 25 (NYC Media) and WPXN-TV 31 (Ion). NY1 is a 24/7 local news provider available only to cable television subscribers. Radio stations serving the area include: WNYC, WKCR, WFMU, WABC-AM, and WFAN. Many television and radio stations use the top of the Empire State Building to broadcast their terrestrial television signals, while some media entities broadcast from studios in Times Square.

The New York metropolitan area is extensive enough so that its own channels must compete with channels from neighboring television markets (including Philadelphia, Scranton/Wilkes-Barre, and Hartford) within its outlying counties. Cable companies offer such competition in the Pennsylvania portion, Connecticut, and a few counties in central New Jersey.

Theme parks[edit]

In New Jersey[edit]

Skyline of Six Flags Great Adventure in Jackson Township, Ocean County, New Jersey, the world's largest theme park in 2013.[264] To the far left is Kingda Ka, the world's tallest roller coaster.[265]
Main Park Other Parks Location Year Opened
Six Flags Great Adventure Six Flags Wild Safari, Six Flags Hurricane Harbor Jackson 1974
Land of Make Believe None Hope 1954
Action Park None Vernon 1998

In New York State[edit]

Coney Island, in Brooklyn, is considered one of America's first amusement parks.

Playland, Rye, Westchester County

Plans were unveiled by New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg on September 27, 2012 for the New York Wheel, a giant Ferris wheel, to be built at the northern shore of Staten Island, overlooking the Statue of Liberty, New York Harbor, and the Lower Manhattan skyline.[266]

In Pennsylvania[edit]

Dorney Park & Wildwater Kingdom, Dorneyville, Lehigh County

Although the DP&WWK complex is not planned as a theme park, it is nonetheless one of the largest amusement parks in Pennsylvania and draws substantially from Greater NYC since it is just off Interstate 78 in a location just west of Allentown.

Area codes[edit]

The area is served by at least 29 area codes:

  • 212: Serves Manhattan and is overlaid with 646 and 917.
  • 718: Serves all other boroughs of New York City and is overlaid with 347, 917, and 929.
  • 917: Serves all of New York City.
  • 516: Serves Nassau County.
  • 631: Serves Suffolk County.
  • 914: Serves Westchester County.
  • 845: Serves the Hudson Valley counties of Southern New York State.
  • 570 & 272: Serves Northeastern Pennsylvania.
  • 203 & 475: Serves Southwestern Connecticut,
  • 860 & 959: Serves the rest of Connecticut not served by 203 or 475.
  • 201: Serves most of Bergen County, as well as parts of Essex, Hudson, and Passaic in Northern New Jersey, and is overlaid with 551.
  • 973: Serves portions of Bergen, Essex, Hudson, Morris, Passaic, Sussex, and portions of Union County in New Jersey, and is overlaid with 862.
  • 908: Serves communities in Union County, Somerset County, northern parts of Middlesex County, Hunterdon County, Warren County, and Morris County as well as some cell phones in Monmouth County in New Jersey.
  • 732: Serves Middlesex County, Somerset County, portions of Union County, and Monmouth and northern Ocean counties in New Jersey; overlaid with 848.
  • 609: Serves Mercer County and parts of Middlesex, Monmouth, and Ocean Counties.
  • 610 & 484: Serve most of the Lehigh Valley and portions of Carbon and Monroe Counties in Pennsylvania.
  • 215 & 267: Serve the southernmost part of Lehigh County in Pennsylvania.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
  2. ^ Official weather observations for Central Park were conducted at the Arsenal at Fifth Avenue and 64th Street from 1869 to 1919, and at Belvedere Castle since 1919.[93]
  3. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
  4. ^ Official records for Allentown were kept at Allentown Gas Company from March 1922 to December 1943, and at Lehigh Valley Int'l since January 1944. For more information, see ThreadEx.


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