Nisoish languages

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Nisoish
Southeastern Loloish
EthnicityYi people, Phula people
Geographic
distribution
Southern China, Vietnam
Linguistic classificationSino-Tibetan
Subdivisions
Glottologsout3212[1]

The Nisoish languages, which contains both the Northern Loloish (Northern Ngwi) and Southeastern Loloish (Southeastern Ngwi) branches, are a branch of the Loloish languages proposed by Lama (2012). Northern Loloish and Southeastern Loloish were established by Bradley (1997), while the Nisoish group combining Bradley's two branches was proposed by Ziwo Lama (2012). Lama (2012) refers to Northern Loloish as Nisoid or Nisu–Lope, and Southeastern Loloish as Axi–Puoid.

Classification history[edit]

In the past, Southeastern Loloish languages had variously been classified as Northern Loloish or Central Loloish, but were later recognized as forming a separate branch of Loloish by Bradley (2002).[2] Jamin Pelkey (2011:368-371) also noted that Southeastern Loloish and Northern Loloish branches are likely to be sister branches with each other. Shortly later, Ziwo Lama's (2012) computational phylogenetic analysis of the Lolo-Burmese languages gave further support to Pelkey's hypothesis. Northern Loloish and Southeastern Loloish languages were also found to constitute a single branch in Satterthwaite-Phillips' (2011) computational phylogenetic analysis of the Lolo-Burmese languages, who considers Nasu, Nosu, Nisu, and Samei as belonging to the same branch.[3]

Languages[edit]

Lama (2012)'s Nisoish branch is contains two subgroups, namely Axi–Puoid (also known as Southeastern Loloish) and Nisoid (also known as Northern Loloish). Lama (2012) gives the following internal phylogeny for the Nisoish branch.


 Nisoish 
 Axi–Puoid 
Puoid

Zuoke, Pholo (≈ Phowa)

 Axioid 

Azha

Sani (–Samei), AzheAxi

 Nisoid 
 (Nisu–Lope) 

Lope (Awu)

Nuosu (incl. Qumusu, Niesu)

Nasu (incl. Nesu, Gepo)

Nisu (Nishu)

Four of the six Yi languages (fangyan 方言) officially recognized by the Chinese government belong to Lama's Nisoish clade.

  • Northern Yi (Nuosu 诺苏)
  • Eastern Yi (Nasu 纳苏)
  • Southern Yi (Nisu 尼苏)
  • Southeastern Yi (Sani 撒尼)

However, the remaining two of the six officially recognized Yi languages belong to Lama's Lisoish clade.

  • Western Yi (Lalo 腊罗)
  • Central Yi (Lolopo 倮倮泼)

Lama (2012) lists the following changes from Proto-Loloish as innovations among various branches and languages of Nisoish.

  • *NC- > NCʰ (Nasu and Gepu)
  • *s- > ɕ- (Zuoke and Polo)
  • *xl- > ɬ-, h- (Sani, Axi, Azhe, Azha)
  • *plh- > tʰ- (Nisoid)
  • *ŋg- > (n)dz-, dz- (Nisoid)

Demographics and varieties[edit]

Wang (2003)[edit]

Yiyu Fangyan Bijiao Yanjiu (彝语方言比较研究) by Wang Chengyou (王成有) (2003)[4] gives phonological inventories for Yi (Nisoish) languages spoken in the following locations.

  1. Miyajing, Sanhe, Nanhua County 南华县三河底米丫井村[5]
  2. Zhuangke, Zhuangke, Yao'an County 姚安县庄科乡庄科村[6]
  3. Langzhe, Yunshan, Yongsheng County 永胜县云山乡朗者村[7]
  4. Lang'e, Lang'e, Yongsheng County 永胜县莨莪乡茛莪村[8]
  5. Zhijuxiao, Zhonghe, Yongren County 永仁县中和乡直苴小村[9]
  6. Hongmai, Lijiang 丽江红麦; Tanglang language 堂郎语[10]
  7. Huazhuqing, Xin'an, Mojiang County 思茅地区墨江县新安乡滑竹箐[11]
  8. Hemezha, Digengzuo, Buqi, Tanhua, Dayao County 大姚县昙华乡补期地耕作黑么鲊村
  9. Aiguo, Yangjiang, Weishan County 巍山县漾江农场爱国村[12]
  10. Sanjia, Chongfeng, Weishan County 巍山县冲锋乡三家村
  11. Lewuju, Wule, Nanjian County 南涧县五乐乡五具村[13]
  12. Yanzijiao, Guanting, Jingxing, Mojiang County 思茅地区墨江县景星乡官厅岩子脚村[14]
  13. Xiaoguangshan, Baoxiu, Shiping County 红河州石屏县宝秀乡小光山村[15]
  14. Zuoluo, Honghe County 红河州红河县座落村[16]
  15. Zhuyuan, Zhuyuan, Laochang District, Xinping County 新平县老厂区竹园乡竹园村[17]
  16. Suomili, Laowudou, Xinping County 新平县老五斗乡梭咪里村
  17. Washaozong, Tadian, Eshan County 峨山县塔甸乡瓦哨宗村[18]
  18. Suxiong, Ganluo County 凉山州甘洛县苏雄乡
  19. Laodashu, 2nd Township, Huili County 凉山州会理县第二乡老大树
  20. Lizi, Hongma, Xide County 凉山州喜德县红玛乡李子村
  21. Damaichong (upper village), Hejia, Liangshan, Yuanmou County 元谋县凉山乡何家村大麦冲上队[19]
  22. Daxingzhai, Wenshan County 文山县大兴寨; Zuoke language 坐柯
  23. Huangzhai (small village), Gaodeng, Wenshan County 文山县高登乡村公所荒寨小队;[20] Azhapu language 阿扎仆
  24. Longshu, Qiubei County 丘北县龙树村; Axi Touruo language 阿细拖若
  25. Anwang, Guangnan County 广南县安王村;[21] Flowery Lolo 花倮
  26. Long'an, Funing County 富宁县龙安;[22] White Lolo 白倮
  27. Musang, Funing County 富宁县木桑村;[23] Black Lolo 黑倮
  28. Sayingpan, Luquan, Kunming City 昆明市禄劝撒营盘[24]
  29. Banaji, Wuding County 武定县罢纳吉村
  30. Chijiabi, Biji, Xishan, Kunming City 昆明市西山区碧鸡乡赤甲碧村[25]
  31. 2nd Village, Wafei, 5th District, Zhenxiong County 镇雄县五区娃飞乡二村[26]
  32. Laolin, Yanshan District, Zhaotong County 昭通县盐山区老林乡
  33. Jingdi, Sayu, Zhaotong County 昭通县洒渔乡井底村[27]
  34. Longjie, 9th Township, Weining County 威宁县九乡龙街
  35. Dafang County 大方县
  36. Pan County 盘县
  37. De'e, Longlin County 隆林县德峨
  38. Axi 阿细: Xiaolongpu, Huakou, Xishan, Mile County 弥勒县西三镇花口村公所小龙铺村[28]
  39. Azhe 阿哲: Zhongzhai, Wushan, Mile County 弥勒县五山中寨村[29]
  40. Gupo 古泼: Songshulin, Niupo, Wushan, Mile County 弥勒县五山乡牛坡村公所松树林村[30]
  41. Sani 撒尼: Fengwu, Wujiepu, Luxi County 泸西县午街铺镇凤午村[31]
  42. Pula 濮拉: Wudupi, Chongmen, Mazheshao, Kaiyuan County 开远县马者哨乡冲门村委会乌都皮村[32]
  43. Nisu 尼苏: Baishengzhai (upper village), Baishengzhai, Yuanyang County 元阳县百胜寨乡百胜寨上村[33]
  44. Naisu 乃苏: Weisuo, Wushan, Mile County 弥勒县五山乡围锁村[34]

YYFC (1983)[edit]

YYFC (1983)[35] gives vocabulary lists for Yi (Nisoish) languages spoken in the following locations.

  • Luquan (autonym: na̠˧so˧pʰo˥): in Tuanjie Township 团街公社
  • Wuding (autonym: ʔa˥lɑ̠˧pʰo˥): in Dongpo Township 东坡公社
  • Xundian (autonym: ne˥su̠˧pʰo˥): in Jiga, Sishao Village, Jijie Township 鸡街公社四哨大队既嘎村[36]
  • Lunan (Heixi 黑夕) (autonym: ni˥sɛ˨˩pʰu˥): in Miaozhuqing Township 亩竹箐公社
  • Luoping (autonym: na˥sɯ˨˩pʰo˥): in Fawan, Dashuijing Township 大水井公社法湾大队[37]
  • Weining (autonym: nɤ˥su˩˧): in Shejigu, Longjie Township, District 9, Weining County, Guizhou 贵州威宁九区龙街公社奢基姑大队
  • Kunming (autonym: ʂaŋ˨˩ni˥˩): in Puzhao Village, Ala Township, Guandu District 官渡区阿拉公社普照村[38]
  • Lunan (Sani 撒尼) (autonym: nɪ˨˩): in Xuanzheng Village, Weize Township; and in Yehetaoshu Village, Xueshan Township 尾则公社宣政村、雪山公社野核桃树村[39]
  • Mile (Awu 阿乌) (autonym: lo˨˩˧pʰɯ˨˩): in Jieyupo, Shemu Village, Dongshan Township 东山公社舍木大队捷雨坡村[40]
  • Mile (Axi 阿细) (autonym: a˨˩ɕɪ˥pʰo˨˩): in Youzhadi and Dapingdi villages, Gongyi Township 西一公社油乍地、大平地[41][42]
  • Mile (Azhe 阿哲) (autonym: a˨˩dʐɛ˨pʰo˨˩): in Zhongzhai Shengchan, Sijia Village, Wushan Township 五山公社四家大队中寨生产队[43]
  • Yanshan (autonym: pʰo˥lo˥): in Datiezhai, Changji Village, Ganhe Township 干河公社长吉大队大铁寨村[44]
  • Wenshan (autonym: dzɯ˨˩kʰɯ˧): in Daxingzhai, Zhuilijie Township 追栗街公社大兴寨
  • Funing (autonym: mo˨˩ndʑi˨˩): in Musang, Daping Village, Muyang Township 木央公社大坪大队木桑队[45]
  • Xinping (autonym: ȵe̠˧ʂu˥): in Zhuyuan, Zhuyuan Village, Laochang Township 老厂公社竹园大队竹园村[46]
  • Weishan (autonym: la˨˩lu̪˧pa˩): in Wuyin Township 武应公社[五印乡]
  • Yangbi (autonym: la˨˩lu˥po˥): in Yangbi County 漾濞县
  • Yongren (autonym: lo˧lo˧pʰo˨˩): in Zhiju, Zhonghe Township 中和公社直苴小村[47]
  • Yongsheng (Taliu 它六) (autonym: tʰɑ˨˩lu̪˥): in Village 9, Liude Village, Liude Township, 六德公社六德大队九队[48]
  • Yongsheng (Lawu 拉务) (autonym: la˨˩u˨˩): in Wangjia, Maowu Shengchan Village, Lang'e Village, Xinghu Township 星湖公社莨莪大队茅五生产队王家村[49]
  • Lijiang (autonym: tʰo˧lo˧za˧): in Shuimao, Hongqi Village, Tai'an Township 太安公社红旗大队水茅村
  • Yuanmou (autonym: niɛ˧su˧): in Upper Damaichong, Hejia Village, Liangshan Township 凉山公社何家村大队大麦冲上队[50]
  • Liangshan (autonym: nɔ˧su˧): in Yanyuan County, Sichuan 凉山州盐源县
  • Honghe (autonym: ne˧ʂu˥pʰo˨˩)
  • Shiping (autonym: nie̠˧su˥pʰo˨˩)
  • Jiangcheng (autonym: ne̠˧su˥pʰo˨˩)
  • Eshan (autonym: na˧su˥pʰo˨˩)
  • Nanjian (autonym: la˨˩lo˧pa˨˩)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Southeastern Ngwi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Bradley, David. 2002. The subgrouping of Tibeto-Burman. In Medieval Tibeto-Burman languages, Christopher Beckwith and Henk Blezer (eds.), 73–112. (International Association for Tibetan Studies Proceedings 9 (2000) and Brill Tibetan Studies Library 2.) Leiden: Brill.
  3. ^ Satterthwaite-Phillips, Damian. 2011. Phylogenetic inference of the Tibeto-Burman languages or On the usefulness of lexicostatistics (and "Megalo"-comparison) for the subgrouping of Tibeto-Burman. Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University.
  4. ^ Wang Chengyou [王成有]. 2003. Yiyu Fangyan Bijiao Yanjiu [彝语方言比较研究]. Chengdu: Sichuan People's Press [四川民族出版社]. ISBN 7540927658
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  • Bradley, David (1997). "Tibeto-Burman languages and classification". In Tibeto-Burman languages of the Himalayas, Papers in South East Asian linguistics. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • Chen Kang [陈康]. 2010. A study of Yi dialects [彝语方言研究]. Beijing: China Minzu University Press.
  • Lama, Ziwo Qiu-Fuyuan. 2012. Subgrouping of Nisoic (Yi) Languages. Ph.D. thesis: University of Texas at Arlington.
  • Pelkey, Jamin. 2011. Dialectology as Dialectic: Interpreting Phula Variation. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.

Further reading[edit]