Northeast Coast Campaign (1745)
|Northeast Coast Campaign (1745)|
|Part of King George's War|
Commander Samuel Waldo
|Commanders and leaders|
Commander Samuel Waldo (Falmouth) |
Captain Jonathan Bean
Captain Thomas Bradbury (Saco)
Jabez Bradbury (Fort St. George, Thomaston)
Colonel Morris †|
Captain Sam †
|Casualties and losses|
|approximately 30 persons killed or captured||unknown|
The Northeast Coast Campaign (1745) occurred during King George's War from 19 July until 5 September 1745. Three weeks after the British Siege of Louisbourg (1745), the Wabanaki Confederacy of Acadia retaliated by attacking New England settlements along the coast of present-day Maine below the Kennebec River, the former border of Acadia. They attacked English settlements on the coast of present-day Maine between Berwick and St. Georges (Thomaston, Maine), within two months there were 11 raids - every town on the frontier had been attacked. Casco (also known as Falmouth and Portland) was the principal settlement.
After the two attacks on Annapolis Royal in 1744, Governor William Shirley put a bounty on the Passamaquoddy, Mi’kmaq and Maliseet on Oct 20. The following year, during the Campaign, on August 23, 1745, Shirley declared war against the rest of the Wabanaki Confederacy – the Penobscot and Kennebec tribes. In response to the New England expedition against Louisbourg which finished in June 1745, the Wabanaki retaliated by attacking the New England border. New England braced itself for such an attack by appointing a provisional force of 450 to defend the frontier. After the attacks began they increased the number of soldiers by 175 men. Massachusetts established forts along the border with Acadia: Fort George at Brunswick (1715), St. George's Fort at Thomaston (1720), and Fort Richmond (1721) at Richmond. Fort Frederick was established at Pemaquid (Bristol, Maine).
|Part of a series on the|
|Military history of Nova Scotia|
The Campaign began when, on July 19, Mi’kmaq from Nova Scotia, Maliseet and some from St. Francois attacked Fort St.George (Thomaston) and New Castle. They set fire to numerous buildings; killed cattle and took one villager captive. They also killed a person at Saco. At the same time, Penobscot and Norridgewock attacked Fort Frederick at Pemaquid. They took captive a woman, which alarmed the garrison but she escaped. The same month they killed a boy at Topsham and a man at New Meadows. In the same month, 30 Wabanaki attacked North Yarmouth and killed a man. At Flying-point they killed three members of a family and taking a daughter prisoner to Canada. During this raid on Flying-point, they also killed one man, made another prisoner, while another escaped. St. Georges garrison at Thomaston was attacked again and one company of men was killed, while three other men were taken captive. Near the garrison, two women were captured: one was taken to Canada, while the other escaped. They attacked Scarborough and one man killed. Then at Sheepscot they attacked and killed two and wounded one. On Sept 5 tribes of the Confederacy attacked Thomston (St. Georges) for the third time, killing and scalping two people.
In response to these events, Shirley sent more troops and munitions to the Maine frontier over the winter, anticipating the Wabanaki Campaign in the spring of 1746. There were nine raids in the Campaign of 1746 and 12 raids in the Northeast Coast Campaign of 1747.
- Folsom, p. 242
- Williamson (1832), p. 239.
- Folsom, G. (1830). History of Saco and Biddeford: With Notices of Other Early Settlements, and of Proprietary Governments, in Maine, Including the Provinces of New Somersetshire and Lygonia. A. C. Putnam. p. 243. Retrieved 2015-04-01.
- "Bradbury memorial. Records of some of the descendants of Thomas Bradbury, of Agamenticus (York) in 1634, and of Salisbury, Mass. in 1638, with a brief sketch of the Bradburys of England. Comp. chiefly from the collections of the late John Merrill Bradbury, of Ipswich, Mass". archive.org. Retrieved 2015-04-01.
- Maine Historical Society (1995). Collections of the Maine Historical Society. 4. Heritage Books. p. 147. ISBN 9780788401725. Retrieved 2015-04-01.
- Williamson (1832), p. 241.
- Scott, Tod (2016). "Mi'kmaw Armed Resistance to British Expansion in Northern New England (1676–1761)". Journal of the Royal Nova Scotia Historical Society. 19: 1–18.
- Williamson (1832), p. 240.
- Williamson (1832), pp. 217-218.
- Fort George replaced Fort Andros which was built during King William's War (1688).
- Williamson (1832), pp. 88, 97.
- "Correspondence of William Shirley: Governor of Massachusetts and Military". archive.org. p. 258. Retrieved 2015-04-01.
- Williamson (1832), p. 256.
- "Correspondence of William Shirley: Governor of Massachusetts and Military ... Governor Shirley letter to Captain Bradbury, July 22, 1745". archive.org. Retrieved 2015-04-01.
- Folsom, p. 243
- Williamson (1832), p. 236.
- Williamson (1832), p. 237.
- Williamson (1832), p. 238.
- Williamson (1832), p. 242.
- "History of York County, Maine. With illustrations and biographical sketches of its prominent men and pioneers"
- Shirley, William (1912). Correspondence of William Shirley: Governor of Massachusetts and Military Commander in America, 1731-1760. New York: Macmillan Co.
- Folsom, George (1830). History of Saco and Biddeford: with Notices of Other Early Settlements, ... Saco: A.C. Putnam. p. 203.
- Willis, William (1865). The History of Portland, from 1632 to 1864: With a Notice of Previous Settlements, Colonial Grants, and Changes of Government in Maine. Portland, Maine: Bailey & Noyes.
- Williamson, William D. (1832). The History of the State of Maine: From Its First Discovery, 1602, to the Separation, A. D. 1820, Inclusive. Vol. II. Hallowell, Maine: Glazier, Masters & Company.
- Johnson, Michael; Smith, Jonathan (2006). Indian Tribes of the New England Frontier. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-937-0. OCLC 255490222.