Northeast Operating Rules Advisory Committee
The Northeast Operating Rules Advisory Committee (NORAC) is a body of railroads that establish a set of operating rules for railroads in North America. The NORAC rulebook is used by full and associate member railroads, located mostly in the Northeast United States.
- Adirondack Scenic Railroad (ADIX)
- Adrian and Blissfield Railroad (ABDF)
- Bay Colony Railroad (BCLR)
- Buckingham Branch Railroad (BB)
- Cape Cod Central Railroad
- Cape May Seashore Lines (CMSL)
- Central New England Railroad (CNZR)
- Central Railroad Company of Indiana (CIND)
- Central Railroad Company of Indianapolis (CERA)
- Connecticut Southern Railroad (CSO)
- C&S Railroad Corporation
- East Jersey Railroad & Terminal Co. (EJR)
- Finger Lakes Railway (FGLK)
- Flats Industrial Railroad (FIR)
- Fore River Transportation Corporation (FRVT)
- Genesee Valley Transportation
- Housatonic Railroad Company (HRRC)
- Indiana Harbor Belt Railroad (IHB)
- Luzerne and Susquehanna Railway (LS)
- Maine Eastern Railroad (MERR)
- Massachusetts Central Railroad (MCER)
- Massachusetts Coastal Railroad (MC)
- Milford-Bennington Railroad Company
- Morristown and Erie Railway (ME)
- Mountain Division Railway Corporation
- Narragansett Bay Railroad Company
- National Park Service
- Naugatuck Railroad Company (NAUG)
- New Hope and Ivyland Railroad (NHRR)
- New York and Greenwood Lake Railway (NYGL)
- New York New Jersey Rail, LLC (NYNJ)
- North Shore Railroad (NSHR)
- Northern Central Railway (NCRY)
- Owego & Hartford Railway, Inc. (OHRY)
- Pennsylvania Northeastern Railroad (PNE)
- Plymouth & Lincoln Railroad
- Port Jersey Railroad (PJR)
- Raritan Central Railway (RCRY)
- Seaview Transportation Company, Inc.
- Seminole Gulf Railway (SGLR)
- SMS Rail Service (SLRS)
- Somerset Railroad (SOM)
- Southern New Jersey Rail Group (NJ Transit River Line)
- Southern Railroad of New Jersey (SRNJ)
- Springfield Terminal Railway Company, d/b/a Pan Am Railways (ST)
- Valley Railroad (VRR)
- West Chester Railroad (WCRL)
- Winamac Southern Railway (WSRY)
- Winnipesaukee Scenic Railroad
The NORAC rules are intended to enhance railroad safety. The rules cover employee responsibilities, signaling equipment, procedures for safe train movement, dealing with accidents and other topics that directly and indirectly affect railroad safety.
These rules govern operation on main lines, defined as those with some form of block control system.
The 10th edition of the NORAC operating rules went into effect on November 6, 2011.
The 11th edition of the NORAC operating rules goes into effect on February 1, 2018.
In January 1985, six railroads (Conrail, Amtrak, Metro-North, New Jersey Transit, Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority, and Delaware & Hudson) met in Newark, NJ with the goal to create a common operating rulebook. In May 1985, a second meeting was held, with eight railroads present, five of the original six (Metro-North withdrew) plus Providence and Worcester, Long Island Rail Road, and Boston & Maine.
The first rulebook was released in January 1987. It contained rules for three types of train control: automatic block (ABS), manual block (MBS), and voice (VCS). The MBS and VCS systems were both governed by NORAC's Form D, which is a train order transmitted directly to the train.
In 1993 the fourth edition combined the MBS and VCS rules into a single "Form D Control System" (DCS).
The full set of NORAC rules is divided into 25 categories.
- Terminology, Definitions and Authorized Abbreviations
- General Rules
- Reporting for Duty
- Miscellaneous Signals
- Inspection of Equipment
- Movement of Trains
- Protection of Trains
- Movement Permit Form D
- General Signal Rules
- Signal Aspects and Indications
- Form D Control System
- Automatic Block Signal System
- Cab Signal System
- Interlockings and Controlled Points
- Radios and Telephones
- Movement of Track Cars
- Train Service Employees
- Engine Service Employees
- Station Masters and Assistant Station Masters
- Foremen and Track Car Drivers
- Form D Illustration