Nuclear power in Russia
Russia is one of the world's largest producers of nuclear energy. In 2018 total electricity generated in nuclear power plants in Russia was 202.87 TWh, 20.8% of all power generation. The installed gross capacity of Russian nuclear reactors is 31.3 GW in December 2018.
In accord with legislation passed in 2001, all Russian civil reactors are operated by Energoatom. More recently in 2007 Russian Parliament adopted the law "On the peculiarities of the management and disposition of the property and shares of organizations using nuclear energy and on relevant changes to some legislative acts of the Russian Federation", which created Atomenergoprom - a holding company for all Russian civil nuclear industry, including Energoatom, nuclear fuel producer and supplier TVEL, uranium trader Tekhsnabexport (Tenex) and nuclear facilities constructor Atomstroyexport.
The overnight cost of construction in the seventies was a low 800 $/kW in 2016 dollars. In 2019 a S&P Global Ratings report stated Russia's nuclear construction costs were well below European levels because of vertical integration, good learning-curve effects from serial production, and the large currency devaluation of 2014.
The Russian nuclear industry employs around 200,000 people. Russia is recognized for its nuclear disaster expertise and for the safety of its technology. Russia is also pursuing an ambitious plan to increase sales of Russian-built reactors overseas, and had 39 reactors under construction or planned overseas as of 2018.
The VVER-1200 pressurised water reactor is the system currently offered for construction, being an evolution of the VVER-1000 with increased power output to about 1200 MWe (gross) and providing additional passive safety features. In August 2016 the first VVER-1200, Novovoronezh II-1, was connected to the grid.
In 2013 the Russian state allocated 80.6 billion rubles ($2.4 billion) toward the growth of its nuclear industry, especially export projects where Russian companies build, own and operate the power station, such as the Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant.
In 2016 initial plans were announced to build 11 new nuclear power reactors by 2030, including the first VVER-600, a smaller two cooling circuit version of the VVER-1200, designed for smaller regions and markets. Outline plans for near-surface disposal facilities for low and intermediate-level waste, and deep burial disposal facilities for high-level waste were also approved in the Krasnoyarsk Krai region.
In October 2017 Rosatom was reported to be considering postponing commissioning new nuclear plants in Russia due to excess generation capacity and that new nuclear electricity prices are higher than for existing plant. The Russian government is considering reducing support for new nuclear under its support contracts, called Dogovor Postavki Moshnosti (DPM), which guarantee developers a return on investment through increased payments from consumers for 20 years. In 2019 a S&P Global Ratings report stated that "We expect domestic nuclear capacity to increase only moderately because electricity demand in Russia is stagnating, given only modest GDP growth, a significant potential for energy savings, and the government's intention to avoid raising electricity prices through additional increases in capacity payments".
Nuclear power reactors
Reactors in operation
Eleven of Russia's reactors are of the RBMK 1000 type, similar to the one at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Some of these RBMK reactors were originally to be shut down but have instead been given life extensions and uprated in output by about 5%. Critics say that these reactors are of an "inherently unsafe design", which cannot be improved through upgrades and modernization, and some reactor parts are impossible to replace. Russian environmental groups say that the lifetime extensions "violate Russian law, because the projects have not undergone environmental assessments".
|Reactor||Status||Capacity in MW||Construction start||Commercial operation||Closure|
|Akademik Lomonosov||1||PWR||KLT-40S||Under construction||32||35||15 April 2007||(2018)|
|2||PWR||KLT-40S||Under construction||32||35||15 April 2007||(2018)|
|Balakovo||1||PWR||VVER V-320||Operational||950||1000||1 December 1980||23 May 1986|
|2||PWR||VVER V-320||Operational||950||1000||1 August 1981||18 January 1988|
|3||PWR||VVER V-320||Operational||950||1000||1 November 1982||8 April 1989|
|4||PWR||VVER V-320||Operational||950||1000||1 April 1984||22 December 1993|
|5||PWR||VVER V-320||Unfinished||950||1000||28 December 1992|
|6||PWR||VVER V-320||Unfinished||950||1000||28 December 1992|
|Beloyarsk||1||LWGR||AMB-100||Shut down||102||108||1 June 1958||26 April 1964||1 January 1983|
|2||LWGR||AMB-200||Shut down||146||160||1 January 1962||1 December 1969||1 January 1990|
|3||SFR||BN-600||Operational||560||600||1 January 1969||1 November 1981|
|4||SFR||BN-800||Operational||789||864||18 July 2006||10 December 2015|
|Bilibino||1||LWGR||EGP-6||Shut down||11||12||1 January 1970||1 April 1974||14 January 2019|
|2||LWGR||EGP-6||Operational||11||12||1 January 1970||1 February 1975|
|3||LWGR||EGP-6||Operational||11||12||1 January 1970||1 February 1976|
|4||LWGR||EGP-6||Operational||11||12||1 January 1970||1 January 1977|
|Kalinin||1||PWR||VVER V-338||Operational||950||1000||1 February 1977||12 June 1985|
|2||PWR||VVER V-338||Operational||950||1000||1 February 1982||3 March 1987|
|3||PWR||VVER V-320||Operational||950||1000||1 October 1985||8 November 2005|
|4||PWR||VVER V-320||Operational||950||1000||1 August 1986||25 December 2012|
|Kaliningrad||1||PWR||VVER V-491||Under construction
|1109||1194||22 February 2012|
|Kola||1||PWR||VVER V-230||Operational||441||440||1 May 1970||28 December 1973|
|2||PWR||VVER V-230||Operational||441||440||1 May 1970||21 February 1975|
|3||PWR||VVER V-213||Operational||441||440||1 April 1977||3 December 1982|
|4||PWR||VVER V-213||Operational||441||440||1 August 1976||6 December 1984|
|Kostroma||1||PWR||AES-2006||Unfinished; restart planned||1300||1350||1979||1990|
|2||PWR||AES-2006||Unfinished; restart planned||1300||1350||1979||1990|
|3||PWR||AES-2006||Unfinished; restart planned||1300||1350||1979||1990|
|4||PWR||AES-2006||Unfinished; restart planned||1300||1350||1979||1990|
|Kursk||1||LWGR||RBMK-1000||Operational||925||1000||1 June 1972||12 October 1977|
|2||LWGR||RBMK-1000||Operational||925||1000||1 January 1973||17 August 1979|
|3||LWGR||RBMK-1000||Operational||925||1000||1 April 1978||30 March 1984|
|4||LWGR||RBMK-1000||Operational||925||1000||1 May 1981||5 February 1986|
|5||LWGR||MKER (1000 MW)||Unfinished||925||1000||1 December 1985||2012|
|6||LWGR||RBMK-1000||Unfinished||925||1000||1 August 1986|
|Kursk II||1||PWR||VVER V-510||Under construction||1115||1255||29 April 2018|
|2||PWR||VVER V-510||Under construction||1115||1255||15 April 2019|
|Leningrad||1||LWGR||RBMK-1000||Shut down||925||1000||1 March 1970||1 November 1974||21 December 2018|
|2||LWGR||RBMK-1000||Operational||925||1000||1 June 1970||11 February 1976|
|3||LWGR||RBMK-1000||Operational||925||1000||1 December 1973||29 June 1980|
|4||LWGR||RBMK-1000||Operational||925||1000||1 February 1975||29 August 1981|
|Leningrad II||1||PWR||VVER V-491||Operational||1085||1187||25 October 2008||29 October 2018|
|2||PWR||VVER V-491||Under construction||1085||1199||15 April 2010||(2019)|
|Novovoronezh||1||PWR||VVER V-120||Shut down||197||210||1 July 1957||31 December 1964||16 February 1988|
|2||PWR||VVER V-120||Shut down||336||365||1 June 1964||14 April 1970||29 August 1990|
|3||PWR||VVER V-179||Shut down||385||417||1 July 1967||29 June 1972||25 December 2016|
|4||PWR||VVER V-179||Operational||385||417||1 July 1967||24 March 1973|
|5||PWR||VVER V-187||Operational||950||1000||1 March 1974||20 February 1981|
|Novovoronezh II||1||PWR||VVER V-392M||Operational||1114||1180||24 June 2008||27 February 2017|
|2||PWR||VVER V-392M||Under construction||1114||1195||12 July 2009||(2019)|
|Obninsk||1||LWGR||AM-1||Shut down||5||6||1 January 1951||1 December 1954||29 April 2002|
|Rostov||1||PWR||VVER V-320||Operational||950||1000||1 September 1981||25 December 2001|
|2||PWR||VVER V-320||Operational||950||1000||1 May 1983||10 December 2010|
|3||PWR||VVER V-320||Operational||950||1000||15 September 2009||27 December 2014|
|4||PWR||VVER V-320||Operational||1011||1030||16 June 2010||28 September 2018|
|South Urals||1||FBR||BN-1200||Unfinished; restart planned||1100||1220||1982||1993|
|2||FBR||BN-1200||Unfinished; restart planned||1100||1220||1982||1993|
|3||FBR||BN-1200||Unfinished; restart planned||1100||1220||1982||1993|
|Smolensk||1||LWGR||RBMK-1000||Operational||925||1000||1 October 1975||30 September 1983|
|2||LWGR||RBMK-1000||Operational||925||1000||1 June 1976||2 July 1985|
|3||LWGR||RBMK-1000||Operational||925||1000||1 May 1984||12 October 1990|
|Tatar||1||PWR||AES-2006||Unfinished; restart planned||1300||1350||1980||1990|
|2||PWR||AES-2006||Unfinished; restart planned||1300||1350||1980||1990|
|Voronezh||1||PWR||AST-500||Unfinished||500||9 January 1983||5 July 1990|
|2||PWR||AST-500||Unfinished||500||9 January 1983||5 July 1990|
International NPP projects in the Russian nuclear industry
|Country||NPP Reactor||Type||MWe net||MWe gross||Construction start||Commercially operational|
|Turkey||Akkuyu-1/2/3/4||VVER-1200/491||1115||1200||2016 (1st block)||2023 (1st block)|
|Slovakia||Mochovce-3/4||VVER-440||440||471||1987-01-27, stopped 1991, restarted 2008-11-03||2020 (estimated)|
|Vietnam||Ninh Thuan 1-1/2||VVER-1000/428||950||1000||cancelled||cancelled|
|Ninh Thuan 1-3/4||VVER-1000/428||950||1000||cancelled|
|Finland||Hanhikivi-1||VVER-1200/AES-2006||1200||earliest 2021||estimated 2028|
In addition Atomstroyexport challenging NPP projects list contains:
- Temelin NPP Power Units 3/4 (Czech Republic)
- Jordan NPP (single-unit NPP with an option for the second power unit)
- Metsamor NPP Power Units 3/4 (Armenia)
- NPP with the Reactor Plant VBER-300 (Kazakhstan)
- Sanming NPP (China)
Nuclear engineering companies
- Atomenergomash: power engineering company; produces steam generators for NPPs
- Atommash: by far Russia's largest nuclear engineering plant designed to build up to 8 reactors per year, but after the collapse of the USSR reorganized privately by Energomash and today not able to produce reactor vessels
- Atomstroyexport: nuclear power equipment and service export monopoly
- OKBM Afrikantov: nuclear reactor design and engineering company. The world's leading company in production of fast breeder reactors.
- OKB Gidropress: nuclear reactor design and engineering company
Russia, responding to the 2011 Japanese nuclear accidents, will perform a 'stress test' on all its reactors "to judge their ability to withstand earthquakes more powerful than the original design anticipated".
- Energy policy of Russia
- Environmental racism in Europe
- Russian floating nuclear power station
- Nuclear energy policy
- USA. (1982). Technology and Soviet energy availability. Boulder (Colo.: Westview press. p. 126.
- "State support pivotal to Russia's nuclear sector, says report". World Nuclear News. 12 July 2019. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
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- "Rosatom today and overview of its current and prospective Nuclear Power Plant projects" (PDF). Rosatom. 21 August 2013. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
- "International Standards of Safety and the Modern Projects of Nuclear Power Stations" (PDF). Rosatom. 4 November 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "Russia's efforts to improve safety following the Chernobyl and the Fukushima accidents" (PDF). IBRAE. 6 November 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2014. External link in
-  Pulitzer Center On Crisis Reporting
- "Russia leads the world at nuclear-reactor exports". The Economist. 7 August 2018. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
- Nikolay Fil (26–28 July 2011). "Status and perspectives of VVER Status and perspectives of VVER nuclear power plants nuclear power plants" (PDF). OKB Gidropress. IAEA. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- "Russia connects Novovoronezh 6 reactor to grid". World Nuclear News. 5 August 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
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- "Russia to build 11 new nuclear reactors by 2030". World Nuclear News. 10 August 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
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- Igor Koudrik and Alexander Nikitin (13 December 2011). "Second life: The questionable safety of life extensions for Russian nuclear power plants". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.
- "Nuclear Power in Russia | Russian Nuclear Energy - World Nuclear Association". www.world-nuclear.org. Retrieved 14 May 2018.
- "The construction of the 2nd innovative VVER-TOI power block at the Kursk NPP-2 site has started ahead of schedule". www.rosenergoatom.ru. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
- "Russia retires Leningrad unit 1". World Nuclear News. World Nuclear Association. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
- "PRIS - Reactor Details". pris.iaea.org. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
- Challenging NPP Projects JSC ASE
- NPP JSC ASE (Jordan)
- Matthew L. Wald (24 March 2011). "Russia Plans to Test Reactors For Ability to Survive Quakes". New York Times.
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