O. J. Simpson murder case

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

California v. Simpson
Seal of Los Angeles County, California (1957–2004).png
CourtLos Angeles County Superior Court
Full case namePeople of the State of California v. Orenthal James Simpson
DecidedOctober 3, 1995; 24 years ago (1995-10-03)
VerdictNot Guilty in violation of Penal Code Section 187(a), a felony upon Nicole Brown Simpson, a human being. Not Guilty in violation of Penal Code Section 187(a), a felony upon Ronald Lyle Goldman, a human being.
Case history
Subsequent action(s)Lawsuit filed by the Brown and Goldman families; Simpson was found responsible for both deaths on February 4, 1997.
Court membership
Judge(s) sittingLance Ito

The O. J. Simpson murder case (officially People of the State of California v. Orenthal James Simpson) was a criminal trial held in Los Angeles County Superior Court. Former National Football League (NFL) player, broadcaster, and actor O. J. Simpson was tried on two counts of murder for the June 12, 1994 slashing deaths of his ex-wife, Nicole Brown Simpson, and her friend Ron Goldman. At 12:10 a.m. on June 13, 1994, Brown and Goldman were found stabbed to death outside her condominium in the Brentwood neighborhood of Los Angeles. Simpson was a person of interest in the murders. He did not turn himself in, and on June 17 he became the object of a low-speed pursuit in a white 1993 Ford Bronco SUV owned and driven by his friend Al Cowlings.[1] TV stations interrupted coverage of the NBA finals to broadcast the incident. The pursuit was watched live by an estimated 95 million people.[2] The pursuit, arrest, and trial were among the most widely publicized events in American history. The trial—often characterized as the trial of the century because of its international publicity—spanned eleven months, from the jury's swearing-in on November 9, 1994.[3] Opening statements were made on January 24, 1995,[4] and the verdict was announced on October 3, 1995, when Simpson was acquitted on two counts of murder.[5][6] Following his acquittal, no additional arrests related to the murders have been made, and the crime remains unsolved to this day.[7] According to USA Today, the case has been described as the "most publicized" criminal trial in history.[8]

Simpson was represented by a high-profile defense team, also referred to as the "Dream Team", which was initially led by Robert Shapiro[9][10][11] and subsequently directed by Johnnie Cochran. The team also included F. Lee Bailey, Alan Dershowitz, Robert Kardashian, Robert Blasier, and Gerald Uelmen. Barry Scheck and Peter Neufeld specialized in DNA evidence. Working with Cochran were Carl E. Douglas and Shawn Holley.

Deputy District Attorneys Marcia Clark and Christopher Darden thought that they had a strong case against Simpson, but Cochran was able to convince the jury that there was reasonable doubt concerning the validity of the State's DNA evidence, which was a relatively new form of evidence in trials at that time.[12] The reasonable doubt theory included evidence that the blood sample had allegedly been mishandled by lab scientists and technicians, and there were questionable circumstances that surrounded other court exhibits.[13] Cochran and the defense team also alleged other misconduct by the LAPD related to systemic racism and the actions of Detective Mark Fuhrman. Simpson's celebrity status, racial issues, and the lengthy televised trial riveted national attention. By the end of the trial, national surveys indicated dramatic differences of opinion between black and white Americans in the assessment of Simpson's guilt or innocence.[14]

The immediate reaction to the verdict created a division along racial lines. A poll of Los Angeles County residents showed that most African Americans felt that justice had been served by the "not guilty" verdict, while the majority of whites and Latinos expressed an opposite opinion on the matter.[15]

After the trial, the families of Brown and Goldman filed a lawsuit against Simpson. On February 4, 1997, the jury unanimously found Simpson responsible for both deaths.[16] The families were awarded compensatory and punitive damages totaling $33.5 million ($52.3 million in 2018 dollars), but have received only a small portion of that monetary figure. In 2000, Simpson left California for Florida, one of the few states where personal assets such as homes and pensions cannot be seized to cover liabilities that were incurred in other states.


Brown–Simpson marriage[edit]

Simpson with his daughter Sydney, 1986

Nicole Brown met O. J. Simpson in 1977,[17] when she was 18 and working as a waitress at a Beverly Hills private club called The Daisy.[18][19] Although Simpson was still married to his first wife, Marguerite, the two began dating. Simpson and Marguerite divorced in March 1979.[20]

Simpson and Brown were married on February 2, 1985, five years after Simpson's retirement from the NFL.[20][21][22] The marriage lasted seven years and produced two children, Sydney (b. 1985) and Justin (b. 1988).[23] Simpson was investigated multiple times by police for domestic violence and pleaded no contest to spousal abuse in 1989.[24] Brown filed for divorce on February 25, 1992, citing "irreconcilable differences" as the reason.[25] Following the divorce, Simpson and Brown got back together and the abuse continued. Audio released during the murder trial of O. J. Simpson revealed that Brown called 9-1-1 on October 25, 1993, crying and saying that "He [Simpson] is going to beat the shit out of me". After this incident, the relationship would end for a second and final time.[26]


At 12:10 am.[27] on June 13, 1994, Brown and Goldman were found murdered outside of Nicole's Bundy Drive condominium in the Brentwood area of Los Angeles, California. Nicole's akita dog with bloodstained paws led neighbors to the body.[28]

She was face down and barefoot at the bottom of the stairs leading to her front door. She had been stabbed multiple times in the head and neck, and had a few defensive wounds on her hands. The final cut was deep into her neck, probably as the assailant held her head up by the hair.[29] Her larynx could be seen through the gaping wound in her neck, and vertebra C3 was incised;[30] her head remained barely attached to the body.[26] Goldman laid nearby by a tree and fence. He had been stabbed multiple times in the body and neck. He had more defensive wounds, and a cut on his shoe may indicate he kicked the assailant.[31]

Both victims had been dead for about two hours prior to the arrival of police. Underneath Brown was a restaurant menu she may have been holding. On her banister was a melting cup of ice cream.[32] Near Goldman was his beeper and car keys, as well as a knit cap and glove from the assailant. Robert Riske, one of the first two officers on the scene, claimed to see a single bloody glove, among other evidence.[32] Also near Goldman was an envelope with glasses he was returning. Bloody footprints from the assailant were shown leaving the scene. Measuring the distance between the steps showed the assailant walked away rather than ran.[33] He may have also returned to the scene after initially walking away.[34] To the left of some footprints were drops of blood from the assailant apparently bleeding from his left side.

Detectives went to Simpson's estate in Brentwood to inform him that his ex-wife had been murdered. Mark Fuhrman climbed over an external wall and unlocked the gate to allow the other three detectives to enter as well. The detectives argued that they entered without a search warrant because of exigent circumstances – specifically, in this case, out of fear that Simpson might have also been injured. Simpson was not present when the detectives arrived early that morning; he had taken a flight to Chicago late the previous night. Detectives briefly interviewed Kato Kaelin, who was staying in Simpson's guest house. In a walk-around of the premises, Fuhrman discovered a second bloody glove; it was later determined to be the match of the glove found at the murder scene. Through DNA testing, the blood on the glove was determined to have come from both victims. This evidence, matched with other evidence that was collected at both scenes, was determined to be probable cause to issue an arrest warrant for Simpson.

While Simpson was waiting in his bedroom, he invited longtime friend and police officer Ron Shipp for a private discussion; Simpson jokingly told him, "To be honest, Shipp, I've had some dreams about killing her."[35][36]

Arrest of Simpson[edit]

Simpson's mugshot, June 17, 1994

Although the LAPD refused to identify Simpson as a suspect, he was the focus of the police investigation from the beginning. The police handcuffed Simpson at his home on Monday, June 13, took him to Parker Center for questioning, and released him. Simpson hired Robert Shapiro on Tuesday; the lawyer later said that an increasingly distraught Simpson began treatment for depression. After gathering evidence during the week, detectives on Friday, June 17 recommended that he be charged with two counts of first-degree murder with special circumstance of multiple killings.[37]

A heavily sedated Simpson stayed Thursday night at the San Fernando Valley home of friend Robert Kardashian; Shapiro asked several doctors to attend to him because of Simpson's fragile mental state. LAPD notified Shapiro at 8:30 am on Friday that Simpson would have to surrender that day. At 9:30 am Shapiro went to Kardashian's home to tell Simpson that he would have to surrender by 11 am; the murder charges were filed that day. The lawyer described Simpson as being in suicidal depression; he updated his will, called his mother and children, and wrote three sealed letters to his children, his mother, and the public.[37]

Lawyers persuaded the LAPD to allow Simpson to turn himself in;[38] the police believed that someone as famous as Simpson would not flee, although the double murder charge meant that bail would not be set and a first-degree murder conviction could result in a death penalty.[37][39] The surrender was delayed by an hour because of a medical examination of the suspect, so police called Shapiro to say that Simpson would be arrested at Shapiro's house. He did not tell Simpson, who was with longtime friend Al Cowlings elsewhere in the house; they apparently escaped at this time.[37] More than 1,000 reporters waited for Simpson's perp walk at the police station, but he did not arrive. At 1:50 pm, Commander Dave Gascon, LAPD's chief spokesman, publicly declared that Simpson was a fugitive; the police issued an all-points bulletin for him and an arrest warrant for Cowlings.[37][40][41]

Suicide note[edit]

At 5 pm, Kardashian and one of his defense lawyers read Simpson's public letter.[37][40][41] In the letter, Simpson sent greetings to 24 friends and wrote, "First everyone understand I had nothing to do with Nicole's murder ... Don't feel sorry for me. I've had a great life". He described the fights with Brown and their decision to not reconcile as normal parts of a long relationship and asked the media "as a last wish" to not bother his children. He wrote to then girlfriend Paula Barbieri "I'm sorry ... we're not going to have, our chance ... As I leave, you'll be in my thoughts." It also included "I can't go on" and an apology to the Goldman family. The letter concluded, "Don't feel sorry for me. I have had a great life, great friends. Please think of the real O.J. and not this lost person".[37][40][38][42][41] Most interpreted this as a suicide note; Simpson's mother Eunice collapsed after hearing it,[37][26][43] and reporters joined the search for Simpson. At Kardashian's press conference, Shapiro said that he and Simpson's psychiatrists agreed with the suicide note interpretation. Through television, Shapiro appealed to Simpson to surrender.[44][37]

Bronco chase[edit]

News helicopters searched the Los Angeles highway system for Cowling's white Ford Bronco (Cowling and Simpson both had white Broncos).[43][41] At 5:51 pm. Simpson reportedly called 9-1-1; the call was traced to the Santa Ana Freeway, near Lake Forest. At around 6:20 pm, a motorist in Orange County notified California Highway Patrol after seeing someone believed to be Simpson riding in the Bronco on the I-5 freeway heading north, driven by Cowlings. The police tracked calls placed from Simpson on his cell phone. At 6:45 pm, police officer Ruth Dixon saw the Bronco head north on Interstate 405. When she caught up to it, Cowlings yelled out that Simpson was in the back seat of the vehicle and had a gun to his own head.[44][37][41] The officer backed off, but followed the vehicle[45] at 35 miles per hour (56 km/h),[46] with up to 20 police cars following her in the chase.[37][47][48]

Bob Tur of KCBS-TV was the first to find Simpson from a news helicopter, after colleagues heard that the FBI's mobile phone tracking had located him at the El Toro Y. More than nine news helicopters eventually joined the pursuit; Tur compared the fleet to Apocalypse Now, and the high degree of media participation caused camera signals to appear on incorrect television channels.[44][41] The chase was so long that one helicopter ran out of fuel, forcing its station to ask another for a camera feed.[26] Radio station KNX-AM also provided live coverage of the low-speed pursuit. USC sports announcer Peter Arbogast and station producer Kash Limbach contacted former USC football coach John McKay to go on the air and encourage Simpson to end the pursuit. McKay agreed and asked Simpson to pull over and turn himself in instead of committing suicide;[49] "My God, we love you, Juice. Just pull over and I'll come out and stand by you all the rest of my life", he promised.[43] Callers from around the country also pleaded with Simpson over KNX to surrender.[37]

Simpson's escape embarrassed the LAPD and the Los Angeles County District Attorney, which denied that he had been treated unusually.[37] At Parker Center, officials discussed how to persuade Simpson to surrender peacefully. Detective Tom Lange, who had interviewed Simpson about the murders on June 13, realized that he had Simpson's cell phone number and called him repeatedly. A colleague hooked a tape recorder up to Lange's phone and captured a conversation between Lange and Simpson in which Lange repeatedly pleaded with Simpson to "throw the gun out [of] the window" for the sake of his mother and children. Simpson apologized for not turning himself in earlier that day and responded that he was "the only one who deserved to get hurt" and was "just gonna go with Nicole". He asked Lange to "just let me get to the house" and said "I need [the gun] for me". Cowlings's voice is overheard in the recording (after the Bronco had arrived at Simpson's home surrounded by police) pleading with Simpson to surrender and end the chase peacefully.[50][41] During the pursuit, and without having a chance to hear the taped phone conversation, Simpson's friend Al Michaels interpreted his actions as an admission of guilt.[44]

Normally busy Los Angeles streets emptied, and drink orders stopped at bars, as people watched on television.[37] ABC, NBC, CBS and CNN, and local news outlets interrupted regularly scheduled programming to cover the incident, watched by an estimated 95 million viewers nationwide;[51][52][44][53] only 90 million had watched that year's Super Bowl.[26] While NBC continued coverage of Game 5 of the NBA Finals between the New York Knicks and the Houston Rockets at Madison Square Garden, the game appeared in a small box in the corner while Tom Brokaw covered the chase.[51][44] The chase was covered live by ABC anchors Peter Jennings and Barbara Walters on behalf of the network's five news magazines, which achieved some of their highest-ever ratings that week.[53] The chase was broadcast internationally, with Gascon's relatives in France and China seeing him on television.[41] Benefiting from the event occurring in the evening, Domino's Pizza stated that its pizza delivery sales during the chase were as large as on Super Bowl Sunday.[54]

Thousands of spectators and onlookers packed overpasses along the route of the chase, waiting for the white Bronco. In a festival-like atmosphere, many had signs like "Go O.J." urging Simpson to flee.[55][49][47][41] They and the millions watching the chase on television felt part of a "common emotional experience", one author wrote, as they "wonder[ed] if O. J. Simpson would commit suicide, escape, be arrested, or engage in some kind of violent confrontation. Whatever might ensue, the shared adventure gave millions of viewers a vested interest, a sense of participation, a feeling of being on the inside of a national drama in the making."[51] Sports Illustrated later commented the chase and subsequent hoopla was "The Sugarland Express meets The Fugitive".

Simpson reportedly demanded that he be allowed to speak to his mother before he would surrender.[47] The chase ended at 8:00 p.m. at his Brentwood estate, 50 miles (80 km) later, where his son, Jason, ran out of the house, "gesturing wildly",[47] and 27 SWAT officers awaited.[26][41] After remaining in the Bronco for about 45 minutes,[49] Simpson exited at 8:50 pm with a framed family photo and went inside for about an hour; a police spokesman stated that he spoke to his mother and drank a glass of orange juice, causing reporters to laugh.[44][37] Shapiro arrived, and Simpson surrendered to authorities a few minutes later. In the Bronco, police found "$8,000 in cash, a change of clothing, a loaded .357 Magnum, a United States passport, family pictures, and a fake goatee and mustache".[49] Neither the footage of the Bronco chase nor the items found in the Bronco were shown to the jury as evidence in the trial.[56]

Simpson was booked at Parker Center and taken to Men's Central Jail; Cowlings was booked on suspicion of harboring a fugitive and held on $250,000 bail.[37] As Simpson was driven away, he saw the crowds, many of whom were African Americans, cheering him; Simpson said, "What are all these niggers doing in Brentwood?"[36]


Judge Lance Ito presided over the trial

On June 20, Simpson was arraigned and pleaded not guilty to both murders. As expected, the presiding judge ordered that Simpson be held without bail. The following day, a grand jury was called to determine whether to indict him for the two murders. Two days later, on June 23, the grand jury was dismissed as a result of excessive media coverage, which could have influenced its neutrality. Jill Shively, a Brentwood resident who testified that she saw Simpson speeding away from the area of Nicole's house on the night of the murders, told the grand jury that the Bronco almost collided with a Nissan at the intersection of Bundy and San Vicente Boulevard.[57] Another grand jury witness, a cutlery salesman named Jose Camacho, said he had sold Simpson a 15-inch (380 mm) German-made knife, similar to the murder weapon, three weeks before the killings.[57] Shively and Camacho were not presented by the prosecution at the criminal trial because they had sold their stories to the tabloid press.[53] Shively had talked to the television show Hard Copy for $5,000,[53] while Camacho sold his story to the National Enquirer for $12,500.

Rather than a grand jury hearing, authorities held a probable cause hearing to determine whether or not to bring Simpson to trial. This was a minor victory for Simpson's lawyers because it would give them access to evidence as it was being presented by the prosecution in contrast to the procedure in a grand jury hearing. After a week-long court hearing, California Superior Court Judge Kathleen Kennedy-Powell ruled on July 7 that there was sufficient evidence to bring Simpson to trial for the murders. At his second arraignment on July 22, when asked how he pleaded to the murders, Simpson, breaking a courtroom practice that says the accused may plead using only the words "guilty" or "not guilty", firmly stated: "Absolutely, one hundred percent, not guilty."

District Attorney Gil Garcetti elected to file charges in downtown Los Angeles, as opposed to Santa Monica, where the crime took place.[58] The decision would prove to be highly controversial, especially after Simpson was acquitted.[58] It likely resulted in a jury pool with more blacks, Latinos, Asian-Americans, and blue-collar workers than would have been found from Santa Monica.[59]

The prosecution decided not to seek the death penalty and instead sought a life sentence. Deputy District Attorney Marcia Clark was designated as the lead prosecutor. Deputy District Attorney Christopher Darden became Clark's co-counsel. Simpson wanted a speedy trial, and the defense and prosecuting attorneys worked around the clock for several months to prepare their cases. In October 1994, Judge Lance Ito started interviewing 304 prospective jurors, each of whom had to fill out a 75-page questionnaire. On November 3, twelve jurors were seated with twelve alternates.

The trial began on January 24, 1995, and was televised by Court TV, and in part by other cable and network news outlets, for 134 days. Darden argued that Simpson killed his ex-wife in a jealous rage; the prosecution opened its case by playing a 9-1-1 call from Nicole Brown Simpson on January 1, 1989, in which she expressed fear that Simpson would physically harm her, and he could be heard yelling at her in the background. Other material related to domestic violence was presented including another 9-1-1 phone call that Nicole made on October 25, 1993, expressing the same thing and Simpson also could be heard shouting in the background, less than eight months before the murders. The prosecution also presented dozens of expert witnesses to place Simpson at the scene of the crime, on subjects ranging from DNA profiling to blood and shoeprint analysis.

During the opening weeks of the trial, the prosecution presented evidence that Simpson had a history of physically abusing Nicole. Simpson's lawyer Alan Dershowitz argued that only a tiny fraction of women who are abused by their spouses are murdered. Within days after the start of the trial, lawyers and those viewing the trial from a single closed-circuit TV camera in the courtroom saw an emerging pattern: continual and countless interruptions with objections from both sides of the courtroom, as well as one sidebar conference after another with the judge, beyond earshot of the unseen jury located just below and out of the camera's frame.

Jury selection and revolt[edit]

According to media reports, Clark thought that women, regardless of race, would sympathize with the domestic violence aspect of the case and connect with her personally. On the other hand, the defense's research suggested that women generally were more likely to acquit than men, and that jurors did not respond well to Clark's combative style of litigation. The defense also speculated that black women would not be as sympathetic as white women to the victim, who was white, because of tensions about interracial marriages. Both sides accepted a disproportionate number of female jurors. From an original jury pool of 40 percent white, 28 percent black, 17 percent Hispanic, and 15 percent Asian, the final jury for the trial had ten women and two men, of which there were nine blacks, two whites, and one Hispanic.[14][60]

At the start of trial, twelve jurors and twelve alternates were selected from a pool of 250 potential jurors. Over the course of the trial, ten were dismissed for a wide variety of reasons. Only four of the original jurors remained on the final panel.[61] During the middle of the trial, a number of the jurors staged what the media called a "revolt". After being sequestered for 101 days, thirteen of the eighteen jurors refused to enter the courtroom until they were granted a meeting with Judge Ito. Eventually, the jury returned with thirteen members wearing black or dark-colored clothing in what was described as a "funeral procession".[62][63]

Prosecution case[edit]

The prosecution believed it had a strong case despite the lack of known witnesses to the crime and the failure to recover the murder weapon.[64] Clark's case was supported by DNA evidence, and she expected a conviction. From the physical evidence that was collected, the prosecution claimed that Simpson drove to Brown's house on the evening of June 12 with the intention of killing her. They maintained that Brown had put their two children to bed and was getting ready to go to bed herself when she opened the front door of her house after either responding to a knock on the front door or hearing a noise outside. Simpson allegedly grabbed her before she could scream and attacked her with a knife. Forensic evidence from the Los Angeles County coroner alleged that Goldman arrived at the front gate to the townhouse sometime during the assault, and the assailant apparently attacked him and stabbed him repeatedly in the neck and chest with one hand while restraining him with an arm chokehold. Brown was found lying face down when authorities arrived at the crime scene. According to the prosecution's account, after Simpson had finished with Goldman, he pulled Brown's head back using her hair, put his foot on her back, and slit her throat with the knife, severing her carotid artery.[30] They argued further that Simpson left a "trail of blood" from the condo to the alley behind it; there was also testimony that three drops of Simpson's blood were found on the driveway near the gate to his house on Rockingham Drive.[65]

According to the prosecution, Simpson was last seen in public at 9:36 p.m. that evening when he returned to the front gate of his house with Kaelin, a bit-part actor and family friend who had been given the use of a guest house on Simpson's estate. Simpson was not seen again until 10:54 p.m. – an hour and eighteen minutes later – when he came out of the front door of his house to a waiting limousine he had hired to take him to Los Angeles International Airport to fly to a Hertz convention in Chicago. The defense and prosecution both agreed that the murders took place between 10:15 and 10:40 pm, with the prosecution alleging that Simpson had driven his Bronco during the required five minutes to and from the murder scene. They presented a witness in the vicinity of Bundy Drive who saw a car similar to Simpson's Bronco speeding away from the area at 10:35 pm.[13]

Limousine driver Allan Park testified that he arrived at Simpson's estate at 10:24 pm. Driving past the Rockingham gate, he did not see Simpson's Bronco parked at the curb. Park testified that he had been looking for and had seen the house number, and the prosecution presented exhibits to show that the position in which the Bronco was found the next morning was right next to the house number (implying that Park would surely have noticed the Bronco if it had been there at that time).[66] According to Simpson's version of events, the Bronco had been parked in that position for several hours. Meanwhile, Kaelin was in his guest house and on the telephone to his friend, Rachel Ferrara. Park parked opposite the Ashford Street gate, then drove back to the Rockingham gate to check which driveway would have the best access for the limo. Deciding that the Rockingham entrance was too tight, he returned to the Ashford gate and began to buzz the intercom at 10:40, getting no response. Park got out of the limo and looked through the Ashford gate and saw that the house was dark with no lights on, except for a dim light coming from one of the second floor windows, which was Simpson's bedroom. While smoking a cigarette, Park made a series of phone calls from his cellular to the pager of his boss, Dale St. John, and then to Park's home, trying to get St. John's home phone number from his mother in an attempt to get the phone number for Simpson's house. At approximately 10:50, Kaelin (who was still on the phone to Ferrara) heard three thumps against the outside wall of his guest house. Kaelin hung up the phone and ventured outside to investigate the noises, but decided not to venture directly down the dark south pathway from which the thumps had originated. Instead, he walked to the front of the property and saw Park's limo outside the Ashford gate.

At the same time Park saw Kaelin come from the back of the property to the front, he testified that directly behind Kaelin a short distance away that he saw "a tall black man" of Simpson's height and build enter the front door of the house from the driveway area, after which lights were turned on and Simpson finally answered Park's call.[citation needed] Simpson explained that he had overslept and would be at the front gate soon. Kaelin opened the Ashford gate to let Park drive the limo onto the estate grounds, and Simpson came out of his house through the front door a few minutes later. Both Kaelin and Park helped Simpson put his belongings (which were already outside the front door when Park drove up to the front of Simpson's house) into the trunk of the limo for the ride to the airport. Both Kaelin and Park remarked in their testimony that Simpson looked agitated. But other witnesses, including the ticket clerk at LAX who checked Simpson onto the plane and a flight attendant, said that Simpson looked and acted perfectly normal. Conflicting testimony such as this was to be a recurring theme throughout the trial.

Simpson's initial claim that he was asleep at the time of the murders was refuted by several different accounts. According to defense lawyer Johnnie Cochran, Simpson had never left his house that night, and he was alone as he packed his belongings to travel to Chicago. Cochran claimed that Simpson went outside through the back door to hit a few golf balls into the children's sandbox in the front garden, one or more of which made the three loud thumps on the wall of Kaelin's bungalow. Cochran produced a potential alibi witness, Rosa Lopez, a neighbor's Spanish-speaking housekeeper, who testified that she had seen Simpson's car parked outside his house at the time of the murders. However, Lopez's account, which was not presented to the jury, was pulled apart under intense cross-examination by Clark, when she was forced to admit that she could not be sure of the precise time she saw Simpson's Bronco outside his house.

The defense tried to convince the jury that Simpson was not physically capable of carrying out the murders, saying that Goldman was a fit young man who put up a fierce struggle against his assailant. Simpson was a 46-year-old former professional football player with chronic arthritis and had scars on his knees from old football injuries. However, Clark produced into evidence an exercise video that Simpson made a few months before the murders titled O.J. Simpson Minimum Maintenance: Fitness for Men, which showed that, despite some physical conditions and limitations, Simpson was anything but frail.[67]

The prosecution called Brown's sister, Denise, to the witness stand. She tearfully testified to many episodes of domestic violence in the 1980s, when she saw Simpson pick up his wife and hurl her against a wall, then physically throw her out of their house during an argument. The prosecution then called Karen Lee Crawford, the manager of the Mezzaluna restaurant where Brown dined on the night she was murdered. Crawford recounted that Brown's mother phoned the restaurant at 9:37 p.m. about a pair of lost eyeglasses. Crawford found them and put them in a white envelope. Goldman left the restaurant at 9:50 p.m. after his shift, taking the glasses to drop them off at Brown's house.[68]

Brown's neighbor Pablo Fenjves testified about hearing a "very distinctive barking" and "plaintive wail" of a dog at around ten to fifteen minutes after 10:00 p.m. while he was at home watching the news on television. Eva Stein, another neighbor, testified about very loud and persistent barking, also at around 10:15 pm, that kept her from going back to sleep. Neighbor Steven Schwab testified that while he was walking his dog in the area near Brown's house at around 11:30 pm, he noticed that Brown's Akita was wandering around and agitated. He saw that the dog had bloody paws, but after looking further, he determined that the dog was uninjured. Schwab said he took the dog to a neighbor friend of his, Sukru Boztepe, before taking it into his home where it became more agitated. Boztepe took the dog for a walk at approximately 12:00 midnight and testified that it tugged on its leash and led him to Brown's house. There he discovered Brown's dead body. Minutes later, Boztepe flagged down a passing patrol car.

Robert Riske was the first police officer to arrive at the crime scene. He testified that he found a barefoot woman in a black dress lying face down in a puddle of blood on the walkway that led to the front door of her house. He next saw Goldman's body a short distance away, lying on its side beside a tree and off the walkway. Riske said he saw a white envelope, which was later found to contain the glasses left at the restaurant by Brown's mother. He also saw Goldman's beeper, a black leather glove, and a dark blue knit ski cap on the ground near the bodies. The front door of Brown's house was wide open, but there were no signs of forced entry nor any evidence that anyone had entered the premises. Nothing inside was out of the ordinary.

On Sunday, February 12, 1995, a long motorcade traveled to Brentwood and the jurors, prosecutors, defense lawyers, and Judge Ito made a two-hour inspection of the crime scene. It was followed by a three-hour tour of Simpson's estate. Simpson was under guard by several officers but did not wear handcuffs; he waited outside the crime scene in and around an unmarked police car and was permitted to enter his house.

Detective Ron Phillips testified that when he called Simpson in Chicago to tell him of his ex-wife's murder, he sounded shocked and upset, but did not ask about how she died. Lange testified that Brown was probably killed first because the soles of her bare feet were clean, implying that she was struck down to the ground before any blood flowed. This was a key point that suggested Simpson might have set out to kill Brown, whereas Goldman appeared to have inadvertently stumbled upon the scene, prompting Simpson to kill him as well. In cross-examining Lange, Cochran proposed two hypotheses for what happened at the murder scene. First, he suggested that one or more drug dealers encountered Brown while looking for her friend and house guest, Faye Resnick, an admitted cocaine abuser. In the second hypothesis, Cochran suggested that "an assassin, or assassins," followed Goldman to Brown's house to kill him.[citation needed]

Evidence presented to the jury[edit]

The prosecution offered circumstantial evidence to show Simpson's guilt.[69]

  • DNA analysis of blood discovered on a pair of Simpson's socks found in his bedroom identified it as Brown's. The blood had DNA characteristics matched by approximately one in 9.7 billion, with odds falling to one out of 21 billion when compiling results of testing done at the two separate DNA laboratories.[30][69] Both socks had about twenty stains of blood.[30] The blood made a similar pattern on both sides of the socks. Defense medical expert Dr. Henry Lee of the Connecticut State Police Forensic Science Laboratory testified that the only way such a pattern could appear were if Simpson had a "hole" in his ankle, or a drop of blood were placed on the sock while it was not being worn. Lee also testified that the collection procedure of the socks could have caused contamination.[70]
  • DNA analysis in, on and near Simpson's Bronco revealed traces of Simpson's, Brown's, and Goldman's blood.[71]
  • Strands of hair consistent with Simpson's were found on Goldman's shirt.[71]
  • Several coins were found along with fresh blood drops behind Brown's condominium, in the area where the cars were parked.
  • DNA analysis of blood on the left-hand glove found outside Brown's home showed that it was a mixture of Simpson's, Brown's, and Goldman's. Although the glove was soaked in blood, there were no blood drops leading up to, or away from the glove. No other blood was found in the area of the glove except on the glove.[71][failed verification]
  • The gloves contained particles of hair consistent with Goldman's, and a cap contained carpet fibers consistent with fibers from Simpson's Bronco. A black knit cap at the crime scene contained strands of African-American hair. Several strands of dark blue cotton fibers were found on Goldman. The prosecution presented a witness who said Simpson wore a similarly-colored sweat suit that night.[13]
  • The left-hand glove found at Brown's home and the right-hand glove found at Simpson's home proved to be a match.[72]
  • Officers found arrest records indicating that Simpson was charged in 1989 with beating Brown. Photos of Brown's bruised and battered face from that attack were shown to the court.
  • Much of the incriminating evidence – bloody glove, bloody socks, blood in and on the Bronco – was discovered by LAPD Detective Mark Fuhrman. He was later charged with perjury for falsely claiming during the trial that he had not used the word "nigger" within ten years of the trial. Later during the trial, with the jury absent, he invoked the Fifth Amendment against self-incrimination when asked "did you plant or manufacture any evidence in this case?"[73] In a 2016 interview, Dershowitz suggested that Detective Philip Vannatter – not Fuhrman – may have planted evidence on socks, based upon the presence of anti-coagulant in the blood discovered on the socks.[74] Dershowitz said that the jury may have concluded that if the bloody socks were fabricated by the police, then other evidence may have been fabricated as well.[74] F.B.I. expert testimony said that the defense exaggerated the significance of the presence of the anti-coagulant.[75]
  • The bloody shoe prints at the crime scene were identified by FBI shoe expert William Bodziak as having been made by a pair of extremely rare and expensive Bruno Magli shoes; only 29 pairs of this style were sold in the U.S.[13] The large size 12 (305 mm) prints matched Simpson's shoe size.[13] In the trial, Simpson's defense attorneys said the prosecution had no proof Simpson had ever bought such shoes. There were no witnesses who testified to selling Simpson the shoes and there were not any receipts recovered that indicated he bought the shoes.[13] But freelance photographer E.J. Flammer claimed to have found a photograph he had taken of Simpson in 1993 that appeared to show him wearing a pair of the shoes at a public event, which was later published in the National Enquirer. Simpson's defense team claimed that the photograph was doctored, but other pre-1994 photos appearing to show Simpson wearing Bruno Magli shoes were later discovered and published.[76] These photos were not shown until late in the trial and not during the "big shoe debate".[77]
  • Evidence collected by LAPD criminalist Dennis Fung was criticized by the defense. He admitted to "having missed a few drops of blood on a fence near the bodies;" on the stand he said that he "returned several weeks afterwards to collect them."[73]
  • Fung admitted that he had not used rubber gloves when collecting some of the evidence.[73] But the blood tested had no DNA from Fung, within published guidelines.
  • Vannatter testified that he saw photographs of press personnel leaning on Simpson's Bronco before evidence was collected.[73]

Evidence not presented to the jury[edit]

  • At the June 1994 grand jury hearing, Ross Cutlery provided store receipts indicating that Simpson had purchased a 12-inch (305 mm) stiletto knife from salesman Jose Camacho six weeks before the murders. The knife was determined to be similar to the one the coroner said caused the stab wounds. The prosecution did not present this evidence at trial after discovering that Camacho had sold his story to the National Enquirer for $12,500.[5] The knife was later collected from Simpson's residence by his attorneys; they presented it to Judge Ito and it was subsequently sealed in a manila envelope to be opened only if brought up at trial. This was not the murder weapon: tests on the knife determined that an oil used on new cutlery was still present on the knife, indicating it had never been used. The police searched Simpson's estate three times and could not find this knife. Simpson told his attorneys exactly where it was in the house and it was promptly recovered.[78]
  • Jill Shively testified to the 1994 grand jury that she saw a white Ford Bronco speeding away from Bundy Drive in such a hurry that it almost collided with another car at an intersection. She talked to the television show Hard Copy for $5,000, after which prosecutors declined to use her testimony at trial.[5]
  • A women's shelter, Sojourn, received a call from Brown four days prior to the murders; she said that she was afraid of her ex-husband, who she believed was stalking her. The prosecution did not present this information in court because they thought that Judge Ito would rule the evidence to be hearsay. In addition, friends and family indicated that Brown had consistently said that Simpson had been stalking her. Her friends Resnick and Cynthia Shahian said she was afraid because Simpson had told her he would kill her if he ever found her with another man.[5]
  • Former NFL player and pastor Rosey Grier visited Simpson at the Los Angeles County Jail in the days following the murders. A jailhouse guard, Jeff Stuart, testified to Judge Ito that at one point Simpson yelled to Grier that he "didn't mean to do it," after which Grier had urged Simpson to come clean. Ito ruled that the evidence was hearsay and could not be allowed in court.[5]
  • The events of the Bronco chase, and the materials in the Bronco including the cash, handgun, and disguise, were not presented to the jury. The prosecution did not cover Simpson's apparent suicide note and statement to the police.
  • A few months before the 1994 murders, Simpson completed a film pilot for Frogmen, an adventure series in which he starred. Although the prosecution investigated reports that Simpson, who played the leader of a group of former U.S. Navy SEALs, received "a fair amount of" military training – including use of a knife – for Frogmen, and holds a knife to the throat of a woman in one scene, it was not introduced as evidence during the trial.[79]
  • The testimony of Lopez was recorded on videotape, but not shown to the jury.

DNA evidence[edit]

Samples from bloody shoe prints leading away from the bodies and from the back gate of the condo were tested for DNA matches.[13] Initial polymerase chain reaction testing did not rule out Simpson as a suspect. In more precise restriction fragment length polymorphism tests, matches were found between Simpson's blood and blood samples taken from the crime scene (both the shoe prints in blood and the gate samples).[12][13] Fung testified that this DNA evidence put Simpson at Brown's townhouse at the time of the murders. But defense expert Barry Scheck conducted an eight-day cross-examination questioning most of the DNA evidence. Dr. Robin Cotton, of Cellmark Diagnostics, testified for six days. Blood evidence had been tested at two separate laboratories, each conducting different tests.[30] At this time, the general population was still unfamiliar with the precision and significance of DNA matching.[80]

It emerged during the cross-examination of Fung and the other laboratory scientists that LAPD scientist Andrea Mazzola (who collected blood samples from Simpson to compare with evidence from the crime scene) was a trainee who carried the vial of Simpson's blood around in her lab coat pocket for nearly a day before handing it over as an exhibit.[81][82] While two errors had been found in the history of DNA testing at Cellmark, one of the testing laboratories, in 1988 and 1989, the errors were found during quality control tests and had not occurred since.[30] One of the companies hired for DNA consulting by Simpson's defense had made the same error as found in 1988.[12] What should have been the prosecution's strong point became their weak link, amid defense accusations that police technicians handled the blood samples with such a degree of incompetence as to render the delivery of accurate and reliable DNA results almost impossible. The prosecution argued that they had made the DNA evidence available to the defense for its own testing, and if the defense attorneys disagreed with the prosecution's tests, they could have conducted their own testing on the same samples. The defense had chosen not to accept the prosecution's offer.[30]

On May 16, Gary Sims, a California Department of Justice criminalist who helped establish their DNA laboratory, testified that a glove found at Simpson's house tested positive for a match of Goldman's blood.[30]

Mark Fuhrman[edit]

Mark Fuhrman in 2008

In March 1995, Fuhrman testified that he drove to Simpson's house on the night of the murders in order to question him. He buzzed the intercom at the outside wall of the property but received no response. The house appeared empty, and he scaled one of the outer walls to enter the property. He found blood marks on the driveway of the house, as well as a black leather glove on the premises near the location of Kaelin's bungalow. It was later found to have both victims' blood on it, as well as Simpson's, matched through DNA analysis.[13]

Despite an aggressive cross-examination by F. Lee Bailey,[83] Fuhrman denied on the stand that he was racist or had used the word "nigger" to describe black people in the ten years prior to his testimony.[83] However, a few months later, the defense played audiotapes of Fuhrman repeatedly using the word – 41 times, in total. The tapes had been made between 1985 and 1994 by a young North Carolina screenwriter named Laura Hart McKinny, who had interviewed Fuhrman at length for a screenplay she was writing on police officers. The Fuhrman tapes became one of the cornerstones of the defense's case that Fuhrman's testimony lacked credibility.

With the jury absent, Fuhrman was called back to the witness stand by the defense to answer more questions about the discovery of the blood marks and leather glove that he found on Simpson's property. When questioned by attorney Gerald Uelmen, Fuhrman, with his lawyer standing by his side, invoked the Fifth Amendment to avoid self-incrimination and further questioning after his integrity was challenged. The prosecution told the jury in closing arguments that Fuhrman was a racist, but said that this should not detract from the factual evidence that showed Simpson's guilt.[5] Fuhrman's testimony resulted in his indictment on one count of perjury; he later pleaded no contest.

Fuhrman has stated that he is not a racist and apologized for his previous use of racist language.[84] Many of his minority former coworkers have expressed support for him.[85]

The glove[edit]

One dark leather glove was found at the crime scene, with its match found near Kaelin's guest house behind Simpson's estate. Kaelin testified that he had heard "thumps in the night" in the same area around the guest house the night of the murder. Brown had bought Simpson two pairs of this type of glove in 1990. Both gloves, according to the prosecution, contained DNA evidence from Simpson, Brown and Goldman. The glove at Simpson's house also contained a long strand of blonde hair similar to Brown's.[13]

On June 15, 1995, Bailey goaded Darden into asking Simpson to put on the leather glove that was found at the scene of the crime. The prosecution had earlier decided against asking Simpson to try on the gloves because the glove had been soaked in blood from Simpson, Brown and Goldman,[30] and frozen and unfrozen several times. The leather glove seemed too tight for Simpson to put on easily, especially over the sanitary gloves he wore underneath.[13] Uelmen came up with, and Cochran repeated, a quip he had used several times in relation to other points in his closing arguments: "If it doesn't fit, you must acquit".

On June 22, 1995, Darden told Judge Ito of his concerns that Simpson "has arthritis and we looked at the medication he takes and some of it is anti-inflammatory and we are told he has not taken the stuff for a day and it caused swelling in the joints and inflammation in his hands". However, this theory was debunked by Cochran who informed Judge Ito on the record the next day that Shawn Chapman contacted the Los Angeles County Jail doctor who confirmed Simpson was taking his medication every day and that the jail's medical records verified this.[86] He said Simpson "takes his medicine every day and that he has never at any time not taken his medicine for his rheumatoid arthritis, sulfathiazole I think it's called, and that the records at the jail so indicate that. And I think that the record should be made clear in that regard. And we took the further statement, as I said, to talk to Dr. Johnson this morning who verifies that fact also. So I felt compelled to indicate that to the Court."[87] The prosecution also stated their belief that the glove shrank from having been soaked in blood and later testing.[13] They presented a photo during the trial of Simpson earlier wearing the same type of glove that was found at the crime scene.

Prosecutors claimed that the presence of Simpson's blood at the crime scene was the result of blood dripping from cuts on the middle finger of his left hand. Police had noted his wounds and asserted that these were suffered during the fatal attack on Goldman. However, the defense showed that none of the gloves retrieved at the crime scene had any cuts in them. Plus, both prosecution and defense witnesses testified that they did not see cuts or wounds of any kind on Simpson's hands in the hours after the murders took place. The defense alleged that Fuhrman may have planted the glove at Simpson's house after taking it from the crime scene. The analysis that found that the hair could be Brown's was not reliable.[13] The prosecution contended that the glove had not been moved. They noted that by the time Fuhrman had arrived at the Simpson home, the crime scene at Brown's home had already been combed over by several officers for almost two hours, and none had noticed a second glove at the scene. In his first round of testimony, Fuhrman answered "no" when asked by Bailey if he had planted any evidence at Simpson's house. In his second round of testimony after the tapes had been revealed, Fuhrman invoked the Fifth Amendment and refused to answer when asked the same question by Uelmen.

In May 2008, Mike Gilbert, one of Simpson's former sports agents, released his book How I Helped O.J. Get Away with Murder, in which he claimed that the gloves did not fit because, on his advice, Simpson had stopped taking his arthritis medicine, which made his hands swell.[88][89]

On September 8, 2012, Darden accused Cochran of tampering with the glove before the trial.[90] Dershowitz, a member of the Simpson defense team, refuted the claim, stating "the defense doesn't get access to evidence except under controlled circumstances."[91]

Racial issues[edit]

In closing arguments, Darden ridiculed the notion that police officers might have wanted to frame Simpson.[5] He questioned why, if the LAPD was against Simpson, they went to his house eight times on domestic violence calls against Brown between 1986 and 1988 but did not arrest him; they only arrested him on charges of abuse in January 1989 (when photos of Brown's face were entered into the record). Darden noted the police did not arrest Simpson for five days after the 1994 murders.[5]

In Cochran's summation to the jury, he emphasized that Fuhrman was proved to have repeatedly referred to African-Americans as "niggers" and also to have boasted of beating young African-Americans in his role as a police officer. Cochran's rhetoric was later criticized by Shapiro and by at least one juror,[5] as well as Goldman's father, Fred Goldman. Cochran called Fuhrman "a genocidal racist, a perjurer, America's worst nightmare and the personification of evil".[5] Fuhrman later pleaded no contest to a felony charge of perjury, which had arisen from his testimony in Simpson's trial.

Fears grew that race riots would erupt across Los Angeles and the rest of the country if Simpson was convicted of the murders, similar to the riots in 1992 which occurred after the acquittal of four police officers for the beating of black motorist Rodney King (although King's beating had been captured on an amateur video, identifying the officers). As a result, all Los Angeles police officers were put on 12-hour shifts. The police arranged for more than 100 police officers on horseback to surround the Los Angeles County courthouse on the day the verdict was announced, in case of rioting by the crowd.

Defense case[edit]

Simpson hired a team of high-profile defense lawyers, initially led by Robert Shapiro and then subsequently by Johnnie Cochran.[92] The team included F. Lee Bailey, Robert Kardashian, Alan Dershowitz, Gerald Uelmen, Carl E. Douglas and Shawn Holley. Two additional attorneys who specialized in DNA evidence, Barry Scheck and Peter Neufeld, were hired as well. Simpson's defense was said to have cost between US$3 million and $6 million; the media dubbed the group of talented attorneys the Dream Team.[93][94]

Alternate theory of who committed the murders[edit]

Simpson's defense sought to show that one or more hit men hired by drug dealers had murdered Brown and Goldman – giving Brown a "Colombian necktie" – because they were looking for Brown's friend, Faye Resnick, a known cocaine user who had failed to pay for her drugs.[95][96] However, Judge Ito barred testimony about Resnick's drug use.[97] She had stayed for several days at Brown's condo until entering rehab four days before the killings. Ito stated that the defense had failed to provide sufficient direct or circumstantial evidence that the scenario was possible, indicating: "I find that the offer of proof regarding motive to be highly speculative."[98][99] Consequently, he prohibited Christian Reichardt from testifying about his former girlfriend Resnick's drug problems.[100][101][102]

"Compromised, contaminated, corrupted"[edit]

The defense team's reasonable doubt theory was summarized as "compromised, contaminated, corrupted" in opening statements.[103][104] They argued that the DNA evidence against Simpson was "compromised" by the mishandling of Fung and Mazzola during the collection phase of evidence gathering, and that 100% of the "real killer(s)" DNA was lost from the evidence samples.[105] The evidence was then "contaminated" in the LAPD crime lab by Collin Yamamuchi, and Simpson's DNA from his reference vial was transferred to all but three exhibits.[106] The remaining three exhibits were planted by the police and thus "corrupted" by police fraud.[107]

The compromised claim was supported by the fact that Dennis Fung and Andrea Mazzola had admitted to making several mistakes during the collection of evidence. These mistakes included not always changing gloves between handling evidence items, packaging and storing the evidence items using plastic bags, rather than paper bags as recommended, and storing evidence in the police van, which was not refrigerated, for up to seven hours after collection.[108][109][110][111][112] This, Scheck and Neufeld argued, would allow bacteria to degrade all of the "real killer(s)" DNA and thus make the samples more susceptible to cross-contamination in the LAPD crime lab.[113] However, the prosecution countered that most of the DNA testing was done at the two consulting labs, not the LAPD crime lab. The prosecution maintained that, as all of the samples they received were testable, the claim that the evidence was "compromised" by all the DNA being lost to bacterial degradation was not credible.[114] The argument given was that if the police contaminated the killer’s blood with Simpson’s blood as suggested, the result would be a mixture of both blood types. However, the results showed that only Simpson's DNA was present.[115]

The contamination claim was made by microbiologist Dr. John Gerdes.[116] He testified on August 2, 1995 that Forensic PCR DNA matching is not reliable[117][118][119][120] and "The LAPD crime lab has a substantial contamination problem. It is chronic in the sense that it doesn't go away."[114] Gerdes testified that because of the LAPD's history of contamination, he would not consider any of the PCR DNA matches in this case reliable because the tests were carried out by the LAPD. He also claimed that the consulting labs’ PCR DNA matches are not reliable, as the evidence they tested went "through the LAPD" for packaging and shipping.[114] Gerdes believed only three of the DNA matches to have been valid, which were the same three the defense alleged to have been planted by the police.[121][115][122][123] The prosecution countered by having Gerdes admit during cross-examination that there was no evidence that cross-contamination had occurred and that he was only testifying to "what might have occurred and not what actually did occur".[124] Defense forensic DNA expert Dr. Henry Lee testified on August 24, 1995 and admitted during cross-examination that Gerdes's claim was "highly improbable".[125][126][117][127]

The defense declined to challenge any of the results by testing the evidence themselves.[128] As the prosecution had proven the DNA on the evidence items was not 100% degraded, the defense could feasibly have tested the evidence items themselves for the "real killer(s)" DNA, yet they declined to do so.[129]

Defense forensic DNA expert Ed Blake revealed after the trial that he had not testified because his review of the case found no criticism of the testing conducted by Gary Sims, Renee Montgomery or Dr. Robin Cotton at the two consulting labs.[130]

Police conspiracy allegation[edit]

Poster describing reasonable doubt theory proposed by the defense.

The defense initially only claimed that three exhibits were planted by the police[131] but eventually argued that virtually all of the blood evidence against Simpson was planted in a massive police conspiracy.[132][133][134] They accused prison nurse Thano Peratis,[135] Dennis Fung,[109] Andrea Mazzola,[111] Detective Philip Vannatter,[136] Detective Mark Fuhrman,[137] and Collin Yamamuchi[106] of participating in a plot to frame Simpson.

The defense alleged that the drop of blood on the back gate at the Bundy crime scene, which matched Simpson, and the blood found on a pair of socks in Simpson's bedroom, which matched Nicole Brown, were planted by the police. In order to support the claim, the defense pointed to the presence of EDTA, a preservative found in the purple-topped collection tubes used for police reference vials, in the samples. Dr. Fredric Rieders, a forensic toxicologist, testified on July 24, 1995, using results provided by FBI special agent Roger Martz, that the level of EDTA in those evidence samples is higher than that which is normally found in blood, which appeared to support the claim they came from the reference vials.[138] However, FBI special agent Roger Martz was called to testify by the defense on July 25, 1995 and said he did not identify EDTA in the blood, contradicting the testimony given by Dr. Rieders the day before.[139][140] Martz stated that, although the presumptive test for EDTA was positive, the identification test for EDTA was inconclusive, so it was impossible to ascertain with certainty the presence of EDTA.[141] He contended that the defense had jumped to conclusions from the presumptive test results, while his tests had in fact shown that "those bloodstains did not come from preserved blood".[142][143][144]

The third exhibit allegedly planted was the bloody glove found at Simpson’s property by Detective Mark Fuhrman.[145] Unlike the sock and the back gate, the defense provided no physical or eyewitness evidence to support their claim that the prosecution could then refute.[146] The prosecution claimed that the glove contained blood from Simpson and the victims, hair from both victims and fibers from Ron Goldman's clothes; the Bronco and the socks found in Simpson’s bedroom also had Brown's blood on them.[147] Defense attorney F. Lee Bailey suggested that Fuhrman found the glove at the crime scene, picked it up with a stick and placed it in a plastic bag, which he then concealed in his sock when he drove to Simpson's home with Detectives Lange and Vannatter. Bailey suggested that Fuhrman had then planted the glove in order to frame Simpson, with the motive either being racism or a desire to become the hero in a high-profile case.[148] Bailey also suggested that Fuhrman used the glove like a paint brush to plant blood onto and inside the Bronco.[149] Dr. John Gerdes testified on August 8, 1995 that Simpson's blood on the glove could have been the result of cross-contamination in the LAPD crime lab. The prosecution responded by pointing out that the defense did not claim that the blood on the glove contained the preservative EDTA, as they had with the sample found on the back gate, which the defense also claimed to have been planted.[124]

Prosecutor George Clarke, who specialized in DNA evidence, wrote that it was difficult to refute the defense's corruption claim about the glove deductively because the DNA results would be the same whether planted or not, so the prosection used inductive arguments instead.[150]

During redirect, Prosecutor Marcia Clark made numerous points to support the contention that Fuhrman did not plant the glove, including Lt. Frank Spangler's testimony. Spangler testified that only one glove was found at the crime scene, by him and the other two officers who were there first, and that he had been with Fuhrman for the duration of Fuhrman's time at the scene. Spangler stated that he would have seen Fuhrman purloin the glove if he had in fact done so. Marcia Clark went on to add that Fuhrman did not know whether Simpson had an alibi, if there were any witnesses to the murders, whose blood was on the glove, and whether Brian "Kato" Kaelin had already searched the area where the glove was found and would therefore have been able to confirm that it had not been there prior to Fuhrman's arrival.[151][152] Johnnie Cochran responded by accusing the other officers of being involved in a "cover-up" to protect Fuhrman.[153]

The prosecution responded by returning to the Bundy crime scene to show that those blood drops were photographed hours before Simpson's blood was taken and thus could not have been planted.[154] The blood was sent to the consulting labs for testing, not the LAPD crime lab, so cross-contamination could not have happened.[155] It was argued that the DNA linking Simpson to the crime had a 1-in-9.7 billion chance of error.[156]


At 10:07 a.m. on October 3, 1995, Simpson was acquitted on both counts of murder. The only testimony reviewed was that of limo driver Alan Park, who had said he did not see Simpson's Bronco outside his estate when he arrived to pick him up after the murders occurred. The jury arrived at the verdict by 3:00 p.m. on October 2, after four hours of deliberation, but Judge Ito postponed the announcement.[157]

Before the verdict, President Bill Clinton was briefed on security measures if rioting occurred nationwide due to the verdict. An estimated 100 million people worldwide watched or listened to the verdict announcement. Long-distance telephone call volume declined by 58%, and trading volume on the New York Stock Exchange decreased by 41%. Water usage decreased as people avoided using bathrooms. So much work stopped that the verdict cost an estimated $480 million in lost productivity.[157]

The U.S. Supreme Court received a message on the verdict during oral arguments, with the justices quietly passing the note to each other while listening to the attorney's presentation. Congressmen canceled press conferences, with one telling reporters, "Not only would you not be here, but I wouldn't be here, either".[158]

Reaction to the verdict[edit]

In post-trial interviews, a few of the jurors said that they believed Simpson probably did commit the murders,[159] but that the prosecution had failed to prove the case beyond a reasonable doubt. Three jurors together wrote and published a book called Madam Foreman,[160] in which they described how their perception of police errors, not race, led to their verdict. They said that they considered Darden to be a token black assigned to the case by the prosecutor's office.[83]

Critics of the jury's not-guilty verdict contended that the deliberation time was unduly short in comparison to the length of the trial. Some said that the jurors, most of whom did not have any college education, did not understand the forensic evidence.[161] After the verdict was read, juror number six, 44-year-old Lionel Cryer, gave Simpson a black power raised fist salute.[162] The New York Times reported that Cryer was a former member of the revolutionary nationalist Black Panther Party that prosecutors had "inexplicably left on the panel".[163]

In 1996, Cochran wrote and published a book about the trial. It was titled Journey to Justice, and described his involvement in the case.[164] That same year, fellow defense attorney Shapiro also published a book about the trial, entitled The Search for Justice. He criticized Bailey as a "loose cannon" and Cochran for bringing race into the trial.[165] In contrast to Cochran's book, Shapiro said that he does not believe that Simpson was framed by the LAPD for racial reasons, but believed the verdict was correct due to reasonable doubt.[83] In a subsequent interview with Barbara Walters, Shapiro vowed that he would never again work with either Bailey or Cochran.

Clark published a book about the case titled Without a Doubt (1998).[166] Her book recounts the trial proceedings, from jury selection to final summation. She concluded that nothing could have saved her case, given the defense's strategy of highlighting racial issues related to Simpson and the LAPD, and the predominance of blacks on the jury. In Clark's opinion, the prosecution's factual evidence, particularly the DNA, should have easily convicted Simpson. That it did not, she says, attests to a judicial system compromised by issues of race and celebrity.

Former Los Angeles County Deputy District Attorney Vincent Bugliosi wrote a book titled Outrage: The Five Reasons Why O. J. Simpson Got Away with Murder (1997). Bugliosi was very critical of Clark and Darden, faulting them, among other reasons, for not introducing the note that Simpson had written before trying to flee. He contended that the note "reeked" of guilt and that the jury should have been allowed to see it. He also noted that the jury was never informed about items found in the Bronco. The prosecution said that they felt these items of evidence would bring up emotional issues on Simpson's part that could harm their case, despite the fact that the items seemed as though they could be used for fleeing.[5][167] Bugliosi also said the prosecutors should have gone into more detail about Simpson's domestic abuse; that the prosecution should have presented evidence contrary to the defense's assertion that Simpson was a leader in the black community; and criticized the prosecution's closing statements as inadequate.[167] Bugliosi also criticized the prosecution for trying the murder in Los Angeles rather than Santa Monica.[168] During the jury selection process, the defense made it difficult for the prosecution to challenge potential black jurors, on the grounds that it is illegal to dismiss someone from the jury for racially motivated reasons. (California courts barred peremptory challenges to jurors based on race in People v. Wheeler,[169] years before the U.S. Supreme Court would do so in Batson v. Kentucky).[170]

District Attorney Garcetti's supporters noted that the decision to move the trial was made by the Los Angeles Superior Court Presiding Judge, and not by Garcetti. The trial was moved due to security concerns at the smaller facility and the poor physical condition of the Santa Monica Courthouse.[168] In a 2010 review, the Metropolitan News-Enterprise said that Garcetti had "micromanaged" the trial, and that he had decided to have Simpson try on the gloves in open court that had been recovered at the murder scene and at Simpson's estate. Also, pundits criticized the prosecution for calling Fuhrman to the witness stand in the first place; they criticized the prosecution for lack of due diligence, which should have discovered his earlier racist statements. The D.A.'s office argued that the defense would have called Fuhrman anyway and that no one knew of the existence of the McKinny tapes until after the trial started.[171]

Discussion of the racial elements of the case continued long after the trial's end. Some polls and commentators have concluded that many blacks, while having their doubts as to Simpson's innocence, were more inclined to be suspicious of the credibility and fairness of the police and the courts, and thus more likely to question the evidence. The LAPD had a history of abusing African-Americans in the city, which was emphasized in the Rodney King case. After the verdict against Simpson, most whites surveyed said they believed justice had been served. Most blacks (75%) disagreed with the verdict and believed that it was racially motivated.[14] An NBC poll taken in 2004 reported that, although 77% of 1,186 people sampled thought Simpson was guilty, only 27% of blacks in the sample believed so, compared to 87% of whites. The Simpson case continues to be assessed through the lens of race. In 2016, FiveThirtyEight reported that most black people now think Simpson was guilty.[172]

According to a 2016 poll, 83% of white Americans and 57% of black Americans believe Simpson was guilty of the murders.[173]

Media coverage[edit]

When the trial began, all of the networks were getting these hate-mail letters because people's soap operas were being interrupted for the Simpson trial. But then what happened was the people who liked soap operas got addicted to the Simpson trial. And they got really upset when the Simpson trial was over, and people would come up to me on the street and say, 'God, I loved your show.'

— Marcia Clark, 2010[26]

The murders and trial – "the biggest story I have ever seen", said a producer of NBC's Today – received extensive media coverage from the very beginning; at least one instant book was proposed two hours after the bodies were found, and scheduled to publish only a few weeks later.[53] The case was a seminal event in the history of reality television.[26] The Los Angeles Times covered the case on its front page for more than 300 days after the murders. The Big Three television networks' nightly news broadcasts gave more air time to the case than to the Bosnian War and the Oklahoma City bombing combined. The media outlets served an enthusiastic audience; one company put the loss of national productivity from employees following the case instead of working at $40 billion.[174] The Tonight Show with Jay Leno aired many skits on the trial, and the Dancing Itos – a troupe of dancers dressed as the judge – was a popular recurring segment.[175] According to Howard Kurtz of the Washington Post, the acquittal was "the most dramatic courtroom verdict in the history of Western civilization".[176]

Participants in the case received much media coverage. Fans approached Clark at restaurants and malls, and when she got a new hairstyle during the trial, the prosecutor received a standing ovation on the courthouse steps; People approved of the change, but advised her to wear "more fitted suits and tailored skirts". While Cochran, Bailey, and Dershowitz were already well known, others like Kaelin became celebrities, and Resnick and Simpson's girlfriend Paula Barbieri appeared in Playboy. Those involved in the trial followed their own media coverage; when Larry King appeared in the courtroom after a meeting with Ito, both Simpson and Clark praised King's talk show. Interest in the case was worldwide; Russian president Boris Yeltsin's first question to President Clinton when they met in 1995 was, "Do you think O.J. did it?".[26]

The issue of whether or not to allow any video cameras into the courtroom was among the first issues Judge Ito had to decide, ultimately ruling that live camera coverage was warranted.[177] Ito would be later criticized for this decision by other legal professionals. Dershowitz said that he believed that Ito, along with others related to the case such as Clark, Fuhrman, and Kaelin, was influenced to some degree by the media presence and related publicity. The trial was covered in 2,237 news segments from 1994 through 1997.[157] Ito was also criticized for allowing the trial to become a media circus and not doing enough to regulate the court proceedings as well as he could have.[178]

Among the reporters who covered the trial daily from the courtroom and a media area they dubbed "Camp O.J."[179] were Steve Futterman of CBS News, Linda Deutsch and Michael Fleeman of the Associated Press, Dan Whitcomb of Reuters, Janet Gilmore of the Los Angeles Daily News, Andrea Ford of the Los Angeles Times, Michelle Caruso of the New York Daily News, Dan Abrams of Court TV, Harvey Levin of KCBS and David Margolick of The New York Times. Writers Dominick Dunne, Joe McGinniss and Joseph Bosco also had full-time seats in the courtroom.

Simpson on the cover of Newsweek and Time. Time darkened the image, leading to controversy.

On June 27, 1994, Time published a cover story, "An American Tragedy," with a photo of Simpson on the cover.[180] The image was darker than a typical magazine image, and the Time photo was darker than the original, as shown on a Newsweek cover released at the same time. Time became the subject of a media scandal. Commentators found that its staff had used photo manipulation to darken the photo, and speculated it was to make Simpson appear more menacing. After the publication of the photo drew widespread criticism of racist editorializing and yellow journalism, Time publicly apologized.[181]

Charles Ogletree, a former criminal defense attorney and current professor at Harvard Law School, said in a 2005 interview for PBS' Frontline that the best investigative reporting around the events and facts of the murder, and the evidence of the trial, was by the National Enquirer.[182]


In the February 1998 issue of Esquire, Simpson was quoted as saying, "Let's say I committed this crime ... Even if I did this, it would have to have been because I loved her very much, right?"[183]

In April 1998, Simpson did an interview with talk show host Ruby Wax. In an apparent joke, Simpson shows up at her hotel room claiming to have a surprise for her, and suddenly waved a banana about his head, as if it were a knife, and pretended to stab Wax with it. The footage soon made its way onto the US TV networks, causing outrage.[citation needed]

As of April 2001, Los Angeles Police Department homicide Detective Vic Pietrantoni was assigned to the Simpson-Goldman case.[184]

Civil Trial[edit]

In 1996, Fred Goldman and Sharon Rufo, the parents of Ron Goldman, filed a suit against Simpson for wrongful death, while Brown's estate, represented by her father Lou Brown,[185] brought suit against Simpson in a "survivor suit." The trial took place over four months in Santa Monica and, by judge's order, was not televised.[178][186] The Goldman family was represented by Daniel Petrocelli, with Simpson represented by Bob Baker.[186] Attorneys for both sides were given high marks by observing lawyers.[186] Simpson's defense in the trial was estimated to cost $1 million and was paid for by an insurance policy on his company, Orenthal Enterprises.[185]

Fuhrman was not called to testify, and Simpson was subpoenaed to testify on his own behalf.[8][14] In addition, a photo of Simpson, taken while he was attending a Buffalo Bills game in 1993, was presented at trial that showed him wearing Bruno Magli shoes,[187] the same type of shoes which investigators said the killer of Goldman and Brown was wearing when the murders were committed.[188] The photo was presented as evidence against him, as Simpson had previously denied ever wearing such shoes.[188]

The jury in the trial awarded Brown and Simpson's children, Sydney and Justin (Brown's only children), $12.6 million from their father as recipients of their mother's estate.[8] The victims' families were awarded $33.5 million in compensatory and punitive damages, thereby finding Simpson "responsible" for the respective murders.[189] In 2008, a Los Angeles superior court approved the plaintiffs' renewal application on the court judgment against Simpson.[190]

Four years after the trial, at an auction to pay some of the money in the compensation order, Bob Enyart, a conservative Christian radio host, paid $16,000 for some of Simpson's memorabilia, including his Hall of Fame induction certificate, two jerseys, and two trophies he was given for charity work. Enyart took the items outside the courthouse where the auction was held, burned the certificate and jerseys, and smashed the trophies with a sledgehammer.[191][192]

If I Did It[edit]

In November 2006, ReganBooks announced a book ghostwritten by Pablo Fenjves based on interviews with Simpson titled If I Did It, an account which the publisher said was a hypothetical confession. The book's release was planned to coincide with a Fox special featuring Simpson. "This is a historic case, and I consider this his confession," publisher Judith Regan told the Associated Press.[193] On November 20, News Corporation, parent company of ReganBooks and Fox, canceled both the book and the TV interview due to a high level of public criticism. CEO Rupert Murdoch, speaking at a press conference, stated: "I and senior management agree with the American public that this was an ill-considered project."[194]

Later, the Goldman family was awarded rights to the book to partially satisfy the judgment against Simpson. The title of the book was changed to If I Did It: Confessions of the Killer. On the front cover of the book, the title was stylized with the word "If" to appear much smaller than those of "I Did It", and placed inside the "I", so unless looked at very closely, the title of the book reads "I Did It: Confessions of the Killer".[195]

On March 11, 2018, Fox broadcast Simpson's previously unaired interview with Regan which was part of the book deal in a special titled O.J. Simpson: The Lost Confession?[196] In the decade-old interview, which was supposed to air with the release of the book by ReganBooks, Simpson gave a very detailed hypothesis on how the murders would have been committed if he had been involved, initially using phrases like "I would" and "I'd think", but later moved to using first person phrasing with sentences like "I remember I grabbed the knife", "I don't remember except I'm standing there", "I don't recall", and "I must have." Due to the change in phrasing, these comments were interpreted by many as being a form of confession, which stirred strong reactions in print media and the internet.[197][198]

Later developments[edit]

As a result of a 2007 incident in Las Vegas, Nevada, regarding an attempt to steal materials Simpson claimed were stolen from him, Simpson was convicted in 2008 of multiple felonies including use of a deadly weapon to commit kidnapping, burglary and armed robbery, and sentenced to a minimum nine years to a maximum 33 years in prison. His attempts to appeal that sentence were unsuccessful and he resided at Lovelock Correctional Center in Lovelock, Nevada.[199] During his 2013 parole hearing, Simpson was granted parole on all counts except weapons-related and the two counts of assault with a deadly weapon. After a July 20, 2017, Nevada parole board hearing voting unanimously 4–0, Simpson was granted parole after a minimum nine-year sentence on the remaining counts for the Vegas robbery with Sunday, October 1, 2017, to be his release date from prison on parole. According to Nevada law if he continues his good behavior, Simpson will have his 33-year sentence reduced by 50% to make September 29, 2022, the end of his sentence.[200] Upon release, Simpson intends to reside near his family in Miami, Florida, where he moved in 2000 to avoid having to pay any more, ex. his home and pension, of the civil liability ruled against him in California in 1997, as Florida is one of the few U.S. states that protect one's homes and pensions from seizures for such debts. Goldman's father and sister, Fred and Kim, did not appear before the board, but stated that they had received about 1% of the $33.5 million that Simpson owes from the wrongful death suit.[201][202][203][204][205][206][207]

Simpson has participated in two high-profile interviews regarding the case – one in 1996 with Ross Becker, which outlines Simpson's side of the story, as well as a guided tour of his estate, where evidence used in the trial was found. The second took place in 2004, on the tenth anniversary of the murders, with Katie Couric for NBC speaking to Simpson. He had worked for that network as a sports commentator.[208]

In May 2008, Mike Gilbert, a former agent and friend of Simpson, released his book How I Helped O.J. Get Away with Murder,[209] which details Simpson confessing to the killings to Gilbert.[210] Gilbert states that Simpson had smoked marijuana and taken a sleeping pill and was drinking beer when he confided at his Brentwood home weeks after his trial what happened the night of the murders. Simpson said, "If she hadn't opened that door with a knife in her hand ... she'd still be alive." This, Gilbert said, confirmed his belief that Simpson had confessed.[88][89]

In March 2016, the LAPD announced a knife had been found in 1998 buried at Simpson's estate, when the buildings were razed. A construction worker had given the knife to a police officer, who, believing the case had been closed, did not submit it as evidence at the time. Forensic tests demonstrated that the knife was not related to the murder.[211]

The presence of Kardashian on Simpson's legal team, combined with the press coverage of the trial, was the catalyst for the ongoing popularity of the Kardashian family.[212] While Kardashian's ex-wife Kris Jenner was already married to former Olympic gold medalist Bruce Jenner at the time of the trial, Kardashian's family was mostly out of the public eye before the trial, only becoming famous due to the trial.[213]

Other theories[edit]

The murders continue to be the subject of research and speculation.[214] For example, Detective William Dear conducted a lengthy investigation, and his evidence and conclusions, among those of other experts (e.g., Dr. Henry Lee[215]) who have reviewed the crime, trial, and evidence, were addressed in the BBC documentary O.J.: The True Untold Story (2000). The documentary, produced by Malcolm Brinkworth, claims that the police and prosecution had contaminated or planted evidence pointing to Simpson as the killer, and ignored exculpatory evidence. Furthermore, it asserts that the state too hastily eliminated other possible suspects, including Simpson's elder son Jason, and individuals linked to the illegal drug trade, in which Brown, Goldman, and Resnick allegedly participated.[216][215][217][example's importance?]

Alternative theories of the murders, supposedly shared by Simpson, have suggested they were related to the Los Angeles drug trade,[218] and that Michael Nigg, a friend and co-worker of Goldman, was murdered as well. Simpson himself has stated in numerous interviews that he believes the two had been killed over their involvement in drug dealing in the area, and that other murders at the time were carried out for the same reason. Brown, Simpson believed, had been planning to open a restaurant using proceeds from cocaine sales. Mezzaluna Trattoria, where she ate her last meal, and where both Nigg and Goldman had worked, was reportedly a nexus for drug trafficking in Brentwood.[218]

Brett Cantor, part-owner of the Dragonfly nightclub in Hollywood, was found stabbed to death in his nearby home on July 30, 1993;[219] no suspects have ever been identified.[220] The case gained renewed attention a year later when O. J. Simpson's defense team successfully petitioned the court trying him for the murders of Brown and Goldman for access to the case file, on the grounds that the way in which all three were stabbed suggested the same killer.[221] Since Goldman had worked for Cantor as a waiter, and Nicole Simpson was a regular at Dragonfly, some books about the case have raised the possibility that the three killings may also have resulted from involvement in drug trafficking.[218][222][223]

Michael Nigg, an aspiring actor and waiter at a Los Angeles restaurant, was shot and killed during an attempted robbery on September 8, 1995, while withdrawing money from an ATM.[224] Three suspects were arrested a month later but released for lack of evidence and the case remains unsolved. Since Nigg was a friend of Ronald Goldman, with whom he had worked, and seemed to live quite well for someone in his position, leading to some reports that he was involved in drug trafficking, his death has been used to support theories that the murders of Goldman and O.J. Simpson's ex-wife Nicole the year before were drug-related as well.

In 2012, several links between the killings and convicted murderer Glen Edward Rogers were alleged in the documentary film My Brother the Serial Killer, which was broadcast on Investigation Discovery (ID). Clay Rogers, Glen's brother, recounts Glen talking about how he had met Brown and was "going to take her down" a few days before the murders happened in 1994. When the murder case was under process, Van Nuys ADA Lea D'Argostino came to know about a written statement from Glen revealing he had met Brown. The information was forwarded to Simpson's prosecutors, but was ignored. Much later, in his years-long correspondence with criminal profiler Anthony Meolis, Glen also wrote about and created paintings pointing towards his involvement with the murders. During a personal prison meeting between the two, Glen said he was hired by Simpson to break into Brown's house and steal some expensive jewelry, and that Simpson had told him: "you may have to kill the bitch". In a filmed interview, Glen's brother Clay asserts that his brother confessed his involvement.[225] Rogers' family stated that he had informed them that he had been working for Nicole in 1994 and that he had made verbal threats about her to them. Rogers would later speak to a criminal profiler about the Goldman–Simpson murders, providing details about the crime and remarking that he had been hired by O. J. Simpson to steal a pair of earrings and potentially murder Nicole.

"The Shocking Case of O.J. Simpson", released September 29, 2017, was episode 10 of season 2 of BuzzFeed web series BuzzFeed Unsolved and discussed those theories.

Stephen Singular[edit]

New York Times best-selling author and journalist Stephen Singular was approached about the O. J. Simpson murder case a few weeks after the murders from an anonymous source within the LAPD.[226] Singular acquired the attention of this source through his book Talked to Death: The Life and Murder of Alan Berg.[227] Alan Berg was a Jewish radio talk show host who was murdered by a white supremacist, Neo-Nazi group called The Order.[228] According to the anonymous source, the same type of white supremacist Neo-Nazis who murdered Alan Berg could be found within the LAPD.[226]

Singular's source gave him multiple, specific pieces of information regarding the Simpson case. The source told him about an LAPD detective named Mark Fuhrman and that he had a history of racism, antisemitism, and planting evidence.[226] According to this source, Fuhrman used a piece of broken fence as a stick to pick up one of two bloody gloves found at the Bundy crime scene and place it in a blue plastic bag.[229] Fuhrman then subsequently removed the bloody glove from the plastic bag and planted it at O. J. Simpson's Rockingham estate in order to frame him.[229] Singular's source told him that prior to this, Fuhrman and another detective made an undocumented trip to Simpson's Rockingham estate in the early morning looking for evidence that would incriminate Simpson but they didn't find any. Rosa Lopez, a housekeeper for Simpson's next-door neighbor, testified to hearing men's voices coming from the yard of the Rockingham estate at around midnight.[230] A plastic bag was eventually recovered from Rockingham and a broken piece of fence was eventually recovered from the Bundy crime scene, and both were introduced as evidence in the trial.[231]

Fuhrman had been aware of the violence in the Simpson marriage, having responded to a domestic violence call made by Nicole Brown Simpson almost a decade earlier at the Rockingham estate.[232] He also was disgusted by interracial couples and said if he saw a black man and a white woman in a car together, he would pull them over and would find a reason for them to be in trouble.[233] Singular was also told that Fuhrman had been acquainted with Brown in some way, and an investigation conducted by the LAPD's Internal Affairs Division later revealed two deputy district attorneys were told by a detective of the LAPD's 77th Division that Fuhrman told two officers he had been intimate with Brown and also bragged about seeing her "boob job".[234]

Singular was also told that a vial of Simpson's blood was in the possession of another LAPD detective for several hours before booking it into evidence.[226] This detective would later be revealed to be Phillip Vannatter.[235] According to Singular's source, blood from this vial was deposited at the Bundy crime scene and at Rockingham.[226] The source also told Singular that the presence of the anticoagulant ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, also known as EDTA, would be found in some of the blood evidence if tested and that some lab technicians had also mishandled Simpson's blood samples.[226][227] Singular relayed this information from his source to the defense team and was in communication with them for a couple of months, long before the trial began.[227] Afterwards, he wrote a book called Legacy of Deception: An Investigation of Mark Fuhrman and Racism in the L.A.P.D. about his experience.

Reaction from individuals involved[edit]

Such theories have been refuted by Clark,[236] Brown's sister Tanya, and Fred Goldman who said, "I believe [O.J.] did it, and he did it alone".[237]

The families of Brown and Goldman expressed anger at the premise of My Brother the Serial Killer, with both families dismissing the claims by the Rogers family.[238] Kim Goldman accused ID of irresponsibility, stating that no one had informed her of Glen Rogers' claims that he had been involved in her brother's death.[238]

ID's president, Henry Schlieff, replied that the documentary's intention was not to prove Rogers had committed the crimes, but to "give viewers new facts and let them make up their own minds", and that he believed Simpson was guilty of the murders.[239] Schlieff also commented that the movie did not point out any inconsistencies with the claims or evidence against Rogers because "ID viewers are savvy enough to root them out on their own."[239]

According to O.J.: Made in America director Ezra Edelman, no plausible alternative theory has emerged. [172]

In popular culture[edit]

Media adaptations[edit]


Episodes of sitcoms, such as The Simpsons, Family Guy, It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia ("Reynolds vs. Reynolds: The Cereal Defense") and Seinfeld ("The Big Salad", "The Caddy"), have mocked the case, or more specifically, Simpson himself.[249]


R&B group H-Town dedicated their album Ladies Edition, Woman's World (1997) to Brown, to help victims of domestic violence.[250]

Rapper Eminem referenced the murders in his 1999 song "Role Model", saying, "Me and Marcus Allen went over to see Nicole, When we heard a knock at the door, must have been Ron Gold. Jumped behind the door, put the orgy on hold, Killed them both and smeared blood in a white Bronco (We Did It)".[251]

The 2002 song "Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous", by American punk-pop band Good Charlotte includes the lyrics, "You know if you're famous you can kill your wife? There's no such thing as 25 to life, as long as you got the cash to pay for Cochran", in reference to the "Not Guilty" verdict which, many believe, wouldn't have been the case if Simpson hadn't appointed Cochran as his lead attorney.[citation needed]

Rapper Jay Z also referenced the trial in a song named The Story of O.J which revolves around the case and the influence of systemic racism on the trial.

Hip hop artist Magneto Dayo released a 2013 "diss track" song titled "OJ Simpson" in which he insults his ex-girlfriend/artist V-Nasty, by referencing the Simpson murder case. The song's lyrics were also added to the Houston Press' list of "The 15 Most Messed-Up O.J. Simpson Lyrics".[252][253]


The suit Simpson wore when he was acquitted on October 3, 1995, was donated by Simpson's former agent Mike Gilbert to the Newseum in 2010. The Newseum has multiple trial-related items in their collection, including press passes, newspapers and the mute button that Superior Court Judge Lance Ito used when he wanted to shut off the live microphone in court so lawyers could talk privately during the trial. The museum's acquisition of the suit ended the legal battle between Gilbert and Fred Goldman, both of whom claimed the right to the clothing.[254]

The Bronco from the famous police chase was on display at the Alcatraz East Crime Museum in Pigeon Forge, Tennessee, as of late 2016.[255]

In 2017 Adam Papagan curated a pop-up museum showcasing artifacts and ephemera from the trial at Coagula Curatorial gallery in Los Angeles.[256][257]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Mydans, Seth (June 18, 1994). "The Fugitive: Simpson Is Charged, Chased, Arrested". The New York Times. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
  2. ^ Gilbert, Geis; Bienen, Leigh B. (1988). Crimes of the century: from Leopold and Loeb to O.J. Simpson. Northeastern University Press. p. 174. ISBN 978-1-55553-360-1.
  3. ^ Ford, Andrea; Newton, Jim (November 4, 1994). "12 Simpson Jurors Are Sworn In : Trial: The eight-woman, four-man panel is predominantly black. Fifteen alternates will be added in coming months". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 30, 2012.
  4. ^ "THE O. J. SIMPSON MURDER TRIAL : Excerpts of Opening Statements by Simpson Prosecutors". Los Angeles Times. January 25, 1995. Retrieved January 30, 2012.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "O. J. SIMPSON". truTV. Archived from the original on December 9, 2008. Retrieved December 6, 2008.
  6. ^ 1995: OJ Simpson verdict: 'Not guilty' BBC; On This Day
  7. ^ "O. J. SIMPSON". TruTV. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
  8. ^ a b c "Confusion for Simpson kids 'far from over'". USA Today. February 12, 1997. Retrieved December 5, 2008.
  9. ^ Mydans, Seth (June 16, 1994). "Lawyer for O. J. Simpson Quits Case". The New York Times. Retrieved November 21, 2009.
  10. ^ Newton, Jim (September 9, 1994). "Power Struggle in the Simpson Camp, Sources Say – Shapiro, Cochran Increasingly Compete For Limelight in Case". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 21, 2009.
  11. ^ "Simpson Expected To Shuffle Legal Team, Demote Lead Attorney". Daily News. January 2, 1995. Retrieved November 21, 2009.
  12. ^ a b c Meier, Barry (September 7, 1994). "Simpson Team Taking Aim at DNA Laboratory". The New York Times. Retrieved December 5, 2008.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "List of the evidence in the O. J. Simpson double-murder trial". USA Today. October 18, 1996. Retrieved December 5, 2008.
  14. ^ a b c d "Race factor tilts the scales of public opinion". USA Today. February 5, 1997. Retrieved December 5, 2008.
  15. ^ Decker, Cathleen (October 8, 1995). "THE TIMES POLL : Most in County Disagree With Simpson Verdicts". Retrieved January 16, 2015.
  16. ^ "Jury unanimous: Simpson is liable". CNN. February 4, 1997. Retrieved June 16, 2008.
  17. ^ Bugliosi 1997, p. 175.
  18. ^ "CNN O.J. Simpson Trial News: The Victims". CNN. February 2, 1985. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
  19. ^ Shahian, Cici (July 6, 1994). "Nicole Simpson was dominated by her husband since she was a teenager". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
  20. ^ a b Taylor Gibbs, Jewelle (1996). Race and Justice: Rodney King and O. J. Simpson in a House Divided. Jossey-Bass. pp. 126–28. ISBN 0-7879-0264-0.
  21. ^ Lange, Vannatter & Moldea 1997, p. 115.
  22. ^ Rimer, Sara (June 23, 1994). "The Simlson Case: The Victim; Nicole Brown Simpson: Slain At the Dawn of a Better Life". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 23, 2016.
  23. ^ "Child custody decision". courttv.com. Archived from the original on January 10, 2009. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
  24. ^ "Judge Allow Evidence of Domestic Violence in O. J. Simpson Murder inside of this cases or Case". Jet. 87 (13): 51. February 6, 1995. ISSN 0021-5996.
  25. ^ Taylor Gibbs 1996, p. 136.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i Anolik, Lili (June 2014). "How O. J. Simpson Killed Popular Culture". Vanity Fair.
  27. ^ Goldman, Ronald (December 11, 2007). "O.J. Simpson trial: Night of the murders timeline". CNN. Archived from the original on March 6, 2013. Retrieved January 7, 2012.
  28. ^ Nell Henderson (February 9, 1995). "Neighbors Describe How Dog Led Them to Slaying Scene".
  29. ^ "Nicole Simpson's Grisly Death Described To Jury". June 8, 1995.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Week 17: May 15 – 19, 1995". Court TV. June 5, 2004. Archived from the original on December 11, 2007.
  31. ^ Margolick, David (August 11, 1995). "Victims Put Up Long Fight A Witness For Simpson Says". The New York Times.
  32. ^ a b "First Officer at Scene Ends Long Simpson Testimony". February 15, 1995.
  33. ^ Stephen D. Easton. "Lessons Learned The Hard Way from O. J. and the Dream Team".
  35. ^ Newton, Jim; Ford, Andrea (February 2, 1995). "Simpson Dreamed of Killing, Witness Says: Courts: Ex-officer says he is a longtime friend of the defendant. His account is attacked in cross-examination". Los Angeles Times.
  36. ^ a b "O.J.: Made in America", Episode 3
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Hubler, By Jim Newton and Shawn (June 18, 1994). "Simpson Held After Wild Chase: He's Charged With Murder of Ex-Wife, Friend". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 17, 2019.
  38. ^ a b Bailey & Rabe 2008, p. 87.
  39. ^ "Penal Code Sections 187–199". Legislative Counsel of California. Archived from the original on May 12, 2009. Retrieved June 16, 2008.
  40. ^ a b c Schuetz & Lilley 1999, p. 22.
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Winton, Richard (June 17, 2019). "TV news chopper spotted O.J. Simpson's white Bronco, and the chase was on". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 17, 2019.
  42. ^ "O.J.'s Suicide Note". CNN. Retrieved June 16, 2008.
  43. ^ a b c Adams, Cydney (June 17, 2016). "June 17, 1994: O.J. Simpson white bronco chase mesmerizes nation". CBS News. Retrieved July 2, 2017.
  44. ^ a b c d e f g Brett Morgen, director (June 16, 2010). 30 for 30: June 17, 1994 (television). ESPN.
  45. ^ Bailey & Rabe 2008, pp. 87–88.
  46. ^ Mydans, Seth (June 18, 1994). "The Simpson Case: The Fugitive; Simpson Is Charged, Chased, Arrested". The New York Times. Retrieved November 21, 2009.
  47. ^ a b c d "O.J. Simpson's Bizarre Saga in Ex-Wife's Murder Ends in Not Guilty Plea". Jet. July 4, 1994. p. 4. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
  48. ^ Phillips, Kyra. "World watches as police chase O.J. Simpson". CNN YouTube Channel. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  49. ^ a b c d Bailey & Rabe 2008, p. 88.
  50. ^ "O.J. Simpson trial: Transcript of Bronco call". CNN. December 31, 2007. Retrieved July 15, 2013.
  51. ^ a b c Schuetz & Lilley 1999, p. 23.
  52. ^ Bailey & Rabe 2008.
  53. ^ a b c d e Kim, Albert (July 8, 1994). "Pulp Nonfiction". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved December 6, 2008.
  54. ^ "How O.J. Simpson's Car Chase Led To Record Sales at Domino's Pizza". Business Insider. June 17, 2014. Retrieved February 2, 2015.
  55. ^ Cite error: The named reference lakt19940618 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  56. ^ "What the Jury Didn't See". CNN. September 24, 1995. Retrieved July 15, 2013.
  57. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference true tv was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  58. ^ a b CORWIN, MILES (November 27, 1995). "Location of Trial Can Be Crucial to Outcome, Experts Say : Court: Simpson case is latest to show importance of jury pool. Garcetti didn't have to try it Downtown, many insist". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved March 8, 2016.
  59. ^ "Trying the O.J. Simpson Case in Terrain Hostile to Prosecution: It Wasn't Garcetti's Fault". Metropolitan News-Enterprise. May 3, 2010. Retrieved July 3, 2010.
  60. ^ "The O. J. Simpson Trial: The Jury". Law.umkc.edu. September 24, 1994. Archived from the original on February 9, 2011. Retrieved January 30, 2012.
  61. ^ Downey, Tom (July 21, 2017). "Who Was on the O.J. Simpson Trial Jury? Meet The 12 People Who Found Him Not Guilty". Retrieved July 25, 2017.
  62. ^ "Simpson Jury Mutiny Casts Doubt on Trial". Retrieved July 25, 2017.
  63. ^ Henderson, Nell; Henderson, Nell (April 22, 1995). "Thirteen Simpson Jurors Stage Revolt". Retrieved July 25, 2017 – via washingtonpost.com.
  64. ^ Darden 1996.
  65. ^ "Proving the Case: The Science of DNA: DNA Evidence in the O.J. Simpson Trial". William Thompson. Archived from the original on December 12, 2012. Retrieved December 5, 2008.
  66. ^ Jared Grimmer. "Testimony of limo driver Allan Park in the O. J. Simpson trial". Law.umkc.edu. Archived from the original on June 26, 2010. Retrieved May 19, 2012.
  67. ^ Seigel, Jessica (July 19, 1995). "Exercise Video Shows O.J. Squatting, Lunging, Joking". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved July 25, 2017.
  68. ^ Jodi Enda (July 2, 1994). "Dog Led Neighbors To Body The Akita Took The Couple to the Slain Nicole Simpson. The Man Looked. "There Was A Lot of Blood."". Philly.com. Philadelphia Media Network, LLC. Retrieved October 5, 2015.
  69. ^ a b "Week 16: May 8–12, 1995". Court TV. June 5, 2004. Archived from the original on February 2, 2008.
  70. ^ "Testimony of Dr. Henry Lee in the O.J. Simpson case". University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law. Archived from the original on May 18, 2008. Retrieved June 16, 2008.
  71. ^ a b c "The Trial of O. J. Simpson: The Incriminating Evidence". University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law. Archived from the original on June 18, 2008. Retrieved June 16, 2008.
  72. ^ "The O.J. Simpson Trial: The Incriminating Evidence". Law.umkc.edu. Archived from the original on February 1, 2011. Retrieved January 24, 2011.
  73. ^ a b c d Simpson trial transcript Archived September 10, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  74. ^ a b Fox News, The Kelly Files, 2016-02-03, Interview of Alan Dershowitz.
  75. ^ F.B.I. Disputes Simpson Defense on Tainted Blood, by David Margolick, published: July 26, 1995, [1].
  76. ^ "O.J. feels the heat". Time. December 2, 1996. Retrieved March 15, 2009.
  77. ^ trial transcript
  78. ^ Schiller & Willwerth 1996.
  79. ^ Lowry, Brian (May 8, 2000). "The Saga of O.J.'s Last, Lost Pilot". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 5, 2011.
  80. ^ Curtis, Caitlin; Hereward, James (August 29, 2017). "From the crime scene to the courtroom: the journey of a DNA sample". The Conversation. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  81. ^ Clark, Robin (April 28, 1995). "Criminalist Assailed at Trial of O.J. Simpson: The Defense Continued To Press Andrea Mazzola. At Issue Was The Handling Of A Key Blood Sample". philly.com. Retrieved December 7, 2014.
  82. ^ Vandam, Malone (April 19, 2009). "DNA, O.J., and Andrea Mazzola". newpaltzjournal.com. Archived from the original on December 9, 2014. Retrieved December 7, 2014.
  83. ^ a b c d "Some who helped shape the O.J. Simpson case". USA Today. January 28, 1997. Retrieved December 5, 2008.
  84. ^ Cite error: The named reference philly was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  85. ^ "Co-Workers Paint Different Portrait of Mark Fuhrman : LAPD: In contrast to racist boasts on tapes, black, Latino colleagues describe a hard-working, unbiased cop". Los Angeles Times.
  86. ^ "O.J. and the Gloves: What Really Happened". ojsimpson.co.
  87. ^ "June 23 1995 trial transcripts". walraven.org.
  88. ^ a b "CNN.com – Transcripts". transcripts.cnn.com. Retrieved July 25, 2017.
  89. ^ a b "O.J.: Made in America", Episode 4 Cite error: The named reference "Reference" was defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  90. ^ "Ex-prosecutor: O.J. Simpson lawyer tampered with glove". USA Today. September 8, 2012. Retrieved September 8, 2012.
  91. ^ "Ex-prosecutor: O.J. Simpson lawyer tampered with glove". Retrieved July 25, 2017.
  92. ^ https://abcnews.go.com/US/oj-simpson-trial-now/story?id=17377772
  93. ^ https://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/index/nns183.htm
  94. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1994/09/07/us/simpson-team-taking-aim-at-dna-laboratory.html
  95. ^ https://www.romper.com/p/how-did-faye-resnick-get-famous-her-testimony-in-the-oj-simpson-trial-wasnt-the-only-thing-that-put-her-on-the-map-6065
  96. ^ https://www.romper.com/p/faye-resnick-videos-addressing-the-drug-cartel-theory-on-the-people-v-oj-simpson-shows-just-how-complicated-the-case-was-7255
  97. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1995/07/14/us/simpson-judge-bars-use-of-drug-killing-theory.html
  98. ^ https://www.upi.com/Archives/1995/07/28/Judge-denies-OJ-lawyers-request/4635806904000/
  99. ^ https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1995/07/14/ito-bars-simpson-teams-attempt-to-link-drug-dealers-to-killings/6b80d0d8-504b-406f-812d-1eb5ef3e1047/
  100. ^ https://www.inquirer.com/archives/
  101. ^ https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-xpm-1995-07-13-9507140105-story.html
  102. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1995/02/24/us/simpson-prosecutor-incurs-ito-s-wrath-over-tirade.html
  103. ^ https://steemit.com/court/@vsaraf/famous-court-cases-people-vs-oj-simpson-case
  104. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20071211050659/http://www.courttv.com/trials/ojsimpson/weekly/02.html
  105. ^ Toobin, Jeffrey (2015). The Run of His Life: The People V. O.J. Simpson. ISBN 9780812988543.
  106. ^ a b https://web.archive.org/web/20071201050151/http://www.courttv.com/trials/ojsimpson/weekly/19.html
  107. ^ Rantala, M. L. (1996). O.J. Unmasked: The Trial, the Truth, and the Media. ISBN 9780812693287.
  108. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20071211050739/http://www.courttv.com/trials/ojsimpson/weekly/11.html
  109. ^ a b https://web.archive.org/web/20071211050744/http://www.courttv.com/trials/ojsimpson/weekly/12.html
  110. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20071211050749/http://www.courttv.com/trials/ojsimpson/weekly/13.html
  111. ^ a b https://web.archive.org/web/20071211050754/http://www.courttv.com/trials/ojsimpson/weekly/14.html
  112. ^ https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1995/04/28/criminalist-no-errors-in-simpson-case/5e03dbef-d1f3-4fa0-8c25-b59a8a5810a4/?noredirect=on
  113. ^ https://www.latimes.com/opinion/op-ed/la-oe-0618-morrison-scheck-oj-simpson-20140618-column.html
  114. ^ a b c https://web.archive.org/web/20071211050849/http://www.courttv.com/trials/ojsimpson/weekly/28.html
  115. ^ a b https://simpson.walraven.org/dec12-96.html
  116. ^ https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1995/09/23/carefully-planted-seeds-of-doubt/82a8a89f-19cb-45db-bc64-e86233bfb906/
  117. ^ a b https://apnews.com/b279a5dcae880eda2a60a928616eddbe
  118. ^ https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1995/08/04/simpson-defense-witness-belittles-forensic-testing/f10f7f9c-efb7-4822-a25c-e88d1c4b897c/
  119. ^ https://www.apnews.com/b3803f9cabd8d5577a754ecaef1df08b
  120. ^ https://www.deseret.com/1995/8/5/19185937/blood-evidence-may-be-quashed
  121. ^ https://www.deseret.com/1995/8/3/19185615/o-j-defense-takes-aim-at-dna-handling
  122. ^ https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1995-08-04-mn-31372-story.html
  123. ^ https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-xpm-1995-08-04-9508040273-story.html
  124. ^ a b https://web.archive.org/web/20071211050854/http://www.courttv.com/trials/ojsimpson/weekly/29.html
  125. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20071211050904/http://www.courttv.com/trials/ojsimpson/weekly/31.html
  126. ^ https://www.upi.com/Archives/1995/08/28/OJ-defense-expert-disagrees-with-another/8488809582400/
  127. ^ Lee, Henry; Tirnady, Frank (April 17, 2003). Blood Evidence: How DNA is Revolutionizing the Way We Solve Crimes. ISBN 9780786752300.
  128. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20071211050804/http://www.courttv.com/trials/ojsimpson/weekly/17.html
  129. ^ Toobin, Jeffrey (2015). The Run of His Life: The People V. O.J. Simpson. ISBN 9780812988543.
  130. ^ https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1995-03-30-mn-48882-story.html
  131. ^ Lee, Henry; Tirnady, Frank (April 17, 2003). Blood Evidence: How DNA is Revolutionizing the Way We Solve Crimes. ISBN 9780786752300.
  132. ^ Toobin, Jeffrey (2015). The Run of His Life: The People V. O.J. Simpson. ISBN 9780812988543.
  133. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1995/07/28/us/simpson-defense-advances-police-conspiracy-theory.html
  134. ^ https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1995-05-05-mn-62655-story.html
  135. ^ https://www.upi.com/Archives/1996/12/10/OJ-nurse-changes-testimony/5632850194000/
  136. ^ http://archive.vcstar.com/news/local/lead-oj-investigator-cringes-at-cases-tv-retelling-2bd8da44-486f-5d3c-e053-0100007f1117-370458701.html/
  137. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20071211050859/http://www.courttv.com/trials/ojsimpson/weekly/30.html
  138. ^ https://www.spokesman.com/stories/1995/jul/25/oj-witness-says-blood-carried-lab-preservative/
  139. ^ https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1997-04-16-mn-49197-story.html
  140. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20071211050844/http://www.courttv.com/trials/ojsimpson/weekly/27.html
  141. ^ http://content.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,4443,00.html
  142. ^ https://ojsimpson.co/oj-simpson-fact-fiction-ep-12/
  143. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1995/07/26/us/fbi-disputes-simpson-defense-on-tainted-blood.html
  144. ^ https://www.deseret.com/1995/9/15/19193057/defense-ready-to-portray-an-fbi-expert-as-corrupt
  145. ^ Bugliosi, Vincent (February 17, 2008). Outrage: The Five Reasons Why O. J. Simpson Got Away with Murder. ISBN 9780393330830.
  146. ^ https://www.bustle.com/articles/150655-did-mark-fuhrman-plant-evidence-in-the-oj-simpson-case-he-evoked-the-fifth-amendment-in
  147. ^ Rantala, M. L. (1996). O.J. Unmasked: The Trial, the Truth, and the Media. ISBN 9780812693287.
  148. ^ https://www.apnews.com/de764966432042c2910dc709fc382516
  149. ^ Toobin, Jeffrey (2015). The Run of His Life: The People V. O.J. Simpson. ISBN 9780812988543.
  150. ^ Clarke, George (November 15, 2007). Justice and Science: Trials and Triumphs of DNA Evidence. ISBN 9780813543949.
  151. ^ https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1995/03/17/baileys-questioning-of-fuhrman-ends-minus-fireworks/5d1374d1-a828-4b63-8d54-8e56716e568f/
  152. ^ Rantala, M. L. (1996). O.J. Unmasked: The Trial, the Truth, and the Media. ISBN 9780812693287.
  153. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20071211050929/http://www.courttv.com/trials/ojsimpson/weekly/36.html
  154. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=3BNNsnProUkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=o+j+unmasked&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwi9jfXi0M7kAhUMLKwKHQmYDUgQ6AEwAHoECAAQAg#v=onepage&q=Geraldo%20Rivera%20asked%20them&f=false
  155. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20071130035949/http://www.courttv.com/trials/ojsimpson/weekly/16.html
  156. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=XmjNn1N8THkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=outrage&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjVleDT1sTkAhVCcq0KHQe_Da0Q6AEwAHoECAAQAg#v=onepage&q=fuhrman&f=false
  157. ^ a b c Dershowitz 2004.
  158. ^ Duggan, Paul (October 4, 1995). "Washington Comes to a Stop". The Washington Post. p. A1. Retrieved January 7, 2019.
  159. ^ "Jurors say evidence made the case for Simpson". CNN. October 4, 1995. Retrieved June 16, 2008.
  160. ^ Cooley et al. 1996.
  161. ^ Hutson, Matthew (March–April 2007). "Unnatural Selection". Psychology Today. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved June 16, 2008.
  162. ^ Gary Younge. "Gary Younge: OJ Simpson and America, ten years after the trial". The Guardian. Retrieved April 7, 2016.
  163. ^ "Jury Clears Simpson in Double Murder; Spellbound Nation Divides on Verdict". The New York Times. October 4, 1995. Retrieved July 25, 2017.
  164. ^ Cochran 1997.
  165. ^ Shapiro & Warren 1996.
  166. ^ Clark 1998.
  167. ^ a b Bugliosi 1997.
  168. ^ a b "Bugliosi vs. Garcetti: Author Opens Fire on District Attorney". Metropolitan News Enterprise. June 7, 2010. Retrieved July 3, 2010.
  169. ^ 22 Cal. 3d 258, 583 P. 2d 748 (1978)
  170. ^ 476 U.S. 79 (1986)
  171. ^ "Garcetti Draws Criticism for 'Micromanagement,' the Glove Debacle, the Fuhrman Fiasco". Metropolitan News Enterprise. June 22, 2010. Retrieved July 3, 2010.
  172. ^ a b "Most Black People Now Think O.J. Was Guilty". FiveThirtyEight. June 6, 2016.
  173. ^ Ross, Janell (March 4, 2016). "Two decades later, black and white Americans finally agree on O.J. Simpson's guilt". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 23, 2017.
  174. ^ Schuetz & Lilley 1999, pp. 22–23.
  175. ^ "Dancing It's". The Tonight Show with Jay Leno. NBC.
  176. ^ Kurtz, Howard (October 3, 1995). "AND THE O.J. VERDICT IS . . . YOU NAME IT". Washington Post.
  177. ^ FRONTLINE: the o.j. verdict: interviews: Peter arenella. PBS. Retrieved December 30, 2010.
  178. ^ a b "Judge Fujisaki was able to keep trial in control". USA Today. February 5, 1997. Retrieved December 5, 2008.
  179. ^ Pool, Bob (October 11, 1994). "Hungry for a Change of Scene, NBC's Brokaw Bolts 'Camp O.J.'". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
  180. ^ "O.J. Simpson". Time. June 27, 1994.
  181. ^ O.J.'s Darkened Mug Shot. Museumofhoaxes.com. Retrieved December 30, 2010.
  182. ^ "the o.j. verdict". www.pbs.org. October 4, 2005. Retrieved July 25, 2017.
  183. ^ "Simpson Expands on Slaying Remark Made to Magazine". January 17, 1998. Retrieved May 26, 2019 – via LA Times.
  184. ^ "O.J. Confidential". Dallas Observer. April 12, 2001. Retrieved February 23, 2019.
  185. ^ a b "Fight over money may follow court battle". USA Today. January 28, 1997. Retrieved December 5, 2008.
  186. ^ a b c "Both legal teams given high marks". USA Today. February 5, 1997. Retrieved March 12, 2010.
  187. ^ "Photo expert resumes testimony in Simpson trial". CNN. December 20, 1996. Archived from the original on October 11, 2012. Retrieved July 6, 2011.
  188. ^ a b "Not much new in O.J. videotape". CNN. May 26, 1999. Archived from the original on October 11, 2012. Retrieved July 6, 2011.
  189. ^ Ellen Dennis French. "Black Biography: O. J. Simpson". Answers.com. Retrieved December 21, 2009.
  190. ^ "Court: Simpson Still Liable For $33.5M Judgment". NBC5.com. February 21, 2008. Archived from the original on October 2008. Retrieved June 16, 2008.
  191. ^ HighBeam(subscription required)
  192. ^ "OJ memorabilia torched". BBC News. February 18, 1999.
  193. ^ Publisher Calls Book O.J.'s 'Confession', AP, November 15, 2006
  194. ^ "Murdoch cancels OJ Simpson plans". BBC News. November 21, 2006.
  195. ^ "O.J. Simpson Trial: Where Are They Now?". ABC News. Retrieved February 5, 2017.
  196. ^ "Fox: The Lost Confession". Youtube/Fox. March 11, 2018. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
  197. ^ "OJ Simpson lost interview". 9News. March 12, 2018. Retrieved March 12, 2018.
  198. ^ Snierson, Dan (March 11, 2018). "O.J. Simpson's lost interview: Soledad O'Brien previews 'bizarre' account". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
  199. ^ Corrigan, Jon. "O.J. Simpson Could Be Released From Prison & on Reality TV in 2017". Retrieved July 25, 2017.
  200. ^ CNN, Ray Sanchez. "What's next for O.J. Simpson?". CNN. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
  201. ^ Shapiro, Emily (July 20, 2017). "OJ Simpson granted parole for Las Vegas robbery". ABC News. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
  202. ^ Boren, Cindy (July 20, 2017). "An apologetic O.J. Simpson is granted parole after serving 9 years, to be released in October". Washington Post. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
  203. ^ Bacon, John (July 31, 2017). "O.J. Simpson wins parole – but not freedom". USA Today. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
  204. ^ McCann, Michael (July 20, 2017). "O.J. Simpson Granted Parole: What's Next for the Former NFL Star?". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
  205. ^ "The Latest: OJ Simpson would go to Florida parole officer". Miami Herald. Associated Press. July 20, 2017. Archived from the original on July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
  206. ^ Arkin, Daniel (July 20, 2017). "O.J. Simpson Granted Parole by Nevada Officials After Nine Years in Prison". NBC News. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
  207. ^ "Parole board votes to release O.J. Simpson from prison in October". ESPN. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
  208. ^ "O.J. Simpson: 10 years after famous case". MSNBC. Retrieved April 7, 2016.
  209. ^ Gilbert, Mike (April 22, 2008). How I Helped O.J. Get Away with Murder: The Shocking Inside Story of Violence, Loyalty, Regret, and Remorse. ISBN 978-1596985513.
  210. ^ "O. J. Simpson's Former Agent to Publish Book: How I Helped O. J. Get Away With Murder The New York Observer". Archived from the original on August 3, 2011. Retrieved July 25, 2017.
  211. ^ "Knife found at OJ Simpson home not a murder weapon". BBC News. April 1, 2016. Retrieved April 14, 2016.
  212. ^ Zimmerman, Amy (July 20, 2017). "How O.J. Simpson Gave Us the Kardashians". The Daily Beast. Retrieved May 26, 2019 – via www.thedailybeast.com.
  213. ^ Weller, Sheila (February 3, 2016). "A History of the Long, Complicated Relationship Between O.J. Simpson and the Kardashians". Slate Magazine. Retrieved May 26, 2019.
  214. ^ Coleman, A.G. "The O.J. Simpson Affair: More & Better Conspiracy Theories". AfroCentric News Features.
  215. ^ a b BBC (2000). O.J.: The Real Untold Story.
  216. ^ Dear 2012.
  217. ^ "O.J. Simpson: The Untold Story – New clues in OJ Simpson murder mystery". BBC TV. October 4, 2000.
  218. ^ a b c Bailey, F. Lee; Rabe, Jean (2008). When the Husband is the Suspect. MacMillan. pp. 103–104. ISBN 9780765316134.
  219. ^ "A&R exec Cantor slain". Variety. August 3, 1993. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
  220. ^ McRady, Rachel (January 30, 2018). "Rose McGowan Tells All in New Memoir 'Brave': 14 Shocking Allegations". ET Online. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
  221. ^ Noble, Kenneth (September 22, 1994). "Simpson's Attempt to Bar Evidence Is Turned Down". The New York Times. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
  222. ^ Bosco, Joe (1996). A Problem of Evidence: How the Prosecution Freed O.J. Simpson. William Morrow. pp. 94–96. ISBN 9780688144135.
  223. ^ Freed, Donald; Briggs, Raymond P. (1996). Killing Time: The First Full Investigation Into the Unsolved Murders of Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman. MacMillan. p. 149. ISBN 9780028613406.
  224. ^ "Goldman Friend Slain Resisting Robbery". Associated Press. September 12, 1995. Retrieved August 23, 2015.
  225. ^ Harris, Dan (November 20, 2012). "Serial Killer Murdered Nicole Brown Simpson, New Documentary Claims". ABC News. Retrieved January 1, 2014.
  226. ^ a b c d e f "OJ Simpson: Framed in America". theunredacted.com. February 21, 2018.
  227. ^ a b c "Mazzola Denies Cover-Up After Credibility Attacked : Trial: Judge Ito reiterates determination to speed up Simpson case. He also tightens rules on lawyers' conduct". latimes.com. April 27, 1995.
  228. ^ "2 White Racists Convicted in Killing of Radio Host". The New York Times. November 18, 1987.
  229. ^ a b "The Bundy Drive Irregulars : Second Anniversary of Slayings Finds Sleuths Still Sorting Through Evidence". latimes.com. June 12, 1996.
  230. ^ "February 27, 1995 OJ trial transcript". walraven.org. Los Angeles, California. February 27, 1995.
  231. ^ "The Bundy Drive Irregulars : Second Anniversary of Slayings Finds Sleuths Still Sorting Through Evidence". latimes.com. June 12, 1996.
  232. ^ Margolick, David (March 10, 1995). "'Nervous'Detective Testifies on Simpson". The New York Times.
  233. ^ "Witnesses Tell Jury of Fuhrman's Racial Epithets : Simpson trial: Ex-detective disparaged interracial couples and bragged about making up charges, two women say. Session ends with playing of writer's tapes". latimes.com. September 6, 1995.
  234. ^ "Defense's New Fuhrman Witness Adds Twist to Case". latimes.com. September 2, 1995.
  235. ^ "Vannatter Tells Why Brought Blood Sample to Simpson Home". latimes.com. November 2, 1996.
  236. ^ Hastings, Deborah (April 5, 2016). "O.J. Prosecutor Marcia Clark Says Upcoming TV Series 'O.J. Is Innocent' Is 'Hideous'". Inside Edition.
  237. ^ "'Is O.J. Innocent? The Missing Evidence': Series Concludes With Debunk of Simpson Son Theory". Retrieved July 25, 2017.
  238. ^ a b "Families of Nicole Brown Simpson and Ron Goldman enraged by Discovery documentary; O.J. Simpson 'loves it'". Fox News. November 21, 2012. Retrieved November 29, 2012.
  239. ^ a b "O.J. Simpson film: Serial killer murdered Nicole Brown and Ronald Goldman 9". Toronto Sun. Retrieved November 29, 2012.
  240. ^ The O.J. Simpson Story. 20th Century Fox TV. 1995.
  241. ^ O'Connor, John (January 31, 1995). "Television Review; Now a Film About You-Know-What". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 11, 2014. Retrieved February 20, 2012.
  242. ^ "O.J. Simpson: The Untold Story - New clues in OJ Simpson murder mystery". BBC TV. UK. October 4, 2000.
  243. ^ OJ: Trial of the Century. Investigation Discovery. June 12, 2014.
  244. ^ Braxton, Greg (June 12, 2014). "'O.J.: Trial of the Century' revisits murder case as it unfolded". latimes.com. The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 14, 2017.
  245. ^ "The People v. OJ Simpson Cast and Their Real-Life Counterparts". Retrieved September 9, 2016.
  246. ^ "The People v. O.J. Simpson: American Crime Story". Retrieved July 25, 2017.
  247. ^ O.J. Simpson Trial: The Real Story. Investigation Discovery. April 1, 2016.
  248. ^ "Boris Kodjoe Is Unrecognizable as O.J. Simpson in First Look at Movie 'Nicole & O.J.'". PEOPLE.com.
  249. ^ "OJ Simpson 20 years later: 5 memorable pop-culture references". cleveland.com. June 17, 2014. Retrieved April 7, 2016.
  250. ^ Reza, H. G. (January 4, 1999). "The Brown Foundation Cuts Back on Giving". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
  251. ^ "Eminem - Role Model". TRShady.com: The Eminem Project. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
  252. ^ Gray, Chris (June 13, 2014). "The 15 Most Messed-Up O.J. Simpson Lyrics". Houston Press.
  253. ^ "OJ Simpson". L.A. Weekly.
  254. ^ "OJ Simpson Acquittal Suit Arrives at Newseum in DC". ArtDaily.com. Retrieved May 26, 2019.
  255. ^ WVLT Staff (July 12, 2016). "OJ Simpson Bronco is heading to Pigeon Forge". Gray Television. Retrieved January 18, 2017.
  256. ^ Scott, H. Alan (August 18, 2017). "An O.J. Simpson museum in Los Angeles shows how low Americans will go for entertainment". Newsweek. Retrieved March 23, 2019.
  257. ^ "O.J. Simpson Pop-Up Museum Hits L.A.'s Chinatown". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved March 23, 2019.
  258. ^ Ruddy, Jim. "Selena Murder Trial: Interview With Maria Celeste Arrarás". Texas Archives.org. Retrieved March 23, 2015.


Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]