|Buddhist devotional practices|
In Buddhism, symbolic offerings are made to the Triple Gem, giving rise to contemplative gratitude and inspiration. Typical material offerings involve simple objects such as a lit candle or oil lamp, burning incense, flowers, food, fruit, water or drinks.
Material offerings nurture generosity (Pali:dāna) and virtue (Pali: sīla). The act further honors the Triple Gem (the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha), deepening one's commitment to the Buddha's path. For instance, traditional chants (in English and Pali) when offering lit candles (padīpa pūjā) and incense (sugandha pūjā) to an image of the Buddha are:
With lights brightly shining
Similarly, a traditional Pali incense-lighting verse speaks of the Buddha's "fragrant body and fragrant face, fragrant with infinite virtues."
By contemplating on an offering, one tangibly sees life's impermanence (Pali: anicca), one of the three characteristics of all things upon which the Buddha encouraged his disciplines to recollect. For instance, the end of a traditional chant (in English and Pali) when offering flowers (puppha pūjā) to an image of the Buddha is:
I worship the Buddha with these flowers;
Pujemi Buddham kusumenanena
Mahayana material offerings might be imbued with the following symbology:
- the lighting of a candle or an oil lamp represents the light of wisdom illuminating the darkness of ignorance.
- the burning of incense represents the fragrant scent of morality.
- flowers represents the aspiration to achieve the body of the Buddha with the thirty-two marks of the Buddha as well as the teaching of impermanence. Alternately, a Zen verse expresses the desire for the mind's "flowers" to "bloom in the springtime of enlightenment."
- food, fruit, water, drinks represents the nectar of Dharma and the wish to achieve it.
In Northern Buddhism, sacred images have set before them:
- water (representing hospitality, to wash the face and feet)
- scarves (Tib. kha-btags, offering friendship)
- flowers, incense, lamps, perfume and food (representing one's devoting all their senses to their spiritual practice).
In some traditions, two different types of offerings are identified:
- material or hospitality offerings (Pali: amisa-puja or sakkara-puja)
- practice offerings (Pali: patipatti-puja)
In this context, material offerings are considered external offerings of "words and deeds."
Practice offerings may be manifested by practicing:
In the Pali Canon, the Buddha declared practice offerings as "the best way of honoring the Buddha" and as the "supreme" offering. This is primarily an internal offering for mental development (Pali: citta, bhāvanā and samādhi).
- Almsgiving (Buddhism)
- Chanting (Buddhism)
- Meditation (Buddhism)
- Dana (Buddhism)
- Householder (Buddhism)
- Phan (tray)
- Prostration (Buddhism)
- Puja (Buddhism)
- Recollection (Buddhism)
- Buddha's hand
- See, for instance, Harvey (1990), pp. 172-3.
- Indaratana (2002), pp. iv, v; Kapleau (1989), p. 193; Khantipalo (1982); Lee & Thanissaro (1998).
- Indaratana (2002), pp. 11-12.
- See, for instance, Indaratana (2002), pp. 11-12. Harvey (1990), p. 173, and Kariyawasam (1995), chapter 1, both maintain that flowers are the most common form of offering.
- Kapleau (1989), p. 193; Khantipalo (1982); and, Harvey (1990), p. 175, particularly in regards to Northern Buddhism.
- Lee & Thanissaro (1998). See also Harvey (1990), p. 173, who in discussing "offerings" states: "Such acts consequently generate 'merit'."
- See, for instance, Indaratana (2002), p. v; Kapleau (1989), pp. 191ff.; and Khantipalo (1982).
- See, for instance, Lee & Thanissaro (1998).
- Indaratana (2002), p. 11. See also Harvey (1990), p. 175, who translates the light-offering verse in part as describing the Buddha as "the lamp of the three worlds, dispeller of darkness."
- Indaratana (2002), p. 12.
- Harvey (1990), p. 175.
- Indaratana (2002), p. 11. Similarly, see Harvey (1990), p. 173; and, Kariyawasam (1995), ch. 1, sect. 2, "Personal Worship."
- Harvey (1990), p. 173.
- Lee & Thanissaro (1998).
- Khantipalo (1982).
- See also Alms#Buddhism regarding the traditional Theravada offering of providing daily alms to bhikkhus.
- Khantipalo (1982); Lee & Thanissaro (1998).
- Khantipalo (1982); and, Nyanaponika (2000), pp. 298-299. On the other hand, Lee & Thanissaro (1998) identify only meditation as patipatti-puja.
- Kantipalo (1982), n. 1.
- Harvey, Peter (1990). An introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, history and practices. Cambridge: Cambridge University. ISBN 0-521-31333-3.
- Indaratana Maha Thera, Elgiriye (2002). Vandana: The Album of Pali Devotional Chanting and Hymns. Penang, Malaysia:Mahindarama Dhamma Publication. Retrieved 2007-10-22 from "BuddhaNet" at http://www.buddhanet.net/pdf_file/vandana02.pdf.[permanent dead link]
- Kariyawasam, A.G.S. (1995). Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka (The Wheel Publication No. 402/404). Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society. Retrieved 2007-10-23 from "Access to Insight" (1996 transcription) at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/kariyawasam/wheel402.html#ch3.
- Kapleau, Philip (1989b). Zen: Merging of East and West. NY:Anchor Book. ISBN 0-385-26104-7.
- Khantipalo, Bhikkhu (1982). Lay Buddhist Practice: The Shrine Room, Uposatha Day, Rains Residence (The Wheel No. 206/207). Kandy, Sri Lanka:Buddhist Publication Society. Retrieved 2007-10-22 from "Access to Insight" (transcribed 1995) at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/khantipalo/wheel206.html.
- Lee Dhammadharo, Ajaan & Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1998). Visakha Puja. Retrieved 2007-10-22 from "Access to Insight" at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/thai/lee/visakha.html.
- Nyanaponika Thera (2000). The Vision of Dhamma: Buddhist Writings of Nyanaponika Thera. Seattle: BPS Pariyatti Editions. ISBN 1-928706-03-7.
- Soni, R.L. & Bhikkhu Khantipalo (2006). Life's Highest Blessings: The Maha Mangala Sutta. Retrieved 2007-10-22 from "Access to Insight" at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/soni/wheel254.htm[permanent dead link].