|Linguistic classification||Trans–New Guinea|
Map: The Oksapmin languages of New Guinea
The Oksapmin languages
Other Trans–New Guinea languages
Other Papuan languages
The Oksapmin languages are a family of a score of related Trans–New Guinea languages spoken in a contiguous area of eastern Irian Jaya and western Papua New Guinea. The most numerous language is Ngalum, with some 20,000 speakers; the best known is probably Telefol.
History of classification
Voorhoeve developed this into a Central and South New Guinea (CSNG) proposal. As part of CSNG, the Ok languages form part of the original proposal for Trans–New Guinea, a position tentatively maintained by Malcolm Ross, though reduced nearly to Healey's original conception. Ross states that he cannot tell if the similarities in CSNG are shared innovations or retentions from proto-TNG. Voorhoeve argues specifically for an Awyu–Ok relationship, and Foley believes that these two families may be closest to Asmat among the TNG languages.
The languages are:
- Ok family
Relationships among the branches have not been worked out.
The pronouns for proto-Ok are as follows (Healey, Ross):
m.sg f.sg pl 1 *na- *nu[b], *ni[b] 2 *ka-b- *ku-b- *ki[b] 3 *ya *yu *[y]i
Van den Heuvel & Fedden (2014) argue that Greater Awyu and Greater Ok are not genetically related, but that their similarities are due to intensive contact.
The following are consonants in the Ok languages:
Vowels are /i e a o u/.
- *be:n ‘arm’ < *mbena
- *mburuŋ ‘fingernail’ < *mb(i,u)t(i,u)C
- *katuun ‘knee’ < *(ng,k)atVk
- *maŋkat ‘mouth’ < *maŋgat[a]
- *gitak ‘neck’ < *k(a,e)ndak
- *kum ‘side of neck’ < *kuma(n,ŋ)
- *mutuum ‘nose’ < *mundu
- *falaŋ ‘tongue’ < *mbilaŋ
- *kaliim ‘moon’ < *kal(a,i)m
- Proto-Ok-Oksapmin. TransNewGuinea.org. From Loughnane, R. & Fedden, S. 2011. Is Oksapmin Ok?—A Study of the Genetic Relationship between Oksapmin and the Ok Languages. Australian Journal of Linguistics. 31:1, 1-42.
- New Guinea World, Digul River – Ok
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Ok–Oksapmin". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Loughnane, Robyn and Fedden, Sebastian (2011) 'Is Oksapmin Ok?-A Study of the Genetic Relationship between Oksapmin and the Ok Languages', Australian Journal of Linguistics, 31: 1, 1-42.
- van den Heuvel, W. & Fedden, S. (2014). Greater Awyu and Greater Ok: Inheritance or Contact? Oceanic Linguistics 53(1), 1-36. University of Hawai'i Press.
- The Oksapmin Kinship System Archived 2009-09-20 at the Wayback Machine, retrieved May 21, 2009.
- Steer, Martin (2005). Languages of the Upper Sepik and Central New Guinea (PDF).
- Pawley, Andrew; Hammarström, Harald (2018). "The Trans New Guinea family". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 21–196. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
- Healey, Alan. 1964. The Ok language family in New Guinea. PhD thesis: Australian National University.
- Ross, Malcolm (2005). "Pronouns as a preliminary diagnostic for grouping Papuan languages". In Andrew Pawley; Robert Attenborough; Robin Hide; Jack Golson (eds.). Papuan pasts: cultural, linguistic and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 15–66. ISBN 0858835622. OCLC 67292782.
- Fedden, Olcher Sebastian. (2007). A Grammar of Mian, a Papuan Language of New Guinea.
- Healey, Alan. (1964). The Ok Language Family in New Guinea
- Steer, Martin. (2005). Languages of the Upper Sepik and Central New Guinea
|This Papuan languages-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
|This Papua New Guinea-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|