Ordination of women in Methodism
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In Britain the Primitive Methodist Church always allowed the ordination of women. Today some Methodist denominations practice the ordination of women, such as in the United Methodist Church (UMC), in which the ordination of women has occurred since its creation in 1968, as well as in the Free Methodist Church (FMC), which ordained its first woman deacon in 1911, in the Methodist Church of Great Britain, which ordained its first female deacon in 1890 and ordained its first female elders (that is, presbyters) in 1974, and in the Allegheny Wesleyan Methodist Connection, which ordained its first female elder in 1853, as well as the Bible Methodist Connection of Churches, which has always ordained women to the presbyterate and diaconate. Other Methodist denominations do not ordain women, such as the Southern Methodist Church (SMC), Evangelical Methodist Church of America, Fundamental Methodist Conference, Evangelical Wesleyan Church, and Primitive Methodist Church (PMC), the latter two of which do not ordain women as elders nor do they license them as pastors or local preachers; the EWC and PMC do, however, consecrate women as deaconesses. Independent Methodist parishes that are registered with the Association of Independent Methodists do not permit the ordination of women to holy orders.
Some of the groups that later became part of the United Methodist Church started ordaining women in the late 19th century, but the largest group, the Methodist Church, did not grant women full clergy rights until 1956.
- 1 History
- 2 Current denominational positions
- 3 See also
- 4 References
- 5 Further reading
- 6 External links
John Wesley's views on women
Mary Bosanquet was responsible for Wesley formally allowing all women to preach. In the summer of 1771, Bosanquet wrote to John Wesley to defend hers and Crosby's work preaching at her orphanage, Cross Hall. Bosanquet's letter to Wesley is considered to be the first full and true defense of women's preaching in Methodism. Her argument was that women should be able to preach when they experienced an "extraordinary call", or when given permission by God. Wesley accepted this idea, and formally began to allow women to preach in Methodism. Later, Wesley also licensed other women as preachers, including Grace Murray, Sarah Taft, Hannah Ball and Elizabeth Ritchie.
Wesley's appreciation for the importance of women in the church has been credited to his mother, Susanna Wesley. It is said[by whom?] that she instilled in him, and in his brother Charles Wesley, a fellow preacher in the movement, a deep appreciation for the intellectual and spiritual qualities of women. Susanna Wesley and other women in the early Methodist movement helped to evangelize and were active members in Methodist activities ranging from band classes to raising funds for the continuation of Methodism and managing educational institutions.
It has long passed for a maxim with many that "women are only to be seen but not heard." And accordingly many of them are brought up in such a manner as if they were only designed for agreeable playthings! No, it is the deepest unkindness; it is horrid cruelty; it is mere Turkish barbarity. And I know not how any women of sense and spirit can submit to it.
After John Wesley's death in 1791, several splits happened within the Methodist movement. The Methodist Protestant Church split from the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1828 and, later in 1844, the Methodist Episcopal Church, South split, leaving a separate Methodist Episcopal Church of the north. The Methodist Episcopal Church previously saw schism, with the departure of some individuals in 1841 resulting in the formation of the Wesleyan Methodist Church, out of which the Bible Methodist Connection of Churches was created in 1968. The Methodist Episcopal Church, South also gave rise to other denominations that split from it, such as the Congregational Methodist Church in 1852 and the Southern Methodist Church in 1940.
Wesley's death also marked a shift in the view on women in the church. Some denominations continued to officially sanction the status of women. In 1866, for example, Helenor Alter Davidson was a circuit rider for the Methodist Protestant Church in Jasper County, Indiana. She later became the first ordained minister of any Methodist denomination. Starting at the end of the 19th century, the Methodist Protestant Church had not only begun to ordain women, but had also granted them full rights as clergy.
This was not the case for all denominations. During the next decades, the Methodist Episcopal Church reversed many practices, and publicly emphasized the domestic role of women, refusing to acknowledge their more public role as church leaders and preachers.
In 1880, despite support from the Alumni of the Theological School of Boston University, the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church refused to ordain many of the female graduates. Some of the reasons given[by whom?] for this refusal were:
- Theological objections that interpreted First Corinthians 14:34–35 to mean that women should be silent in church.
- Socio-cultural objections including the status of both white women and women of color in Western society, the home and workplace
- Church politics, when Bishop Edward G. Andrews of the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church of New England said ordination of women was "unlawful." In his opinion, the law of the church did not authorize the ordination of women.
It was for the latter reason that Anna Oliver was not ordained in 1880 despite the fact she had graduated from Boston University School of Theology in 1876, and had served two churches with obvious success. In response, Anna Oliver and her supporters lobbied the General Conference to have all distinctions on the basis of gender removed from the Book of Discipline regarding status for ordination. Anna Oliver prepared pamphlets in which she outlined the reasons to remove the gender basis for ordination; such as the natural gifts and fruit of women to pastor, the sacramental needs of the mission field, the demands of charity, the Golden Rule and appeals to what John Wesley would do. In response, the General Conference not only denied the motion to remove the gender basis from ordination in the Book of Discipline, they revoked the licenses to preach of all those women who currently held them.
Two years later, Anna Howard Shaw, who received her theological degree in 1878, was denied ordination on the grounds that "there is no place for women in the ordained ministry of the Methodist Episcopal Church." She left the church and was ordained in the Methodist Protestant Church that same year. She later went to be an activist in women's suffrage, and it was due in large part to her leadership that women were eventually granted the right to vote.
Margaret Newton Van Cott, an American Methodist preacher born in 1830, devoted her life to evangelism and holding revival meetings across the country.
In 1939, the Methodist Protestant Church (with the exception of the Mississippi Conference that continued the Methodist Protestant Church), the Methodist Episcopal Church and the Methodist Episcopal Church, South merged, forming the Methodist Church. In the Methodist Church, women from the Methodist Episcopal Church-South gained the right to ordination, while the Methodist Protestant women gave up full clergy rights in the merger. The politics used to justify this were said to be that the new denomination already faced sufficient problems. The Louisiana Conference, for example, had five women who had recently been ordained, Fern Cook, Nettie Mae Cook, Lea Joyner, Elaine Willett, and Anna Ruth Nuttall. The newly formed Methodist Church recognized their ordination and accepted them into the conference, yet offered only a few actual appointments.
By 1945, only 3 remained in the conference. One of these women, Lea Joyner, was never given an official appointment. She was told, "no church will have you." She was given a vacant lot and $5,000 and told to start her own church in Monroe, Louisiana. When she died in 1985, she held the distinction of having the longest pastorate in the Louisiana conference, and the largest Methodist church in the world pastored by a woman. The church she started in 1952 had over 2,200 members.
In 1942, the Fundamental Methodist Conference split from the Methodist Church and it does not ordain women. The Evangelical Methodist Church split from the Methodist Church in 1945 and does ordain women as elders.
On May 4, 1956, in Minneapolis, Minnesota, the General Conference of the Methodist Church approved full clergy rights for women. This was done by adding one sentence to the Book of Discipline: "All foregoing paragraphs, chapters and sections of Part III [of the Book of Discipline] shall apply to women as well as to men." Bishops were now required to appoint every pastor in good standing, regardless of gender. Maud Jensen was the first woman to be granted full clergy rights after this decision, in what is now the Central Pennsylvania Annual Conference. Grace Huck was another woman accepted into probationary status as part of this historic vote, and she was received into full connection in 1958. She recalls the resistance to her ministry by a male member of her church in one of her early appointments. She has been quoted as saying that when the district superintendent told the congregation he was appointing a woman minister, one man shouted, "there will be no skirts in this pulpit while I'm alive." She also noted that he later became one of her best supporters.
Evangelical United Brethren Church
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The Church of the United Brethren in Christ started ordaining women with full clergy rights in 1889.
In 1946, the Church of the United Brethren in Christ united with Evangelical Church to form the Evangelical United Brethren Church. The Evangelical Church had never ordained women. The Bishops from both churches agreed to not ordain women in the newly formed church, but there was never a vote on it at annual conference. Many churches continued to ordain women with full clergy rights.
Current denominational positions
Free Methodist Church
In 1861, the Free Methodist Church reported the fact that women served as preachers and in 1864, the General Conference of the Free Methodist Church created a class of lay non-pastoral ministers known as evangelists, who were both men and women. In 1911, the Free Methodist Church started ordaining women as deacons and in 1974, the FMC started ordaining women as elders.
Methodist Church of Great Britain
Primitive Methodist Church
United Methodist Church
In 1980, the first woman, Marjorie Matthews, was elected and consecrated as a bishop within the United Methodist Church. In 1984, the first African-American woman, Leontine T. Kelly was elected and consecrated as a bishop. In 2005, Rosemarie Wenner was the first women to be elected bishop outside the United States. She was elected by the Germany Central Conference.
Over 12,000 women serve as United Methodist clergy at all levels, from bishops to local pastors. As of 2006,[update] 16 women had been elected as bishops. To try to address the lack of women of color in faculty positions at United Methodist Seminaries, the Board of Higher Education and Ministry created a scholarship program, which has over 40 participants and more than 22 graduates with doctorate degrees in theology.
Evangelical Wesleyan Church
The 2015 Discipline of the Evangelical Wesleyan Church stipulates: "Women may be received on rial and into full connection and be ordained deacon, on the same conditions as men, provided always that this shall not be regarded as a step toward ordination as elder."
Allegheny Wesleyan Methodist Connection
In the Allegheny Wesleyan Methodist Connection, Antoinette Brown was ordained an elder by Luther Lee in 1853, becoming the first woman to receive holy orders in that denomination (then the Wesleyan Methodist Church).
- "FMC Statement on Women in Ministry". Retrieved 2019-07-20.
- "FMC Statement on Women in Ministry". Free Methodist Church. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
- "Methodist Church celebrates 40 years of women's ordination". The Methodist Church in Britain. 17 June 2014. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 31 May 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Gonlag, Mari. "Women In Ministry - The Wesleyan Church: A Brief History" (PDF). Wesleyan Church. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
- Sams, G. Clair (2017). "The Bible Methodist, Issue I, Volume 49" (PDF). Bible Methodist Connection of Churches. p. 2. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
- "Discipline of the Primitive Methodist Church in the United States of America" (PDF). Primitive Methodist Church. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
- The Discipline of the Evangelical Wesleyan Church. Evangelical Wesleyan Church. 2015. p. 115.
- Communications, United Methodist. "Women face long road to change in church – The United Methodist Church". The United Methodist Church.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-11-23. Retrieved 2009-11-17. Cite uses deprecated parameter
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- Chilcote, Paul Wesley (1993). She Offered Them Christ: The Legacy of Women Preachers in Early Methodism. Eugene, O.R.: Wipf and Stock. p. 78. ISBN 1579106684.
- Burton, Vicki Tolar (2008). Spiritual Literacy in John Wesley's Methodism: Reading, Writing, and Speaking to Believe. Baylor University Press. p. 164. ISBN 9781602580237.
- Lloyd, Jennifer (2009). Women and the Shaping of British Methodism: Persistent Preachers, 1807-1907. Manchester University Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-84779-323-2. JSTOR j.ctt155j83t.
- Eason, Andrew Mark (2003). Women in God's Army: Gender and Equality in the Early Salvation Army. Waterloo, Ont.: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. p. 78. ISBN 9780889208216.
- Lloyd, Jennifer (2009). Women and the Shaping of British Methodism: Persistent Preachers, 1807-1907. Manchester University Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-1-84779-323-2. JSTOR j.ctt155j83t.
- Kenneth Cracknell and Susan J. White, An Introduction to World Methodism, Cambridge University Press, 2005, p. 217
- World Methodist Book, Page 218
- "When churches started to ordain women".
- http://www.WomenInMinistryEpilogue.com[dead link]
- Kenneth Cracknell and Susan J. White, An Introduction to World Methodism, Cambridge Press University, 2005, p. 218–219
- An Introduction to World Methodism; p. 219
- Communications, United Methodist. "Timeline of Women in Methodism - The United Methodist Church". The United Methodist Church. Retrieved 2017-02-02.
- http://www.iscuo.org.clergy.women.htm[dead link]
- http://www.religioustolerance.org.femclrg1.htm[dead link]
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- http://www.interpretermagazine.org/interior.asp[dead link]
- "Marjorie Matthews, 1916-1986". Archived from the original on 2012-02-14. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- United Methodist Bishop Firsts
- God's Amazing Grace, the autobiography of Rev. Grace Huck (one of the first 27 women ordained in the Methodist Church after the vote of 1956), Sand Creek Printers, Spearfish South Dakota, 2006.
- Courageous Spirit: Voices from Women in Ministry, Upper Room Books
- Book of Resolutions, The Status of Women and The Celebration of Full Clergy Rights for Women
- Commentary: United Methodism and the Ordination of Women
- Women and Wesley's Times
- General Commission on the Status and Role of Women
- Courageous past bold future: the journey toward full clergy rights for women in the United Methodist Church
- Wesleyan Perspectives on Women in Ministry by Karen Strand Winslow, Ph.D. (Free Methodist Church)
- The Asbury Triptych Series: book series on the Early Methodist movement in England and America. Opening book, Black Country, details several of the early women preachers, Sarah Crosby included.