Osteoglossomorpha

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Osteoglossomorpha
Temporal range: Triassic - Recent
Arapaima (Arapaima gigas).jpg
Arapaima (Arapaima gigas)
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Superclass:
Class:
Subclass:
Infraclass:
Superorder:
Osteoglossomorpha

Greenwood, Rosen, Weitzman & Myers, 1966
Orders

Hiodontiformes
Osteoglossiformes
and see text

Specimen of the primitive ichthyodectiform Allothrissops

The Osteoglossomorpha are a group of bony fish in the Teleostei.

Xiphactinus audax three-dimensionally restoreded skeleton in the Rocky Mountain Dinosaur Resource Center in Woodland Park, Colorado

Notable members[edit]

A notable member is the arapaima (Arapaima gigas), the largest freshwater fish in South America and one of the largest bony fishes alive. Other notable members include the bizarre freshwater elephantfishes of family Mormyridae, and the extinct predator, Xiphactinus.

Systematics[edit]

Most osteoglossomorph lineages are extinct today. Only the somewhat diverse "bone-tongues" (Osteoglossiformes) and two species of mooneyes (Hiodontiformes) remain.[1][2][3]

The Ichthyodectiform fishes from the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods were once classified as osteoglossomorphs, but are now generally recognized as stem teleosts.[4]

Phylogeny[edit]

Phylogeny based on the following works:[5][6][7]


Osteoglossomorpha
Hiodontiformes

Hiodontidae

Osteoglossiformes
Pantodontoidei

Pantodontidae

Osteoglossoidei

Osteoglossidae

Notopteroidei
Notopteroidea

Notopteridae

Mormyroidea

Gymnarchidae

Mormyridae

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nelson, Joseph S.; Grande, Terry C.; Wilson, Mark V. H. (2016). Fishes of the World (5th ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781118342336.
  2. ^ Haaramo, Mikko (2007). "Osteoglossomorpha – bony-tongue fishes and relatives". Mikko's Phylogeny Archive. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
  3. ^ van der Laan, Richard (2016). "Family-group names of fossil fishes". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  4. ^ Hilton, Eric J. (2003). "Comparative osteology and phylogenetic systematics of fossil and living bony-tongue fishes (Actinopterygii, Teleostei, Osteoglossomorpha)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 137: 1–100. doi:10.1046/j.1096-3642.2003.00032.x.
  5. ^ Betancur-Rodriguez, R.; et al. (2016). "Phylogenetic Classification of Bony Fishes Version 4". Deepfin. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
  6. ^ Lavoué, S., Sullivan J. P., & Hopkins C. D. (2003): Phylogenetic utility of the first two introns of the S7 ribosomal protein gene in African electric fishes (Mormyroidea: Teleostei) and congruence with other molecular markers. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 78, 273-292. PDF
  7. ^ Sullivan, J. P., Lavoué S., & Hopkins C. D. (2000): Molecular systematics of the African electric fishes (Mormyroidea: Teleostei) and a model for the evolution of their electric organs. Journal of Experimental Biology. 203, 665-683. PDF