Peng'im

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Peng'im (Chinese: 潮州话拼音方案: Diê5ziu17 Pêng1im1 huang1uan3 (Teochew) Dio7ziu17 Pêng1im1 huang1uan3 (Swatow)) is a Teochew dialect romanisation system as a part of Guangdong Romanisation published by Guangdong Provincial Education Department in 1960. Tone of this system is based on Swatow dialect. The system uses Latin alphabet to transcript pronunciation and numbers to note tones. Since Teochew has high phonetic similarity with Hokkien, another Southern Min variety, Pe̍h-ōe-jī and Tai-lo can also be used to transcribe Teochew. The name "Peng'im" is a transcription of "拼音" using this system.

Contents[edit]

Alphabet[edit]

This system uses the Latin alphabet, but does not include f, j, q, v, w, x, or y. ê is the letter e with circumflex.

Initials[edit]

There are 18 initials. Syllables not starting with consonants are called zero initials.

Initials of Teochew dialect
Stop Nasal Affricate Fricative Lateral
Voiceless
(unaspirated)
Voiceless
(aspirated)
Voiced Voiceless
(unaspirated)
Voiceless
(aspirated)
Voiced Voiceless
b [p] p [pʰ] bh [b] m [m]
d [t] t [tʰ] (并入l) n [n] l [l]
z [ts] c [tsʰ] r [dz] s [s]
g [k] k [kʰ] gh [ɡ] ng [ŋ] h [h]

b and g can also be used as ending consonants.

Finals[edit]

There are 59 finals :

Finals of Teochew dialect
Classes Open vowel Mid vowel Close vowel
Open Syllable i [i] u [u]
a [a] ia [ia] ua [ua]
o [o] io [io]
ê [e] [ue]
e [ɯ]
ai [ai] uai [uai]
oi [oi] ui [ui]
ao [au]
ou [ou] iou [iou]
iu [iu]
Nasal vowel in [ĩ]
an [ã] ian [ĩã] uan [ũã]
ion [ĩõ]
ên [ẽ]
en [ɯ̃]
ain [ãĩ]
oin [õĩ]
Nasal Coda im [im]
am [am][庵][1] iam [iam] uam [uam]
ing [iŋ] ung [uŋ]
ang [aŋ] iang [iaŋ] uang [uaŋ]
ong [oŋ] iong [ioŋ]
êng [eŋ]
Checked tone ih [iʔ]
ah [aʔ] iah [iaʔ] uah [uaʔ]
oh [oʔ] ioh [ioʔ]
êh [eʔ]
oih [oiʔ]
ib [ip̚]
ab [ap̚] iab [iap̚] uab [uap̚]
ig [ik̚] ug [uk̚]
ag [ak̚] [惡][1] iag [iak̚] uag [uak̚] 蕕[獲][1]
og [ok̚] iog [iok̚]
êg [ek̚]

Tones[edit]

8 tones of Teochew dialect[2]
Tones 陰平(dark flat) 陰上(dark rising) 陰去(dark departing) 陰入(dark entering) 陽平(light flat) 陽上(light rising) 陽去(light departing) 陽入(light entering)
Tone value 33 52 213 2 55 35 11 4
Examples 詩、分 死、粉 世、訓 薛、忽 時、雲 是、混 示、份 蝕、佛
Symbols 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Notations[3] a á à ah â ă ā áh

Symbols of tones are notated at the top right of consonants or vowels which have top loudness.[4][5] For example:

  • 詩 - si1
  • 死 - si2
  • 世 - si3
  • 薛 - sih4

Differences in initials[edit]

This is a list of differences in initials in Teochew dialect by regions. Tone in Raoping is almost same as in Swatow.[6] Only general differences are listed, some certain distinctions of certain words are not listed.

Shantou Raoping Chaozhou Chenghai Puning[7] Jieyang Chaoyang Haifeng Examples
e e u i 余,许,猪,祠
oi ôi ei
uin ui ui uain 跪,柜
oin oin/êng ain ain ain ain 闲,殿
oih eih
iao/iou iao iou iou io/iao 摇,要
io ie ie io
ion ien ien ion
ioh ieh ieh ioh 借,惜,药,石
am[am] ang[aŋ] am[am]
ab[ap] ag[ak] ap
iam[iam] iem[iem] iang[iaŋ] iam[iam]
iab[iap] ieb[iep] iag [iak] iap
im[im] ing [iŋ] im
ib[ip] ig [ik] ip 湿
ang[aŋ] ang
ag [ak] âk
iang[iaŋ] iêng[ieŋ] iang
iag [iak] iêg[iek] iâk 杰,设
uang[uaŋ] uêng[ueŋ] uâng 全,完,缘,弯
uag [uak] uêg [uek] uâk
eng [ɯŋ] eng/ing êng/ung êng[eŋ] ing[iŋ] ng/eng
eg [ɯk] êg [ek] êg [ek] ig[ik]
ing[iŋ] ing êng[eŋ] in[in]
ung[uŋ] ung un[un]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c 廣州話、客家話、潮汕話與普通話對照詞典(2005年),第545頁。
  2. ^ Chaoyang region does not distinguish light rising and dark departing, Huilai does not distinguish light and dark departing.
  3. ^ 声调.潮州字典,[2012-8-18]
  4. ^ "Teochew · Mogher - 潮州音字典""Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-08. Retrieved 2016-06-19.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link).
  5. ^ "潮州話拼音方案ChaoZhou Dialect Romanisation Scheme""Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-01-11. Retrieved 2010-01-11.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link), Min-Chaozhou.
  6. ^ 潮州話拼音方案(2003年),根據“潮汕方言韻母內部差異表”章節。
  7. ^ 根据里湖音、洪阳音和流沙音编写。