This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
0.20% of the U.S. population (2015)
|Regions with significant populations|
Peruvian Americans (Spanish: peruano americanos) are Americans of Peruvian descent. Among Peruvian Americans there are those of White (mostly Spanish), mestizo, Amerindian, and Afro-Peruvian descent, as well as others, including Italian, French, German, and Arab, or a mix of any of these. A significant number are of entirely or partial Chinese and/or Japanese heritage.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau 2017 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, as of 2017[update], 679,340 U.S. residents identify themselves as being of Peruvian origin.
Peruvian Americans immigrated to the United States in four major waves. Small but significant waves of immigration occurred in San Francisco during the gold rush (along with Chilean miners beginning in 1848) and the Metro Detroit area in the 1950s. Another wave of immigration occurred again early in the twentieth century, due largely to the burgeoning textile industry in New York and New Jersey. Beginning in the 1970s another wave of Peruvians arrived in the United States, most of whom were fleeing Peru's militaristic government. The 1980s and 1990s saw the most significant influx of Peruvians to U.S. shores, this time in response to political instability and to a collapsing economy in Peru.
Peruvians typically emigrate due to economic reasons, to escape poverty and pursue a better quality of life. Immigrants often come from urban areas of Peru, especially Lima, and the majority settle in the New York City metropolitan area—particularly in Paterson and Passiac in New Jersey and the New York City borough of Queens. Peruvian Americans are also clustered in the metropolitan areas of Miami, Florida; Los Angeles; Houston, Texas; Washington, D.C.; and Virginia.
Settlement in the United States
The states with the largest number of Peruvian Americans are Florida, California, New Jersey, and New York. Texas and Virginia are also home to significant communities of people of Peruvian descent.
Little is known about the earliest Peruvian immigrants who came to the United States during the California gold rush. Later Peruvian immigrants began arriving in the early twentieth century to work in textile mills in Paterson, New Jersey, which is now home to one of the largest Peruvian communities in the United States. Paterson has a significant number of businesses run by Peruvian Americans, as well as social and political organizations, and remains a destination for Peruvian immigrants of all social classes.
Undocumented Immigrants and Settlement
Undocumented immigrants of all but the highest social classes face obstacles in finding employment in the United States; many are forced into service and labor occupations that do not represent their educational degrees or previous career achievements in Peru. For professionals from the middle classes, this can be disruptive to concepts of personal identity.
Lifestyle and Culture
The most famous and first aspect of Peruvian culture that deals with the United States is the book, "The Incas's Florida" La Florida del Inca written at the end of sixteenth century by the Inca Garcilaso de la Vega. Garcilaso's book details the travels of the explorer Hernando de Soto who had participated in the Forty-Years War between the Incas and the Spanish (1531–1571) and who later came to the lands that would become the United States and that the Spanish called "Florida."
The most popular dishes of Peruvian food in the U.S. include cebiche (raw fish "cooked" in lime juice), papa a la huancaina, and anticuchos y tamales. Peruvian cuisine is often recognized for being one of the most diverse and appreciated of the world's cuisines, with influences including European, Native American, and African. Since there is a sizable Chinese and Japanese minority in Peru, an Asian influence has also been deeply incorporated in Peruvian cuisine. There are Chifas, or Asian style Peruvian restaurants that serve typical Chinese or Japanese food with a Peruvian culinary influence. Inca Kola, a soda that originated in Peru, is sold in many heavily concentrated Latino areas.
The extended family commonly serves an economic function, too, with members New immigrants may temporarily live with extended family already established in the United States, and in expensive urban centers, such arrangements sometimes are permanent.
Despite being a relatively recent ethnic group, the median household income for Peruvians meets the average American household income and 30% of all Peruvians over the age of 25 have college degrees, exceeding the US national average of 24%.
Peruvians have settled throughout the United States, migrating particularly to Northern New Jersey and the New York City Metropolitan Area, the Miami metropolitan area, the Washington Metropolitan Area, and the Los Angeles metropolitan area.
Notably, a rapidly growing number of Peruvian Americans, about 10,000 in 2018, have established an increasingly prominent community in Paterson, New Jersey, which is considered by many to be the capital of the Peruvian Diaspora in the United States, partially owing to the presence of the Peruvian Consulate. Market Street, the Little Lima in downtown Paterson, is the largest Peruvian American enclave and is lined with Peruvian-owned restaurants, bakeries, delicatessens, bodegas, travel agencies, and other businesses. The Peruvian American community has expanded into Paterson's neighboring areas of Fair Lawn, Elmwood Park, Clifton, and Passaic in Northern New Jersey as well, all within the New York City Metropolitan Area. The annual Peruvian Independence Day Parade is held in Paterson.
States with highest Peruvian population
The 10 states with the largest Peruvian population were (Source: Census 2010):
- Florida - 100,965 (0.5% of state population)
- California - 91,511 (0.2% of state population)
- New Jersey - 75,869 (0.9% of state population)
- New York - 66,318 (0.3% of state population)
- Virginia - 29,096 (0.4% of state population)
- Texas - 22,605 (0.1% of state population)
- Maryland - 18,229 (0.3% of state population)
- Connecticut - 16,424 (0.5% of state population)
- Georgia - 10,570 (0.1% of state population)
- Illinois - 10,213 (0.2% of state population)
The top 25 US communities with the highest percentage of people claiming Peruvian ancestry are:
- East Newark, New Jersey 10.1%
- Harrison, New Jersey 7.01%
- Paterson, New Jersey 4.72%
- Kearny, New Jersey 3.82%
- The Hammocks, Florida 3.36%
- Port Chester, New York 3.30%
- Virginia Gardens, Florida 3.24%
- Prospect Park, New Jersey 3.22%
- Bay Harbor Islands, Florida 3.11%
- Doral, Florida 2.95%
- Haledon, New Jersey 2.71%
- Garfield, New Jersey 2.55%
- Union City, New Jersey 2.53%
- Both Key Biscayne, Florida and Glen Cove, New York 2.48%
- Passaic, New Jersey 2.42%
- White Plains, New York 2.39%
- Elizabeth, New Jersey 2.35%
- Rye, New York 2.33%
- Ojus, Florida 2.29%
- Clifton, New Jersey 2.27%
- Elmsford, New York 2.25%
- Perth Amboy, New Jersey 2.20%
- North Bay Village, Florida 2.17%
- Kendale Lakes, Florida 2.03%
- Kendall, Florida and the borough of Carteret, New Jersey 2.01%
|Lists of Americans|
|By U.S. state|
|By ethnicity or nationality|
- Jorge Andres - Award Winning National Sportscaster and Former ESPN Sportscenter Anchor
- Alexis Amore - pornographic actress
- Alex Acuña - Peruvian drummer and percussionist
- Ani Palacios- Peruvian American writer and journalist
- Daniel Alarcón - Peruvian born, American raised author
- Carlos Yushimito del Valle - Peruvian writer
- Daniella Alonso - American actress. Her mother is Puerto Rican, and her father is from Peru, of Japanese origins.
- Marie Arana - editor, journalist and Peruvian born author
- Miguel Arteta - Puerto Rican director of film and television, known for his independent film Chuck & Buck (2000), for which he received the Independent Spirit John Cassavetes Award, and Cedar Rapids. He is of Peruvian father and Spanish mother,
- Anthony Atala- M.D., is the W.H. Boyce Professor and Director of the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, and Chair of the Department of Urology at the Wake Forest University School of Medicine in North Carolina. He is a Peruvian born, but American raised.
- Juan Bandini - (1800–1859) an early settler of what would become San Diego, California
- Mandalit del Barco - general assignment reporter for National Public Radio
- Amber Barretto - American actress
- David Bernal - illusionary dancer
- Benjamin Bratt - actor, Peruvian on his mother's side
- Pepe Barreto - community and entertainment reporter for KMEX-TV, Channel 34
- Miguel Harth-Bedoya - Peruvian conductor
- Jorge Benitez - (also known as George Benitez) former U.S. soccer forward
- Lorenzo O'Brien - writer-producer
- Carlos Bustamante biologist
- Julio C. Canani - Peruvian trainer in American Thoroughbred horse racing who has won three Breeders' Cup races.
- David Torrence - athlete, he has a US record of 1000 meters; and he has also represented Peru at the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympic Games. He was born in Japan and has Peruvian ancestry per his mother; his father is American.
- Roberto Carcelen - Peruvian-American cross-country skier
- Carmen Carrera - American model of Peruvian and Puerto Rican descent
- Carlos Castaneda - philosopher
- Diego Chávarri - footballer
- Arthur Chin – America's first flying ace in World War II
- Cesar Conde - Chairman NBC Universal International Group & Telemundo Enterprises
- Roberto Eyzaguirre - classical pianist and famed piano pedagogue.
- Kenny Florian - mixed martial artist
- Gabriela Lena Frank - American pianist and composer of contemporary classical music.
- Robert Garcia - politician
- Richard Green - football (soccer) defender
- Kathleen Herles - American voice actress
- Josh Keaton - actor, singer and musical producer
- Q'orianka Kilcher - actress
- Alex Kuczynski - journalist
- Pedro Pablo Kuczynski - former President of Peru (2016-2018)
- Pedro Pablo León - football forwarder(soccer)
- Isabela Moner - actress, voice actress, singer, songwriter, dancer and ukulele player
- Adele Morales - American painter and memoirist. He is of Spanish and Peruvian descent.
- Carlos I. Noriega - astronaut
- Alex Olmedo - former tennis player from Peru with American citizenship
- Luis Palomino - Peruvian American mixed martial artist who competes in the lightweight division
- Edgar Prado - jockey
- Plavka - American singer of Croatian and Peruvian origin
- Tina Peña - Host of "Temas en Tulsa"
- Susana Raab - Award winning fine arts photographer based in Washington, DC
- Kat Reeder - artist, illustrator and graphic designer
- Ginger Reyes - rock musician
- Alex Rivera - U.S. film maker specialising in films about labor, immigration, and politics
- Jose A. Santillan - Peruvian-American actor and currency trader. Also has many doubles in the DC metro area.
- Wenceslaus Sarmiento - also known as W.A. Sarmiento, Peruvian-born American modernist architect
- Carmen Giménez Smith - American poet, writer, and editor
- Tony Succar - Peruvian born American musician, composer, arranger and producer
- Yma Sumac - indigenous soprano
- Immortal Technique - Felipe Coronel is a political rapper based in New York
- Thes One - rapper
- Mario Testino - photographer
- Daniel Tuccio - Peruvian-American television reporter/news anchor
- David Utrilla - 31st member of the Utah Corps of Consuls
- Jose Valdivia, Jr. - jockey in American thoroughbred horse racing
- Carlos De Valdez (1894–1939) - Peruvian film actor who appeared in around forty American films. He spend the last years of his life in United States (where he died).
- Boris Vallejo - Peruvian-born American painter
- Jaime Bayly - writer, journalist and television presenter
- Alberto Vargas - Peruvian painter of pin-up girls
- Ian Vásquez - director of the Cato Institute's Center for Global Liberty and Prosperity
- Barton Zwiebach - physicist working on String Theory
- Denise Schaefer - Peruvian-born model
- Andre Hoyos - professional routesetter and creator of ClimbingTv media productions
- "US Census Bureau 2017 American Community Survey B03001 1-Year Estimates HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY SPECIFIC ORIGIN". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved August 12, 2017.
- "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2011 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved 2012-07-08.
- "A Brief History of Peruvian Immigration to the United States". yumimmigrantcity.com. Archived from the original on 2013-07-31. Retrieved 2013-04-03.
- "Photos: Annual Peruvian Day Parade in Passaic County. The parade makes its way down Market Street in Paterson". North Jersey Media Group. 2014-07-27. Retrieved 2014-07-27.
- Rodrigo Torrejon (June 16, 2018). "In Paterson, boisterous cheers for Peru's return to the World Cup after 36 years". NorthJersey.com - part of the USA TODAY network. Retrieved June 16, 2018.
- Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". www.factfinder.census.gov.
- "Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America, 3rd Edition - Gale - 978-1414438061". www.cengage.com. Retrieved 2019-04-26.
- Packel, J. (2014). Peruvian Americans. In Gale (Ed.), The Gale encyclopedia of multicultural America (3rd ed.). Farmington, MI: Gale.
- Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". factfinder2.census.gov. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
- Lindy Washburn (2014-08-25). "A new playbook for hospitals: How investors pursue a financial turnaround". North Jersey Media Group. Retrieved 2014-08-26.
- "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2010 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved 2011-04-11.
- Karen Sudol (2013-07-27). "North Jersey Peruvians celebrate Peru's independence with a flag raising in Paterson". North Jersey Media Group. Retrieved 2013-07-28.
- "Photos: Parade celebrates Peruvian heritage". North Jersey Media Group. 2015-07-26. Retrieved 2015-07-26.
- "American FactFinder - QT-P10: Hispanic or Latino by Type: 2010". Factfinder2.census.gov. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
- "Ancestry Map of Peruvian Communities". Epodunk.com. Retrieved 2008-01-26.
- "Miguel Arteta:Overview". MSN. Retrieved April 24, 2011.
- "Scientist at Work: Anthony Atala". Annparson.com. Archived from the original on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
- "While Critics Cry, He Wins", Lakeland Ledger, August 23, 1959, page 19.
- Pitts, Michael R. Western Movies: A Guide to 5,105 Feature Films. McFarland, 2012.
- "La Revista de PeruanosEnUSA.net - Artículos de interés para los peruanos residentes en el extranjero". Peruanosenusa.net. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
- "Welcome curito.com - BlueHost.com". Curito.com. Retrieved 4 October 2017.