|Native to||Indonesia, Netherlands|
Petjo, also known as Petjoh, Petjok, Pecok, Petjoek is a Dutch-based creole language that originated among the Indos, people of mixed Dutch and Indonesian ancestry in the former Dutch East Indies. The language has influences from Dutch, Javanese and Betawi. Its speakers presently live mostly in Indonesia and the Netherlands. The language is expected to become gradually extinct by the end of the 21st century, due to Indos' shift toward Indonesian in Indonesia and Dutch in the Netherlands.
Just as the Indo (Eurasian) community historically originated from relationships between European males and Indonesian females, its language reflects this same origin. Typified as a mixed-marriage language, the grammar of Petjok is based on the maternal Malay language and the lexicon on the paternal Dutch language.
The main contact mechanisms responsible for the creation of Petjok are lexical re-orientation; selective replication and convergence. The original speakers of the language do not necessarily want to maintain their first language, but rather create a second one. These creative speakers of the language were probably bilingual, but more fluent in the dominant lingua franca i.e., native Malay language, than Dutch language.
In its overall split between grammar and lexicon, the structure of Petjok is very similar to the Media Lengua spoken in Ecuador by the Quechua Indians, with the critical difference that the much older language, Pecok, has undergone late system morphemes and syntactic blends.
Each urban area with a large Indo community had their own variation of Petjok. For example: the Petjok of Batavia was influenced by a form of Malay which contained many Chinese words, in Bandung, many Sundanese words were used, while in Semarang and Surabaya many Javanese words were in use.
This language has a spelling grammar which is not yet perfect or also called old spelling (Ejaan Tempo Dulu) before there is an Enhanced Spelling (Ejaan Yang Disempurnakan). This language was used in parts of Jakarta which was formerly known as Batavia, this language was applied in the days of Dutch East Indies colonization of Indonesia until the Suharto era or the called New Order, but this language is not by now used in Indonesian society and almost extinct.
Grammatical speeling, example:
- Cress, R.(1998): Petjoh. Woorden en wetenswaardigheden uit het Indische verleden. Amsterdam, Prometheus.
- Rickford, J.R. & Mc Worther, J (1997): “Language contact and language generation: Pidgins and Creoles”. In: F. Coulmas (red), The handbook of sociolinguistics. Oxford, Blackwell, p. 238–256.
- Riyanto, Sugeng (1996): “Het ontstaan en de structuur van het Petjoek”, In: Darmojuwono, Setiawati; Suratminto, Lilie (red): Duapuluh lima tahun studi Belanda di Indonesia/ Vijfentwintig jaar studie Nederlands in Indonesië. p. 209–218
- Van Rheeden, Hadewych A. (1995): "Het Petjo van Batavia – ontstaan en structuur van de taal van de Indo's", Amsterdam: Universiteit van Amsterdam, Instituut voor Algemene Taalwetenschap
- Petjo at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Petjo". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Steven Pinker, The Language Instinct (New York, 1994), Page 35.
- Website of Tjalie Robinsons Dutch biographer