Politics of Colombia

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The Politics of Colombia take place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Colombia is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is carried out by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of congress, the Senate and the House of Representatives of Colombia. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Colombia as "flawed democracy" in 2016.[1]

Constitutional reforms[edit]

Colombia's present constitution, enacted on July 5, 1991, strengthened the administration of justice with the provision for introduction of an adversarial system which ultimately is to entirely replace the existing Napoleonic Code. Other significant reforms[2] under the new constitution provide for civil divorce, dual nationality, the election of a vice president, and the election of departmental governors. The constitution expanded citizens' basic rights, including that of "tutela," under which an immediate court action can be requested by an individual if he or she feels that their constitutional rights are being violated and if there is no other legal recourse.

The national government has separate executive, legislative, and judicial branches.

Executive branch[edit]

The president is elected for a four-year term and, since 2005, can be re-elected for one consecutive term. The 1991 constitution reestablished the position of vice president, who is elected on the same ticket as the president. By law, the vice president will succeed in the event of the president's resignation, illness, or death.

Legislative branch[edit]

Colombia's bicameral Congress consists of a 108-member Senate of Colombia and a 172-member Chamber of Representatives of Colombia. Senators are elected on the basis of a nationwide ballot, while representatives are elected in multi member districts co-located within the 32 national departments. The country's capital is a separate capital district and elects its own representatives. Members may be re-elected indefinitely, and, in contrast to the previous system, there are no alternate congressmen. Congress meets twice a year, and the president has the power to call it into special session when needed.

Political parties and elections[edit]

2018 Presidential election[edit]

Candidate Party/alliance First round Second round
Votes % Votes %
Iván Duque Márquez Grand Alliance for Colombia 7,569,693 39.14 10,373,080 53.98
Gustavo Petro List of Decency 4,851,254 25.09 8,034,189 41.81
Sergio Fajardo Colombia Coalition 4,589,696 23.73
Germán Vargas Lleras Mejor Vargas Lleras 1,407,840 7.28
Humberto De la Calle PLCASI 399,180 2.06
Jorge Antonio Trujillo We Are All Colombia 75,614 0.39
Promotores Voto En Blanco Party of Ethnic Reclamation "PRE" 60,312 0.31
Viviane Morales Hoyos Somos Región Colombia 41,458 0.21
Blank votes 341,087 1.76 808,104 4.21
Invalid votes 300,080 295,499
Total 19,336,134 100 19,510,684 100
Registered voters/turnout 36,227,267 53.37 36,783,940 53.04
Source: El Tiempo Government

2018 Parliamentary election[edit]

House of Representatives[edit]

Party Votes % Seats
Colombian Liberal Party 2,471,596 35
Democratic Center 2,388,405 32
Radical Change 2,140,630 30
Social Party of National Unity 1,840,481 25
Colombian Conservative Party 1,819,867 21
Green Alliance 884,146 9
Independent Movement of Absolute Renovation 585,638 1
Alternative Democratic Pole 444,912 2
Citizen Option 310,724 2
List of Decency Coalition [es] (ASIUPMAIS [es]) 262,282 2
Partido Somos 160,618 0
Colombia Coalition 121,338 0
Colombia Justa Libres 114,174 1
Indigenous Social Alliance Movement 112,340 0
Alternative Santandereana Coalition 71,953 1
Alternative Indigenous and Social Movement [es] 44,034 1
Colombia Justa Libres 58,654 0
List of Decency Coalition [es] (ASIUPMAIS [es]) 49,426 0
Patriotic Union 42,910 0
Citizen Force for Decency 35,140 0
Common Alternative Revolutionary Force (FARC) 32,636 0
AVPDA 21,849 0
Coalition for the North 17,935 0
Todos Somos Colombia 16,447 0
Indigenous Authorities of Colombia 11,244 0
Arauca for All 5,028 0
Movement for Regional Integration 3,033 0
Afro-Colombian Seats
C.C. Ancenstral de Comunidades Negras Playa Renaciente 32,439 1
Consejo Comunitario La Mamuncia 23,627 1
C.C. de la Comunidad Negra de la Plata Bahía Málaga 17,006 0
Consejo Comunitario del Rio Yurumangui 13,355 0
Consejo Comunitario Mayor de Certegui 11,743 0
C.C. De Comun. Negras Palenque Vda. Las Trescientas y Mun. Galapa 11,655 0
Fundación Laborar por Colombia Fundalabor 8,035 0
Fundación Esperanza Afro-Esafro 7,933 0
Consejo Comunitario de Alejandro Duran Diaz 7,828 0
Todos Somos Colombia 7,287 0
Corporación Poder Ciudadano 6,597 0
Consejo Comunitario Renacer Negro 6,346 0
Si Se Puede 5,904 0
Consejo Comunitario Bocas del Atrato y Leoncito 3,919 0
Consejo Comunitario Ma Kankamana de San Basilio de Palenque 3,795 0
C.C. de la Comunidad Negra de la Calle Larga Rio Dagua 3,527 0
C.C. de los Corregimientos de San Antonio y El Castillo 3,292 0
Consejo Comunitario Los Andes 3,220 0
Consejo Comunitario Veredas Unidas Un Bien Común 3,194 0
ACN-EAT 2,991 0
C.C. De La Comun. Negra De Tierra Baja Mi Territorio Ancestral 2,980 0
Consejo Comunitario Imbilpi del Carmen 2,451 0
Consejo Comunitario de la Comunidad Negra de Limones 2,403 0
AFROSANPEDRO 2,329 0
FUNAFROPECOR 2,193 0
Consejo Comunitario Tablon Salado 2,134 0
AFROCODES 1,988 0
Asociación Colombia Negra Huellas de Africania en Paz 1,915 0
Kusuto Magende Cokumalu de Luruaco 1,905 0
Consejo Comunitario de las Baras 1,873 0
Fundación Amor y Paz 1,691 0
Consejo Comunitario de Comunidades Negras Obatala 1,634 0
CENAFROZ 1,628 0
Cuenca del Rio Iscuande 1,557 0
Consejo Comunitario de Comunidades Negras Santo Domingo 1,554 0
Org. Social de Comunidades Negras "Nelson Mandela" 1,533 0
FUNETCOL 1,509 0
C.C. General del Río Baudó y Sus Afluentes "Acaba" 1,340 0
Los Palenkes 1,314 0
FUNDEVIA 1,075 0
Fundación Renacer Para Todos 1,010 0
Asoc. de Afr. Sin Animo de Lucro de S. Cristóbal Sur Asafroscol 4 1,006 0
Indigenous Seats
Alternative Indigenous and Social Movement [es] 99,645 1
Indigenous Authorities of Colombia 45,969 0
UAIZSACOR 4,437 0
ANICOL 4,308 0
Taita Zipa Foundation 2,442 0
Casiyouren Traditional Authority 1,909 0
Invalid/blank votes 3,433,453
Total 17,882,318 100 166
Registered voters/turnout 36,493,318
Source: RNEC (99.03% of polling stations reporting)

Senate[edit]

Party Votes % Seats
National Seats
Democratic Center 2,513,320 17.36 19
Radical Change 2,155,487 14.89 16
Colombian Conservative Party 1,927,320 13.32 15
Colombian Liberal Party 1,901,933 13.14 14
Social Party of National Unity 1,853,054 12.80 14
Green Alliance 1,317,429 9.10 10
Alternative Democratic Pole 736,367 5.09 5
List of Decency Coalition [es] (ASIUPMAIS [es]) 523,286 3.62 4
Independent Movement of Absolute Renovation 501,489 3.46 3
Colombia Justa Libres 431,418 2.98 0
Citizen Option 354,042 2.45 0
Partido Somos 94,349 0.65 0
Todos Somos Colombia 63,443 0.44 0
Common Alternative Revolutionary Force (FARC) 52,532 0.36 0
Union for Fortaleza 34,121 0.24 0
Si Se Puede 14,860 0.10 0
Indigenous Seats
Alternative Indigenous and Social Movement [es] 72,591 45.68 1
Indigenous Authorities of Colombia 34,957 22.00 1
Indigenous Social Alliance Movement 23,742 14.94 0
Political Sovereignty Movement 15,692 9.87 0
Casiyouren Traditional Authority 5,370 3.38 0
Ethnic Renovation of Colombia 4,382 2.76 0
Indigenous Environmental Movement 2,181 1.37 0
Invalid/blank votes 3,184,820
Total 17,818,185 100 102
Registered voters/turnout 36,493,318 48.82
Source: Colombia.com (98.97% of polling stations reporting)


Judicial branch[edit]

The civilian judiciary is a separate and independent branch of government. Guidelines and the general structure for Colombia's administration of justice are set out in Law 270 of March 7, 1996. Colombia's legal system has recently begun to incorporate some elements of an oral, accusatory system. The judicial branch's general structure is composed of four distinct jurisdictions (ordinary, administrative, constitutional, and special). Colombia's highest judicial organs are the Supreme Court, the Council of State, the Constitutional Court, and the Superior Judicial Council. Although all the high courts technically oversee separate jurisdictions, the Constitutional Court has a broad spectrum of judicial oversight which often allows it to rule on issues overseen by different jurisdictions and even weigh in directly in the rulings of other high courts.[3]

International organization participation[edit]

BCIE, CAN, CDB, CSN, FAO, G-3, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ITUC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO[excessive detail?]

References[edit]

  1. ^ solutions, EIU digital. "Democracy Index 2016 - The Economist Intelligence Unit". www.eiu.com. Retrieved 2017-11-30.
  2. ^ Bruce M. Wilson, "Institutional Reform and Rights Revolutions in Latin America: The Cases of Costa Rica and Colombia", Journal of Politics in Latin America, ISSN 1868-4890
  3. ^ Botero Marino, Botero Marino; Fernando Jaramillo. "El Conflicto de las Cortes Colombianas en Torno a la Tutela Contra Sentencias" (PDF). Retrieved 5 October 2015.

External links[edit]