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Arab–Israeli conflict

The Arab–Israeli conflict refers to the political tension, military conflicts and disputes between a number of Arab countries and Israel. The roots of the Arab–Israeli conflict are attributed to the rise of Zionism and Arab nationalism towards the end of the 19th century. Part of the dispute arises from the conflicting claims to the land. Territory regarded by the Jewish people as their ancestral homeland is at the same time regarded by the Pan-Arab movement as historically and currently belonging to the Palestinians, and in the Pan-Islamic context, as Muslim lands.

The sectarian conflict between Palestinian Jews and Arabs emerged in the early 20th century, peaking into a full-scale civil war in 1947 and transforming into the First Arab–Israeli War in May 1948, following the Israeli Declaration of Independence. Large-scale hostilities mostly ended with the cease-fire agreements after the 1973 Yom Kippur War. Peace agreements were signed between Israel and Egypt in 1979, resulting in Israeli withdrawal from the Sinai Peninsula and abolishment of the military governance system in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, in favor of Israeli Civil Administration and consequent unilateral annexation of the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem.

The nature of the conflict has shifted over the years from the large-scale, regional Arab–Israeli conflict to a more local Israeli–Palestinian conflict, which peaked during the 1982 Lebanon War. With the decline of the First Palestinian Intifada, the interim Oslo Accords led to the creation of the Palestinian National Authority in 1994, within the context of the Israeli–Palestinian peace process. The same year Israel and Jordan reached a peace accord. A cease-fire has been largely maintained between Israel and Baathist Syria, as well as with Lebanon since 2006. Despite the peace agreements with Egypt and Jordan, interim peace accords with the Palestinian Authority and the generally existing cease-fire, until mid-2010s the Arab League and Israel had remained at odds with each other over many issues.

Developments in the course of the Syrian Civil War reshuffled the situation near Israel's northern border, putting the Syrian Arab Republic, Hezbollah and the Syrian opposition at odds with each other and complicating their relations with Israel, upon the emerging warfare with Iran. The conflict between Israel and Hamas-ruled Gaza, is also attributed to the Iran–Israel proxy conflict in the region. By 2017, Israel and several Arab Sunni states led by Saudi Arabia, formed a semi-official coalition to confront Iran - a move which some marked as the fading of the Arab-Israeli Conflict.

Selected article

Areal View Of Isdud Pre 1935.jpg
Operation Pleshet (Hebrew: מִבְצָע פְּלֶשֶׁת, Mivtza Pleshet, lit. "Operation Philistia"), named for the geographical region where it took place, was an Israeli military operation during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. It was carried out from May 29 to June 3, 1948, in the Isdud/Ad Halom area of the southern front, against the Egyptian Army. The aim of the operation was to capture Isdud and stop the Egyptian advance northwards. While only the June 2–3 engagements are officially named Operation Pleshet, the events immediately preceding are historiographically joined with it.

The preceding events consisted of an aerial bombardment, followed by small-scale Israeli harassment of the Egyptian lines, and later a ground assault (Operation Pleshet). The original plan was to attack on June 1–2, but this was canceled due to an impending ceasefire, and re-attempted on June 2–3. The Israelis, under the Givati Brigade's umbrella command, attacked in two main forces: one from the north (3 companies) and one from the south (4 reinforced companies). The Israelis had little intelligence on their enemy and were forced to retreat. They failed to capture territory, and suffered heavy casualties. However, following the operation, Egypt changed its strategy from offensive to defensive, thus halting their advance northwards.

Two unsettled historiographic debates exist revolving around the operation: whether the Egyptians were intending to advance toward Tel Aviv, which most historians agree was not the case; and whether the operation was a turning point on the Israeli southern front. Traditional Israeli historiography, supported by early Arab accounts, maintains that it was a turning point, while later Arab sources, and New Historians, dispute this.

Selected biography

Khaled Meshaal 01.jpg
Khaled Mashal, also known as Khaled Mashaal, Khaled Meshaal, and Khalid Mish'al, (Arabic: خالد مشعل‎, Ƈálɩd Maśoɑl/Mɩśoɑl; born 1956) has been the main leader of Hamas since the assassination of Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi in 2004. In addition, Mashal heads the Syrian branch of the political bureau of Hamas.

Mashal was born in Silwad, a village north of Ramallah and moved to Jordan in 1967. While attending Kuwait University, Mashal, as an Islamic student leader, challenged the dominance of Yasser Arafat and the Palestine Liberation Organization, participating in the foundation of the Islamic Haqq Bloc, which competed with Fatah for leadership of the General Union of Palestinian Students in Kuwait. After the founding of Hamas in 1987, Mashal came to lead the Kuwaiti branch of the organization. Mashal moved from Kuwait to Jordan in 1991. Since the expulsion of the Hamas leadership from Jordan in August 1999, Mashal lived in Qatar before moving to the Syrian capital of Damascus in 2001. In 2010, The British Magazine New Statesman Listed Khaled Mashal at number 18th in the list of "The World's 50 Most Influential Figures 2010".

Selected image

Arab volunteers.jpg
Credit: Abdulrazzaq Badran

Arab volunteers fighting in Palestine in 1947


Wars - Battles - Operations - Massacres - Bombings

August 1929 : 1929 Hebron massacre
August 1929 : 1929 Safed massacre
September 1948 : Operation Velveta
November 1947-July 1948 : Siege of Jerusalem (1948)
March 1948 : Operation Hashmed
March 1948 : Operation Balak
April 1948 : Battle of Mishmar HaEmek
April 1948 : Operation Nachshon
April 1948 : Deir Yassin massacre
April 1948 : Operation Harel
April 1948 : Battle of Haifa (1948)
April 1948 : Battle of Manshiyya
April 1948 : Operation Hametz
April 1948 : Operation Yevusi
April 1948 : Operation Yiftach
May 1948 : Operation Matateh
May 1948 : Battle of Safed
May 1948 : Operation Maccabi
May 1948 : Operation Gideon
May 1948 : Operation Barak
May 1948 : Operation Ben-Ami
May 1948 : Operation Schfifon
May 1948 : Kfar Etzion massacre
May 1948 : Operation Kilshon
May-June 1948 : Battle of Malkiya
May 1948 : Battles of Kfar Darom
May 1948 : Battle of Gesher
May 1948 : Battles of the Kinarot Valley Good article
May 1948 : Battle of Nirim
May 1948 : Battles of the Old City of Jerusalem (1948)
May 1948 : Israeli raid on Syrian customs house
May 1948 : Battle of Yad Mordechai
May 1948 : Operation Namel
May 1948 : Battles of Ramat Rachel
May-July 1948 : Battles of Latrun (1948) Good article
May 1948 : Operation Erez
June-July 1948 : Battles of Negba
June 1948 : Operation Pleshet Good article
June 1948 : Operation Yitzhak
June 1948 : Battle of Nitzanim
June 1948 : Battle of Mishmar HaYarden
June 1948 : Battle of Ein Gev
June 1948 : Battle of Gezer
July 1948: Operation An-Far
July 1948: Operation Dekel
July 1948: Operation Danny
July 1948: Operation Brosh
July 1948: Battles of the Mandelbaum Gate
July 1948: Battle of Be'erot Yitzhak
July 1948: Operation Kedem
July 1948: Operation Death to the Invader
July 1948: Operation Shoter
July 1948: Operation GYS
October 1948: Operation Yoav
October 1948: Battle of the Beit Hanoun wedge
October 1948: Battles of the Separation Corridor
October 1948: Operation Egrof
October 1948: Battle of Sheikh 'Abd
October 1948: Operation Hiram
October 1948: Operation HaHar
October 1948: Operation Yekev
October 1948: Battle of El-Magdel
October 1948: Hula massacre
November 1948: Operation Shmone
November 1948: Operation Lot
December 1948: Operation Assaf
December 1948: Operation Horev
December 1948: Battle of Hill 86
December 1948: Battle of Bir Thamila
December 1948: Battle of al-Auja
December 1948: Operation Hisul
December-January 1948: Battles of the Sinai (1948)
January 1948: Battle of Rafah
March 1948: Operation Uvda
March 1948: Operation Yitzuv
October 1956 : Operation Musketeer (1956)
October 156 : Operation Telescope
October 1956 : Kafr Qasim massacre
October 1956: Battle of Jebel Heitan
Novembre 1956 : Bataille d'Abu-Ageila (1956)
June 1967 : Operation Focus
June 1967 : Battle of Abu-Ageila (1967)
June 1967 : Jordanian campaign (1967)
June 1967 : Battle of Ammunition Hill
June 1967 : Battle of Latrun (1967)
June 1967 : Battle of the Old City of Jerusalem (1967)
June 1967 : USS Liberty incident
June 1967 : Waiting period (Six-Day War)
March 1968 : Battle of Karameh
July 1969 : Operation Bulmus 6
July 1969 : Operation Boxer
September 1969 : Operation Raviv
December 1969 : Operation Rooster 53
January-April 1970 : Operation Priha
July 1970 : Operation Rimon 20
1972-1992 Operation Wrath of God Featured article
Octobre 1973 : 1973 Israeli raid on Lebanon
October 1973 : Operation Badr (1973) Good article
October 1973 : Battles of Fort Budapest
October 1973 : Battle of Fort Lahtzanit Good article
October 1973 : Ofira Air Battle
October 1973 : First Battle of Mount Hermon
October 1973 : Battle of Marsa Talamat
October 1973 : Valley of Tears
October 1973 : Operation Tagar
October 1973 : Operation Doogman 5
October 1973 : Battle of Latakia
October 1973 : Second Battle of Mount Hermon
October 1973 : Battle of Baltim
October 1973 : 1973 Syrian General Staff Headquarters Raid
October 1973 : Battle of the Sinai (1973)
October 1973 : Air Battle of El Mansoura
October 1973 : Battle of the Chinese Farm Good article
October 1973 : Battle of Ismailia
October 1973 : Third Battle of Mount Hermon
October 1973 : Battle of Suez
March 1978 : 1978 South Lebanon conflict
June-September 1982 : 1982 Lebanon War
June 1982:Battle of the Beaufort (1982)
June 1982 : Battle of Jezzine (1982)
June 1982 : Operation Mole Cricket 19 Good article
June 1982 : Battle of Sultan Yacoub
June-August 1982 : Siege of Beirut
September 1982 : Sabra and Shatila massacre
July 1993 : Operation Accountability
April 1996 : April War
1996 shelling of Qana
June 2001 : Dolphinarium discotheque suicide bombing
August 2001 : Sbarro restaurant suicide bombing
March 2002 : Passover massacre
April 2002 : Operation Defensive Shield
April 2002 : Battle of Jenin
April-May 2002 : Siege of the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem
April 2002 : Battle of Nablus
June 2002 : Patt Junction Bus Bombing
June 2002 : Operation Determined Path
October 2003 : Maxim restaurant suicide bombing
2004 : 2004 Israel–Gaza conflict
May 2004 : Operation Rainbow (2004)
September-October 2004 : Operation Days of Penitence
June-November 2006 : 2006 Israel–Gaza conflict
October-November 2006 : Operation Autumn Clouds (2006)
May 2007-June 2008 : 2007–2008 Israel–Gaza conflict
February-March 2008 : Operation Hot Winter
December 2008-January 2009 : Gaza War
July 2006 : 2006 Hezbollah cross-border raid
July 2006 : Opération Baliste
July 2006 : Operation Sukoon
July 2006 : Jiyeh Power Station oil spill
Juky 2006 : Battle of Maroun al-Ras
July 2006 : Battle of Bint Jbeil
July 2006 : Qana airstrike
July-August 2006 : Battle of Ayta ash-Shab
August 2006 : Operation Sharp and Smooth
August 2006 : Al-Qaa airstrike
Auguste 2006 : Tyre raid
Auguste 2006 : Chyah airstrike
August 2006 : Ghaziyeh airstrikes
Auguste 2006 : Operation Changing Direction 11
August 2006 : Battle of Wadi Saluki


Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat at the Oslo Accords signing ceremony on 13 September 1993
1947 : United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine


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Flag of Libya.svg Muammar Gaddafi
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Flag of Morocco.svg Mohammed VI of Morocco
Flag of Morocco.svg Abd al-Qadir el-Allam
Flag of Norway.svg Mona Juul
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Flag of Palestine.svg Yasser Arafat Featured article
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Flag of Palestine.svg Abu Nidal Featured article
Flag of Palestine.svg Ali Hassan Salameh
Flag of Palestine.svg Muhammad Youssef al-Najjar
Flag of Palestine.svg Kamal Adouan
Flag of Palestine.svg Kamal Nasser
Flag of Palestine.svg Ahmed Yassin
Flag of Palestine.svg Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi
Flag of Palestine.svg Mohammad Taha
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Flag of Palestine.svg Khaled Mashal
Flag of Russia.svg Nikita Khrushchev Featured article
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia
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Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg Abdullah of Saudi Arabia
Flag of Sweden.svg Folke Bernadotte
Flag of Syria.svg Shukri al-Quwatli
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Flag of Syria.svg Hafez el-Assad
Flag of Syria.svg Bashar el-Assad
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Flag of Uganda.svg Idi Amin Dada Good article
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Arthur Balfour
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Ernest Bevin
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Flag of the United States.svg Barack Obama Featured article
Flag of the United States.svg Jimmy Carter
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Related portals

Article of the month

Flag of Hamas

Hamas (Arabic: حماسḤamās, "enthusiasm", an acronym of حركة المقاومة الاسلامية Ḥarakat al-Muqāwamah al-ʾIslāmiyyah, "Islamic Resistance Movement") is the Palestinian Sunni Islamic or Islamist[1] organization, with an associated military wing, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades.[2]

Since June 2007 Hamas has governed the Gaza Strip, after it won a majority of seats in the Palestinian Parliament in the January 2006 Palestinian parliamentary elections[3] and then defeated the Fatah political organization in a series of violent clashes. Israel, the United States,[4] Canada,[5] the European Union,[6] and Japan classify Hamas as a terrorist organization,[7] while Iran, Russia,[8] Turkey,[9] and Arab nations do not.


Biography of the month

Maryam Mohammad Yousif Farhat (Arabic: مريم محمد يوسف فرحات‎), or Mariam Farahat (1950 – 2013), popularly known as Umm Nidal (Arabic: أم نضال‎), "the mother of Nidal", was one of Hamas' candidates elected in the Palestinian legislative election, 2006. Three of her six sons performed Hamas suicide attacks against Israel.

The word "Nidal" in Arabic language is a secular term, meaning "struggle", "effort" or "work".

In an interview published in both the Israeli Arab weekly Kul al-Arab and the London-based Arabic language daily Al-Quds al-Arabi, Umm Nidal said she was proud of her sons. In her December 2005 interview, Umm Nidal said:

"I protect my sons from defying Allah, or from choosing a path that would not please Allah. This is what I fear, when it comes to my sons. But as for sacrifice, Jihad for the sake of Allah, or performing the duty they were charged with - this makes me happy."
"There is no difference. This is Islamic religious law. I don't invent anything. I follow Islamic religious law in this. A Muslim is very careful not to kill an innocent person, because he knows he would be destined to eternal Hell. So the issue is not at all simple. We rely on Islamic religious law when we say there is no prohibition on killing these people."
"The word 'peace' does not mean the kind of peace we are experiencing. This peace is, in fact, surrender and a shameful disgrace. Peace means the liberation of all of Palestine, from the Jordan River to the Mediterranean Sea. When this is accomplished - if they want peace, we will be ready. They may live under the banner of the Islamic state. That is the future of Palestine that we are striving towards."[10]


Image of the month

Conquest of Sinai. 5–6 June 1967



Flag of Algeria.svg Algeria
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Flag of Libya.svg Libya
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Organizations and political parties
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Yisrael Beiteinu
Hezbollah Good article
Flag of the Amal Movement.svg Amal
Flag of the Progressive Socialist Party.svg Progressive Socialist Party
Flag of the Lebanese Communist Party.svg Lebanese Communist Party
Flag of the Syrian Social Nationalist Party.svg Syrian Social Nationalist Party
Flag of the Future Movement.svg Movement of the Future
Armenian Revolutionary Federation Good article
Lebanese Forces
Flag of Kataeb Party.svg Kataeb Party
Free Patriotic Movement
Democratic Renewal
Lebanese Democratic Party
National Liberal Party
Democratic Left Movement Good article



Former organizations
Arab Liberation Army


The IMI Negev LMG
An IAI Gabriel Anti-ship missile on display


Merkava Mark II at Yad La-Shiryon.
IAI Kfir C.2 at the entrance to Ovda Israeli Air Force Base
Sa'ar 5
Weapons and missiles
IMI Galil
IMI Tavor TAR-21
IMI Negev
M89SR sniper rifle
IMI Desert Eagle
Skunk (weapon)
SIMON breach grenade
Soltam M-66
Arrow (Israeli missile) Good articleA-Class article
Jericho (missile)
Gabriel (missile)
Nimrod (missile)
Vehicles and tanks
Airplanes and helicopters
IAI Nesher
IAI Kfir
IAI Lavi
Ships and submarines
Sa'ar 4.5-class missile boat
Sa'ar 5-class corvette
Dolphin-class submarine


Hakim Rifle
Egyptian modified version of the M60A1 participates with the Egyptian Army in Operation Bright Star.
An Egyptian M60 and crew during the Gulf War
Egyptian Air Force F-16D
An Egyptian Air Force DHC-5D
Egyptian torpedo boat of the Soviet Project 206 class ('Shershen' class), with torpedo launchers removed.
Weapons and missiles
Hakim Rifle
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M16 rifle
Carl Gustav m/45
Strela 2
Vehicles and tanks
M1 Abrams
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Embraer EMB 312 Tucano
Mil Mi-17
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Chengdu J-7
Mil Mi-8
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Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigate
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Koni-class frigate
El Suez
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Polnocny A class Landing Ships
Z-class destroyer
Black Swan


The Iraqi Tariq
Iraqi Security Force (ISF) soldier with an RPG-7.
Iraqi soldiers training with the RPK light machine gun.
Iraqi T-72 tanks of Iraqi Army 9th Mechanized Division in 2006.
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An Iraqi MiG-25 Foxbat found buried under the sand west of Baghdad.
An Iraqi MiG-23
Weapons and missiles
Beretta 92
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Mil Mi-17
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Recognized content


  1. ^ * "This is particularly the case in view of the scholarly debate on the compatibility of Islam and democracy but even more so in view of Hamas's self-definition as an Islamic national liberation movement." The Palestinian Hamas: vision, violence, and coexistence, by Shaul Mishal & Avraham Sela, 2006, p. xxviii [1]; *In this way the PA has been able to control the economic activities of its political adversaries, including the Hamas and other Islamic opposition groups. Investment in peace: politics of economic cooperation between Israel, Jordan, and the Palestinian Authority, by Shaul Mishal, Ranan D. Kuperman, David Boas, 2001, p. 85 [2]; * "Hamas is a radical Islamic fundamentalist organization that has stated that its highest priority is a Jihad (holy war) for the liberation of Palestine ..." Peace and war: the Arab-Israeli military balance enters the 21st century, by Anthony H. Cordesman, 2002, p. 243 [3]; * "One of the secrets behind the success of Hamas is that it is an Islamic and national movement at one and the same time ..." 'Hamas: Palestinian Identity, Islam, and National Sovereignty', by Meir Litvak, in Challenges to the cohesion of the Arabic State, by Asher Susser, 2008, p. 153. [4]; * "Hamas is an Islamic fundamentalist movement founded in 1987..." Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues, by Gus Martin, 2009, p. 153 [5]; * "Hamas is an Islamic jihadist organization..." Why Israel Can't Wait: The Coming War Between Israel and Iran, by Jerome R. Corsi, 2009, p. 39. [6]; * "The Islamic Resistance Movement (Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islam- iyya), known by its acronym Hamas, is an Islamic fundamentalist organization which defines itself as the military wing of the Muslim Brethren." Anti-semitic motifs in the ideology of Hizballah and Hamas, by Esther Webman, 1994, p. 17. [7]* "Understanding Islamism", Crisis Group Middle East/North Africa Report N°37, 2 March 2005 * "Hamas leader condemns Islamist charity blacklist". Reuters. 2007-08-23. Retrieved 2009-01-28. * Hider, James (2007-10-12). "Islamist leader hints at Hamas pull-out from Gaza". London: The Times Online. Retrieved 2009-01-28. * The New Hamas: Between Resistance and Participation. Middle East Report. Graham Usher, August 21, 2005 * "Council on Foreign Relations". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved May 27, 2010.
  2. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions About Hamas". Abcnews.go.com. 2006-01-06. Retrieved 2011-08-02.
  3. ^ "Who are Hamas?". London: BBC News. January 26, 2006.
  4. ^ "Country reports on terrorism 2005", United States Department of State. Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism. US Dept. of State Publication 11324. April 2006. p 196
  5. ^ "Currently listed entities". Department of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness. November 22, 2012.
  6. ^ "EU blacklists Hamas political wing". BBC News. September 11, 2003.
  7. ^ If HAMAS is a Terrorist Organization, What Does That Make Israel? Intifada: The Voice of Palestine. July 11, 2010
  8. ^ How to Confront Russia's Anti-American Foreign Policy The Heritage Foundation. June 27, 2007
  9. ^ Gaza flotilla: Turkey threat to Israel ties over raid BBC News. June 4, 2010
  10. ^ Interview aired by Dream2 TV on December 21, 2005


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