Portal:Arctic

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Arctic Circle
Arctic Circle.


The Arctic- The Arctic region is a unique area among Earth's ecosystems. Arctic tundra occurs in the far Northern Hemisphere, north of the taiga belt.The word "tundra" usually refers only to the areas where the subsoil is permafrost, or permanently frozen soil. (It may also refer to the treeless plain in general, so that northern Sápmi would be included.) Permafrost tundra includes vast areas of northern Russia and Canada. The polar tundra is home to several peoples who are mostly nomadic reindeer herders, such as the Nganasan and Nenets in the permafrost area (and the Sami in Sápmi).

The Circle itself passes through eight countries. Canada, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden, United States. Denmark which represents Greenland, and the Faroe Islands is a member of the Arctic Council. The cultures in the region and the Arctic indigenous peoples have adapted to its cold and extreme conditions. Very few people live north of the Arctic Circle due to the cold conditions. The three largest communities above the Arctic Circle are situated in Russia; Murmansk (population 325,100), Norilsk (135,000), and Vorkuta (85,000). Tromsø in Norway has about 62,000 inhabitants, whereas Rovaniemi in Finland—which lies slightly south of the line—has slightly fewer than 58,000.

The Circumpolar North or Arctic generally includes the lands surrounding the Arctic Circle and these indigenous peoples. Evenks, Inuit, Greenland, Northern Canada (Nunavut and Northwest Territories), Alaska, Chukotka (Russia) , Koryaks, Nenets, Khanty, Chukchi, Sami Northern Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Kola peninsula in Russia and Yukaghirs.


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Two Arctic Terns
The Arctic Tern (Sterna paradisaea) is a seabird of the tern family Sternidae. This bird has a circumpolar distribution, breeding colonially in Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of Europe, Asia, and North America (as far south as Brittany and Massachusetts). The species is strongly migratory, seeing two summers each year as it migrates from its northern breeding grounds to the oceans around Antarctica and back (about 24,000 miles) each year. This is the longest regular migration by any known animal.

Arctic Terns are medium-sized birds. They have a length of 33–39 centimetres (13–15 in) and a wingspan of 76–85 centimetres (30–33 in). They are mainly grey and white plumaged, with a red beak (as long as the head, straight, with pronounced gonys) and feet, white forehead, a black nape and crown (streaked white), and white cheeks. The grey mantle is 305 mm, and the scapulars are fringed brown, some tipped white. The upper wing is grey with a white leading edge, and the collar is completely white, as is the rump. The deeply forked tail is whitish, with grey outer webs. The hindcrown to the ear-coverts is black.

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Bob Marshall (wilderness activist)
Robert Marshall (January 2, 1901 – November 11, 1939) was an American forester and writer, as well as a wilderness activist and explorer. The son of wealthy constitutional lawyer and wilderness advocate Louis Marshall, Bob Marshall was first exposed to nature as a young child. He quickly developed a love for the outdoors, visiting the Adirondack Mountains numerous times to hike and climb, becoming one of the first Adirondack Forty-Sixers. He also traveled to the Alaskan wilderness and authored numerous articles and publications, including the 1933 bestselling book Arctic Village.

A scientist with a Doctor of Philosophy in plant physiology, Marshall became independently wealthy after the death of his father. He was also a supporter of socialism and civil liberties[1] and held two significant public posts during his life: chief of forestry in the Bureau of Indian Affairs, from 1933 to 1937, and head of recreation management in the Forest Service, from 1937 to 1939. Defining wilderness as a social as well as an environmental ideal, Marshall was the first to suggest a formal, national organization of individuals dedicated to the preservation of primeval land.[2]

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The Ziegler expedition

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Effie M. Morrissey




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  1. ^ Sutter, p. 194
  2. ^ Sutter, p. 233
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