Chechen Republic (; Chechen: Нохчийн Республика, Noxçiyn Respublika; Russian: Чече́нская Респу́блика, Chechenskaya Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (/ˈʧɛʧnɪə/; Chechen: Нохчийчоь, Noxçiyçö; Russian: Чечня́), sometimes referred to as Chechnia, Chechenia or Nokhchiyn, is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). It is located in the Northern Caucasus mountains, in the Southern Federal District. It borders Stavropol Krai to the northwest, the republic of Dagestan to the northeast and east, Georgia to the south, and the republics of Ingushetia and North Ossetia to the west.
During the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Chechen-Ingush ASSR was split into the Republic of Ingushetia which wanted to remain part of Russia and the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria which sought independence. Following the bloody First Chechen War with Russia, which included a mass exodus of non-Chechen nationalities, the republic gained a de facto sovereignty, although only Georgia recognised it in January 2000. Russian federal control was restored after the Second Chechen War. Since then there was a systematic reconstruction and rebuilding process, though unrest remains an issue.