; Indonesian pronunciation: [dʒaˈkarta]
), officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta
: Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta
), is the current capital and largest city of Indonesia
. Located on the northwest coast of the world's most populous island, Java
, it is the centre of economics, culture and politics of Indonesia, with a population of 10,075,310 . Jakarta metropolitan area has an area of 6,392 square kilometers, which is known as Jabodetabek
(an acronym of Jakarta, Bogor
). It is the world's second largest urban agglomeration
) with a population of 30,214,303 . Jakarta
is predicted to reach 35.6 million people by 2030 to become the world's biggest megacity. Jakarta's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from across the Indonesian archipelago, combining many communities and cultures.
Established in the 4th century as Sunda Kelapa, the city became an important trading port for the Sunda Kingdom. It was the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies, when it was known as Batavia. Jakarta is officially a province with special capital region status, but is commonly referred to as a city. The Jakarta provincial government consists of five administrative cities and one administrative regency. Jakarta is nicknamed the Big Durian, the thorny strongly-odored fruit native to the region, as the city is seen as the Indonesian equivalent of New York (Big Apple).
Jakarta is an alpha world city and is the seat of the ASEAN secretariat, making it an important city for international diplomacy. Important financial institutions such as Bank of Indonesia, Indonesia Stock Exchange, and corporate headquarters of numerous Indonesian companies and multinational corporations are located in the city. As of 2017, the city is home for six Forbes Global 2000, two Fortune 500 and four Unicorn companies . In 2017, the city's GRP PPP was estimated at US$483.4 billion. Jakarta has grown more rapidly than Kuala Lumpur, Bangkok and Beijing.
Jakarta's major challenges include rapid urban growth, ecological breakdown, gridlock traffic and congestion, and flooding. In addition, Jakarta is sinking up to 17 cm (6.7 inches) per year, which, coupled with the rising of sea levels, has made the city more prone to flooding, and also one of the fastest-sinking capitals in the world. Indonesian President, Joko Widodo, has announced a move of Indonesia’s capital, possibly to Kalimantan, the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo. Read more...
The 1740 Batavia massacre (Dutch: Chinezenmoord, literally "Murder of the Chinese"; Indonesian: Geger Pacinan, meaning "Chinatown Tumult") was a pogrom in which Dutch East Indies soldiers and native collaborators killed ethnic Chinese residents of the port city of Batavia (present-day Jakarta) in the Dutch East Indies. The violence in the city lasted from 9 October 1740 until 22 October, with minor skirmishes outside the walls continuing late into November that year. Historians have estimated that at least 10,000 ethnic Chinese were massacred; just 600 to 3,000 are believed to have survived.
In September 1740, as unrest rose among the Chinese population, spurred by government repression and declining sugar prices, Governor-General Adriaan Valckenier declared that any uprising would be met with deadly force. On 7 October, hundreds of ethnic Chinese, many of them sugar mill workers, killed 50 Dutch soldiers, leading Dutch troops to confiscate all weapons from the Chinese populace and to place the Chinese under a curfew. Two days later, rumours of Chinese atrocities led other Batavian ethnic groups to burn Chinese houses along Besar River and Dutch soldiers to fire cannon at Chinese homes. The violence soon spread throughout Batavia, killing more Chinese. Although Valckenier declared an amnesty on 11 October, gangs of irregulars continued to hunt and kill Chinese until 22 October, when the governor-general called more forcefully for a cessation of hostilities. Outside the city walls, clashes continued between Dutch troops and rioting sugar mill workers. After several weeks of minor skirmishes, Dutch-led troops assaulted Chinese strongholds in sugar mills throughout the area. Read more...
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