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The lighthouse of Aveiro, on the west coast of Portugal.

A lighthouse is a tower, building, or other type of structure designed to emit light from a system of lamps and lenses and to serve as a navigational aid for maritime pilots at sea or on inland waterways.

Lighthouses mark dangerous coastlines, hazardous shoals, reefs, rocks and safe entries to harbors; they also assist in aerial navigation. Once widely used, the number of operational lighthouses has declined due to the expense of maintenance and use of electronic navigational systems.

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Point Stephens Lighthouse cropped.jpg

Point Stephens Light is an active lighthouse located on Point Stephens, a point on an unnamed headland at the east of Fingal Bay, 4.25 km (2.64 mi) south of the entrance of Port Stephens, New South Wales, Australia. It serves in assisting vessels entering Port Stephens. It is considered an endangered lighthouse due to remote location and old age. Proposed in 1857, the lighthouse was built in 1862. Designed by Alexander Dawson, the New South Wales Government Architect at that time, both the lighthouse's flared base and the keeper's cottages combined terrace are unique architectural features for the period. The light source used was originally kerosene lamps, which upgraded in 1912 to a Dalén light, upgraded again to electric light in 1960, automated in 1973, and finally converted to solar power in 1990. In 1991 the last caretaker withdrew from the premises and very soon after the keeper's cottages were vandalised and burned. The tower is designed in the form of a Doric column. It is divided into four stories with a spiral stairway, and topped by a gallery carrying the lantern. The keeper's cottages are three one story cottages, sharing a roof. Other structures which still stand at the location are a circa 1930 privy and workshop built in the 1950s. The lighthouse is managed as part of the Tomaree National Park. Access to the lighthouse is difficult, either through a narrow spit of sand at low tide or by boat.

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Richard Henry Brunton

Richard Henry Brunton FRGS MICE (26 December 1841 – 24 April 1901) was the so-called "Father of Japanese lighthouses". Brunton was born in Muchalls, Kincardineshire, Scotland. He was employed by the government of Meiji period Japan as a foreign advisor (o-yatoi gaikokujin), primarily to build lighthouses.

Over a period of seven and a half years he designed and supervised the building of 26 Japanese lighthouses in the Western style, which became known as Brunton's "children". To operate the lighthouses he established a system of lighthouse keepers, based on the one used in Scotland. He also helped found Japan's first school of civil engineering. In 1871, he was received by Emperor Meiji in recognition of his efforts.

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Kiipsaare Lighthouse
Photograph: Abrget47j

Kiipsaare Lighthouse is located on the tip of Harilaid Peninsula in Saaremaa, Estonia in the territory of Vilsandi National Park.

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Blackwell Lighthouse

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Drawing by archaeologist Hermann Thiersch
At a distance the light appeared so much like a star near the horizon, that sailors were frequently deceived by it.

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Photograph: Maxime Raynal
Port-la-Nouvelle lighthouses in southern France.

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