Portal:Martial arts

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Introduction

The martial art of boxing was practiced in ancient Thera.

Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practiced for a number of reasons such as self-defense, military and law enforcement applications, competition, for physical, mental and spiritual development; as well as for entertainment or the preservation of a nation's intangible cultural heritage.

Although the term martial art has become associated with the fighting arts of East Asia, it originally referred to the combat systems of Europe as early as the 1550s. The term is derived from Latin and means "arts of Mars", the Roman god of war. Some authors have argued that fighting arts or fighting systems would be more appropriate on the basis that many martial arts were never "martial" in the sense of being used or created by professional warriors.

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Drawing of the archetypical ninja .
A ninja (忍者) (hiragana: にんじゃ) or shinobi (忍び) (hiragana: しのび) was a covert agent or mercenary in feudal Japan. The functions of a ninja included espionage, deception, and surprise attacks. Their covert methods of waging irregular warfare were deemed dishonorable and beneath the honor of the samurai. Though shinobi proper, as specially trained spies and mercenaries, appeared in the 15th century during the Sengoku period (15th–17th centuries), antecedents may have existed as early as the 12th century.

In the unrest of the Sengoku period, mercenaries and spies for hire became active in Iga Province and the adjacent area around the village of Kōga, and it is from the area's clans that much of the knowledge of the ninja is drawn. Following the unification of Japan under the Tokugawa shogunate in the 17th century, the ninja faded into obscurity. A number of shinobi manuals, often based on Chinese military philosophy, were written in the 17th and 18th centuries, most notably the Bansenshukai (1676).

By the time of the Meiji Restoration (1868), shinobi had become a topic of popular imagination and mystery in Japan. Ninjas figured prominently in legend and folklore, where they were associated with legendary abilities such as invisibility, walking on water and control over the natural elements. As a consequence, their perception in popular culture is based more on such legend and folklore than on the spies of the Sengoku period.


Selected biography

Kentikian in 2018
Susianna "Susi" Levonovna Kentikian (Armenian: Սյուզի Կենտիկյան; born Syuzanna Kentikyan on 11 September 1987) is an Armenian-German professional boxer. She was born in Yerevan, Armenian SSR, but left the country with her family at the age of five because of the Nagorno-Karabakh War. Kentikian has lived in Hamburg since 1996 and began boxing at the age of twelve. Following a successful amateur career, she turned professional in 2005 upon signing with the Hamburg-based Spotlight Boxing promotion.

Kentikian is a two-time flyweight world champion, having held the World Boxing Association (WBA) female title from 2007 to 2012, and from 2013 to 2017. Additionally, she was the World Boxing Organization (WBO) flyweight champion from 2009 to 2012, and held the Women's International Boxing Federation (WIBF) title from 2007 to 2012 and 2015 to 2017. During the 2009 WBA convention in Colombia she was named the first ever WBA female Super Champion. It was announced that this belt would be called "Susi Kentikian belt" for all other future Super Champions.


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Russian Igor Tourchine and American Weston Kelsey fence in the second round of the Men's Individual Épée event in the 2004 Summer Olympics at the Helliniko Fencing Hall on August 17, 2004.
Credit: Master Sgt. Lono Kollars

In the broadest possible sense, fencing is the art of armed combat involving cutting, stabbing, or bludgeoning weapons directly manipulated by hand, rather than shot, thrown or positioned. Examples include swords, knives, pikes, bayonets, batons, clubs, and similar weapons. In contemporary common usage, "fencing" tends to refer specifically to European schools of swordsmanship and to the modern Olympic sport that has evolved out of them

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Quotes

  • "The ultimate aim of karate lies not in victory nor defeat, but in the perfection of the character of its participants."
-Gichin Funakoshi (1868–1957)
  • "The teaching of one virtuous person can influence many; that which has been learned well by one generation can be passed on to a hundred."
-Kanō Jigorō (1860–1938)
  • "So there are five ways of knowing who will win. Those who know when to fight and when not to fight are victorious. Those who discern when to use many or few troops are victorious. Those whose upper and lower ranks have the same desire are victorious. Those who face the unprepared with preparation are victorious. Those whose generals are able and not constrained by their governments are victorious. These five are the ways to know who will win."
-Sun Tzu (c.544 BC–c.496 BC); The Art of War (trans. by Thomas Cleary)

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