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Uluguru Mountains, in Tanzania
Mount Ararat, as seen from Armenia.

A mountain is a large landform that rises above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism. These forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode slowly through the action of rivers, weather conditions, and glaciers. A few mountains are isolated summits, but most occur in huge mountain ranges.

High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level. These colder climates strongly affect the ecosystems of mountains: different elevations have different plants and animals. Because of the less hospitable terrain and climate, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for resource extraction and recreation, such as mountain climbing.

The highest mountain on Earth is Mount Everest in the Himalayas of Asia, whose summit is 8,850 m (29,035 ft) above mean sea level. The highest known mountain on any planet in the Solar System is Olympus Mons on Mars at 21,171 m (69,459 ft).

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A kame delta (or ice-contact delta, morainic delta) is a glacial landform formed by a stream of melt water flowing through or around a glacier and depositing material, known as kame (stratified sequence of sediments) deposits. Upon entering a proglacial lake at the end (terminus) of a glacier, the river/stream deposit these sediments. This landform can be observed after the glacier has melted and the delta's asymmetrical triangular shape is visible. Once the glacier melts, the edges of the delta may subside as ice under it melts. Glacial till is deposited on the lateral sides of the delta, as the glacier melts. Read more...

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ET Addis asv2018-01 img29 Entoto.jpg

The Entoto Mountains or Entoto Hills lie immediately north of Addis Ababa, in the Ethiopian Highlands and central region of Ethiopia.

A prominent peak at the top of the Entoto Mountains is Mount Entoto. It served as Menelik II's capital before the founding of Addis Ababa. Read more...

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Oblique aerial photo of a hogback located between Gallup and Ramah in western New Mexico.

In geology and geomorphology, a hogback or hog's back is a long, narrow ridge or a series of hills with a narrow crest and steep slopes of nearly equal inclination on both flanks. Typically, the term is restricted to a ridge created by the differential erosion of outcropping, steeply dipping (greater than 30–40°), homoclinal, and typically sedimentary strata. One side of a hogback (its backslope) consists of the surface (bedding plane) of a steeply dipping rock stratum called a dip slope. The other side (its escarpment, frontslope or "scarp slope") is an erosion face that cuts through the dipping strata that comprises the hogback. The name "hogback" comes from the Hog's Back of the North Downs in Surrey, England, which refers to the landform's resemblance in outline to the back of a hog. The term is also sometimes applied to drumlins and, in Maine, to both eskers and ridges known as "horsebacks".

Hogbacks are a typical regional topographic expression of outcrops of steeply dipping strata, commonly sedimentary strata, that consist of alternating beds of hard, well-lithified strata, i.e. sandstone and limestone, and either weak or loosely cemented strata, i.e. shale, mudstone, and marl. The surface of a hard, erosion-resistant layer forms the back slope (dip-slope) of the hogback where weaker strata have been preferentially stripped off of it by erosion. The opposite slope that forms the front of a hogback, which is its escarpment or scarp, consists of a slope that cuts across the bedding of the strata. Because of the steeply dipping nature of the strata that forms a hogback, a slight shift in location may take place as the landscape is lowered by erosion, but it will be a matter of feet rather than miles, as might happen with cuestas. Read more...

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Front pointing on a steep ice slope

Front pointing is a fundamental technique in mountaineering and ice climbing which is used to ascend moderate to steep ice slopes. Also referred to as the German technique, it is accomplished through the use of crampons with two front-slanting points or spikes, which allow traction to be concentrated at the toe of the climber's boots. Climbers generally pick up this technique rather easily as it feels natural and secure but have a tendency to overuse it on moderately angled slopes where an alternate technique called flat-footing (French technique) would be less tiring and just as secure.

Due to the added stress and tiring effect on the calf muscles, climbers who regularly use this technique wear rigid crampons, or stiff/plastic mountaineering boots, versus the hinged variety used for more general mountaineering on steep snow slopes or glaciers. Read more...

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Diagram of the right knee. Anterior cruciate ligament labeled at center left.

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of a pair of cruciate ligaments (the other being the posterior cruciate ligament) in the human knee. The two ligaments are also called cruciform ligaments, as they are arranged in a crossed formation. In the quadruped stifle joint (analogous to the knee), based on its anatomical position, it is also referred to as the cranial cruciate ligament. The term cruciate translates to cross. This name is fitting because the ACL crosses the posterior cruciate ligament to form an “X”. It is composed of strong fibrous material and assists in controlling excessive motion. This is done by limiting mobility of the joint. The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the four main ligaments of the knee, providing 85% of the restraining force to anterior tibial displacement at 30 degrees and 90 degrees of knee flexion. The ACL is the most injured ligament of the four located in the knee. Read more...


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Eruption of Pinatubo 1991

Flora and fauna

Climbing in Greece
Georg Winkler.jpg

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