Philadelphia (Ancient Greek: φίλος ἀδελφός), known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2018 census-estimated population of 1,584,138. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U.S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents . Philadelphia is also the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis. The Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States.
William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, and the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787. Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, and the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia remained the nation's largest city until being overtaken by New York City in 1790; the city was also one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, serving as temporary U.S. capital while Washington, D.C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a major industrial center and a railroad hub. The city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland, Italy and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city . In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans. The city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950.
SS United States, 2017
The SS United States is a retired luxury passenger liner built in 1950–51 for United States Lines at a cost of $79.4 million ($767 million in 2018). The ship is the largest ocean liner constructed entirely in the United States and the fastest ocean liner to cross the Atlantic in either direction, retaining the Blue Riband for the highest average speed since her maiden voyage in 1952. She was designed by American naval architect William Francis Gibbs and could be turned into a troopship if required by the Navy in times of war, though such service was never required. The ship's fittings were sold at auction and hazardous wastes, including asbestos panels throughout the ship, were removed leaving her almost completely stripped by 1994. Two years later, she was towed to Pier 82 on the Delaware River in South Philadelphia where she remains today. The ship was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1999. A preservation group called the SS United States Conservancy has been raising funds since 2009 to keep the ship afloat while exploring potential new uses, as a museum, hotel, restaurant, or office space.
The Philadelphia Phillies has employed 51 managers and 10 general managers (GMs). Duties of the manager include team strategy and leadership on and off the field. Of those 51 managers, 15 have been "player-managers", who managed the team while still being signed as a player. In contrast, the general manager controls player transactions, hires and fires coaching staff, and negotiates players' contracts. The Phillies posted their franchise record for losses in a season during their record-setting streak of sixteen consecutive losing seasons (with a winning percentage below .500), with 111 losses in 154 games in 1941. During this stretch from 1933 to 1948, the team had seven different managers, all of whom posted winning percentages below .430 for their Phillies careers. Seven managers have taken the Phillies to the postseason, with Danny Ozark leading the team to three playoff appearances. Dallas Green and Charlie Manuel are the only Phillies managers to win a World Series: Green in 1980 against the Kansas City Royals; and Manuel in 2008 against the Tampa Bay Rays. The longest-tenured GM has been Paul Owens, with 11 years' service, from 1972 to 1983. Owens also served as the team manager in 1972, and from 1983 to 1984. After this, he served as a team executive until 2003, and was inducted into the Philadelphia Baseball Wall of Fame in recognition of his services.
Tory Burch is an American fashion designer who was born, raised, and educated in the Philadelphia metropolitan area. She attended the Agnes Irwin School in Rosemont, PA, and the University of Pennsylvania. After graduation, she moved to New York City, where she began a career working with fashion designers and at Harper's Bazaar magazine. She was a copywriter for Polo Ralph Lauren and worked for Vera Wang. She began a fashion label in February 2004. The label was an immediate success and was endorsed by Oprah Winfrey the following year. The label has stores in several large American cities and has lines that are sold in several upscale specialty department stores. Burch has won several fashion awards for her designs. Her fashion label known as "TRB by Tory Burch"—later as "Tory Burch"—began as a business operation in her Upper East Side apartment and very quickly blossomed into eighteen free-standing boutiques. In February 2004, Tory Burch opened a flagship store in the NoLIta neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City; the store was almost completely sold out on the first day. She now has locations in Atlanta, Bal Harbour, Bellevue, Chicago, Costa Mesa, Dallas, East Hampton, Houston, Greenwich, Connecticut, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Palm Beach, San Diego, and San Francisco, and her fashion line is carried in Saks Fifth Avenue, Bergdorf Goodman, Neiman Marcus, Nordstrom, and Bloomingdale's. Stories about her and her fashion line have appeared in a broad spectrum of magazines and newspapers, and in April 2005, Winfrey endorsed her line on the The Oprah Winfrey Show.