Portal:Syrian Civil War

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Montage of the Syrian Civil War.png

The Syrian Civil War (Arabic: الحرب الأهلية السورية‎, al-ḥarb al-ʾahlīyah as-sūrīyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with domestic and foreign allies, and various domestic and foreign forces opposing both the Syrian government and each other in varying combinations. The war is currently the 2nd deadliest of the 21st century.

The unrest in Syria, part of a wider wave of the 2011 Arab Spring protests, grew out of discontent with the Syrian government and escalated to an armed conflict after protests calling for Assad's removal were violently suppressed. The war, which began on 15 March with major unrest in Damascus and Aleppo, is being fought by several factions: the Syrian Armed Forces and its international allies, a loose alliance of mostly Sunni opposition rebel groups (including the Free Syrian Army), Salafi jihadist groups (including al-Nusra Front), the mixed Kurdish-Arab Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), with a number of countries in the region and beyond being either directly involved or providing support to one or another faction (Iran, Russia, Turkey, the United States, as well as others).

Iran, Russia, and Hezbollah support the Syrian Arab Republic and the Syrian Armed Forces militarily, with Russia conducting airstrikes and other military operations since September 2015. The U.S.-led international coalition, established in 2014 with the declared purpose of countering ISIL, has conducted airstrikes primarily against ISIL as well as some against government and pro-government targets. They have also deployed special forces and artillery units to engage ISIL on the ground. Since 2015, the U.S. has supported the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria and its armed wing, the SDF, materially, financially, and logistically. Turkey is directly involved in operations against the Syrian government since August 2016, not only participating in airstrikes against ISIL alongside the U.S.-led coalition, but also actively supporting the Syrian opposition and occupying large swaths of northwestern Syria while engaging in significant ground combat with ISIL, the SDF, and the Syrian government. Between 2011 and 2017, fighting from the Syrian Civil War spilled over into Lebanon as opponents and supporters of the Syrian government traveled to Lebanon to fight and attack each other on Lebanese soil, with ISIL and Al-Nusra also engaging the Lebanese Army. Furthermore, while officially neutral, Israel has conducted airstrikes against Hezbollah and Iranian forces, whose presence in southwestern Syria it views as a threat. Read more...

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Fighters of the al-Bab military council, which is part of the TFSA's Hawar Kilis Operations Room, during the Battle of al-Bab

The Turkey-backed Free Syrian Army (abbreviated as TFSA), partially reorganized as the Syrian National Army by Turkey since 30 May 2017, is an informal armed Syrian opposition structure mainly composed of Syrian Arab and Syrian Turkmen rebels operating in northern Syria, mostly being a part of Operation Euphrates Shield or groups active in the area that are allied to the groups participating in the operation. The general aim of the group is to assist Turkey in creating a "safe zone" in Syria and to establish a National Army, which will operate in the land gained as a result of Operation Euphrates Shield and the Hawar Kilis Operations Room. They are opponents of the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), ISIL and the Syrian government's Syrian Arab Army, though as yet, they have had few engagements against the Syrian Army. The TFSA also have a law enforcement equivalent, with the also Turkey-backed though separate from the TFSA, the Free Police.

Incidents and events




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Staffan de Mistura September 2015 (21108901363).jpg

Staffan de Mistura (born 25 January 1947) is a long-serving Italian-Swedish diplomat and former member of the Italian government. After a 40-year career in various United Nations agencies, he was appointed Undersecretary of State (Junior Minister) for Foreign Affairs in the Italian cabinet headed by Mario Monti. 2014 -2017 he was Director of Operations at Villa San Michele on Capri. From 2014 to 2019 he was United Nations special envoy for the Syria crisis.

De Mistura's previous UN posts have included that of Special Representative of the Secretary-General in Iraq (2007–2009) and Afghanistan (2010–2011), Personal Representative of the Secretary-General for Southern Lebanon (2001–2004), and Director of the UN Information Center in Rome (2000–2001). His work has taken him to many of the world's most volatile trouble-spots including Afghanistan, Iraq, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and the former Yugoslavia. Read more...

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Wounded civilians arrive at hospital Aleppo.jpg

Wounded civilians arrive to the Aleppo hospital on the course of Syrian Civil War, October 2012


Syrian Arab Republic and allies

Flag of the Ba'ath Party.svg Syrian Ba'ath Party
Jaysh al-Sha'bi
National Defense Force

Allies militias:

al-Abbas brigade
Lijan militias
Emblem of the Palestine Liberation Army.svg Palestinian Liberation Army

Supported by:

Syrian Opposition

Syria Syrian opposition (SRCC)
Free Syrian Army
Army of Mujahedeen
Ajnad al-Sham Islamic Union
Authenticity and Development Front
Jabhat Ansar al-Islam
al-Zenki movement

Supported by:

Flag of the Arab League.svg Arab League
Flag of Qatar.svg Qatar
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg Saudi Arabia
Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey
Turkish-basked forces:
 Turkey (2016-present
Turkish-backed Free Syrian Army (2017-present)
Islamist factions:
Syrian Islamic Liberation Front (until 2013)
Islamic Front (Syria) (2013-16)
Ahrar al-Sham
Jaysh al-Islam

Salafist and ally groups

Army of Conquest (2015-17)
Flag of the Al-Nusra Front.svg Al-Nusra Front
Ahrar al-Sham
Sham Legion

Other allied groups:

Muhajirin wa-Ansar Alliance
Jabhat Ansar al-Din
Tahrir al-Sham (2017-present)

Islamic State

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
Military of ISIL


Syrian Kurdistan (SDF)

Allied militias:

Supported by:

International anti-ISIL coalition


Recognized content

Featured articles

Good articles

Map of current territorial control

Current military situation in the Syrian Civil War.
  Controlled by the Ba'athist Syria
  Controlled by North Syria Federation (SDF)
  Controlled by Tahrir al-Sham
  Controlled by Syrian Opposition and TFSA

(For a more detailed map, see Cities and towns during the Syrian Civil War)


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