Portal:Volcanism of Canada

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Volcanism of Canada

Mount Edziza, British Columbia.jpg

Volcanology of Canada includes lava flows, lava plateaus, lava domes, cinder cones, stratovolcanoes, shield volcanoes, submarine volcanoes, calderas, diatremes, and maars, along with examples of more less common volcanic forms such as tuyas and subglacial mounds. It has a very complex volcanological history spanning from the Precambrian eon at least 3.11 billion years ago when this part of the North American continent began to form.

Although the country's volcanic activity dates back to the Precambrian eon, volcanism continues to occur in Western and Northern Canada where it forms part of an encircling chain of volcanoes and frequent earthquakes around the Pacific Ocean called the Pacific Ring of Fire. But because volcanoes in Western and Northern Canada are in remote rugged areas and the level of volcanic activity is less frequent than with other volcanoes around the Pacific Ocean, Canada is commonly thought to occupy a gap in the Pacific Ring of Fire between the volcanoes of western United States to the south and the Aleutian volcanoes of Alaska to the north. However, the mountainous landscape of Western and Northern Canada includes more than 100 volcanoes that have been active during the past two million years and whose eruptions have claimed many lives. Volcanic activity has been responsible for many of Canada's geological and geographical features and mineralization, including the nucleus of North America called the Canadian Shield.

Volcanism has led to the formation of hundreds of volcanic areas and extensive lava formations across Canada, indicating volcanism played a major role in shaping its surface. The country's different volcano and lava types originate from different tectonic settings and types of volcanic eruptions, ranging from passive lava eruptions to violent explosive eruptions. Canada has a rich record of very large volumes of magmatic rock called large igneous provinces. They are represented by deep-level plumbing systems consisting of giant dike swarms, sill provinces and layered intrusions. The most capable large igneous provinces in Canada are Archean (3,800–2,500 million years ago) age greenstone belts containing a rare volcanic rock called komatiite.

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The Mount Pleasant Caldera is a large and wide eroded Late Devonian caldera complex, located in the northern Appalachian Mountains of southwestern New Brunswick, Canada. It is one of few noticeable pre-Cenozoic calderas, dating back to the late Devonian Period and is partially covered in the north by overlying Middle Mississippian and Pennsylvanian-period strata. The volcano is north-south trending in its elliptical shape, with minimum dimensions of 13 by 34 kilometres (8 mi × 21 mi) as outlined by regional gravitational and magnetic studies. The northern half of the volcano has since been covered by depositional rock strata. The caldera is bounded to the east and west by fused Ordovician to Silurian turbiditic metasedimentary rocks of the local Digdeguash and Flume Ridge geological formations. Late Silurian to Devonian granitic rocks of the Saint George Batholith bound part of the southern margin of the caldera. Rocks within the summit itself date back to the Upper Devonian, and show multiple fill sequences late in its history.


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Eve Cone.jpg
Eve Cone, one of the best preserved cinder cones in Canada.

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The Volcanism of Canada Workgroup is the central point of coordination for Wikipedia's coverage of Canadian volcanoes, volcanology, igneous petrology, and related subjects. Please feel free to join the workgroup and help!

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Arctic Lake PlateauKitsu PlateauCache HillArmadillo PeakIce PeakKoosick BluffTriangle DomeTsekone RidgeOrnostay BluffSpectrum RangePillow RidgeWilliams ConeBig Raven PlateauMount EdzizaMount Edziza volcanic complex2.jpg
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Clickable panorama of the Mount Edziza volcanic complex.

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