President of Peru

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President of
the Republic of Peru
Presidente de la República del Perú
Presidential Standard of Peru.svg
Presidential Standard
Martín Vizcarra Cornejo (cropped).png
Incumbent
Martín Vizcarra

since March 23, 2018
StyleHis Excellency
ResidencePalacio de Gobierno
SeatPalacio de Gobierno
AppointerDirect popular election
Term lengthFive years
Not eligible for re-election immediately
Inaugural holderJosé de San Martín (de facto)
José de la Riva Agüero (first to bear the title)
FormationFebruary 28, 1823
SuccessionVice President
DeputyVice President of Peru
Websitewww.presidencia.gob.pe
Gran Sello de la República del Perú.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Peru
Constitution
Flag of Peru.svg Peru portal

The President of Peru (Spanish: Presidente de Perú), officially called the President of the Republic of Peru (Spanish: Presidente de la República del Perú), is the head of state and head of government of Peru and represents the republic in official international matters. The president personifies the Republic of Peru, is the head of executive power, and is the supreme head of the Armed Forces and Police of Peru. His position corresponds to the highest magistracy in the country and to the highest ranking public official. Presidents de facto who assumed power through political coups are also included in this list.

The presidency of Peru can be held for a period of 5 years without immediate re-election. After a constitutional period, the president is allowed to be re-elected. A presidential inauguration is held every five years on July 28, in the Congress of Peru. The last directly elected President of Peru was Pedro Pablo Kuczynski, from July 28, 2016 to March 21, 2018, when he resigned from office. Following the traditional constitutional succession, First Vice President Martín Vizcarra, former governor of Moquegua, Minister of Transportation, and Ambassador to Canada, succeeded him in office as the 67th President of Peru, on 23 March 2018.

It corresponds, as a generic mandate, to direct the general policy of the government and the administration of the State. Although its role, title and significance have undergone changes throughout history, as well as its position and relations with the other actors of the national political organization, it has been and is the most outstanding political figure. The Political Constitution of Peru in force (1993) establishes the requirements, rights and obligations that the President of the Republic must fulfill.

The president exercises his functions from the House of Pizarro, located in the historic center of Lima, which is the Government Palace of Peru and the House of Government of Lima -mention with which official documents are dated-. This palace, occupies the same location that corresponded to the conqueror and governor, Francisco Pizarro and where later the palace of the viceroys of Peru was located.

There have been a number of presidents that have reached the presidency through a coup d'état. The last successful coup d'état was carried out by Alberto Fujimori in 1992, who is now imprisoned for human rights violations and corruption.

Presidential term and transitions[edit]

Ordinarily, presidents are elected for five-year terms, with no opportunity for immediate reelection. A former president can run again after being out of office for a full term.[1] The change of government takes place on July 28, which is the date of independence from Spain and thus a national holiday.

The current Peruvian Constitution of 1993 establishes in its article 113 that the Presidency of the Republic is vacated by:

  1. Death of the President of the Republic.
  2. His permanent moral or physical disability, declared by Congress.
  3. Acceptance of his resignation by Congress.
  4. Leaving the national territory without permission of the Congress or not returning to it within the established period.
  5. Dismissal, after having been sanctioned for any of the infractions mentioned in Article 117 of the Constitution.

Four presidents of Peru have resigned: Guillermo Billinghurst (forced resignation), Andrés Avelino Cáceres, Alberto Fujimori, and Pedro Pablo Kuczynski.

Presidential symbols[edit]

Presidential sash[edit]

Former President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski (2016-2018) wearing the presidential sash following his inauguration in the Congress of Peru on July 28, 2016.

The presidential band is the most distinctive feature that the President wears and has been used since the beginning of the Republic. It was inherited from the last Viceroys. The placement and delivery of the presidential sash symbolize a democratic transition of power. The band is used by the President of Congress until the new president is sworn in.

It is a bicolor band that carries the national colors (red and white). This band is worn diagonally from the right shoulder to the left side of the waist. At the waist, like a brooch, the band was embroidered in golden thread the Coat of Arms of Peru. There is a Lima family that has traditionally made them. They are made to measure for each President and have been used normally with formal suit: suit, tuxedo or military uniform. Since 2006, the Shield was moved up to chest height.

A symbolic act narrated by Ricardo Palma in his famous Peruvian Traditions was made during the confused first half of the 1840s, by President Justo Figuerola. This, in front of the protests made by the pope in front of his home, he asked his daughter to take the presidential band out of the dresser drawer and give it to the people from the balcony. The crowd left happy and alive to Figuerola and went to find someone to impose the garment, which, so many times coveted, this time did not find who wanted to stick it.

The Ministers of State wear a red-and-white sash; Supreme Members, Congressmen of the Republic, Magistrates of the Constitutional Court, Members of the National Council of the Magistracy, Supreme Prosecutors, the Ombudsman, etc., wear red-and-white collars with medals that recognize them as such.

Grand necklace of brilliance[edit]

The necklace is the symbol of the highest authority in the country. It is composed of gold and encrusted with diamonds, bearing at the center a medal that contains the Coat of Arms of Peru. Presidents Oscar R. Benavides Larrea, Manuel Prado and Ugarteche and Jose Luis Bustamante y Rivero notably used the large necklace and other insignias. Its use disappeared after the administration of Fernando Belaúnde Terry. Recently its use was 'revived' by Alan García Pérez the European Union Summit held precisely in Lima in May 2008.

Plaque[edit]

Pedro Pablo Kuczynki bearing the Presidential Plaque

The President of the Republic carries a plaque in the left upper pocket of the bag in the manner of a lanyard with the insignia of the military command that recognizes him as Supreme Chief of the Armed Forces. It is the heir of the distinctive and military honors worn by presidents belonging to the Armed Forces throughout the history of the country. It is golden and has the shape of a radiant sun.

Staff[edit]

The staff originates from the Spanish custom of symbolizing power with a cane. The custom was introduced in the eighteenth century in the Andes, after the rebellion of José Gabriel Túpac Amaru and Túpac Catari in 1780 to represent the dignity of mayor of Incas. Unlike Argentina, the use of a cane that symbolizes the power and office of President (symbolically, varayoc), has not been common in the history of the Peruvian presidency and has been replaced innumerable times by the saber or the sword of the military presidents. Only a handful of cases are remarkable. Mariano Ignacio Prado, José Balta and Augusto B. Leguía used it in pictures and presidential photographs. Recently, Alejandro Toledo, made use of the cane in his symbolic assumption to the charge in Cusco and also on a few other occasions. Its most recent use corresponds to July 29, 2008, the date of the traditional military parade, when Alan García carried a small presidential staff, the same one used by Ollanta Humala in the military parade on July 29, 2011.

History[edit]

During its more than 190 years of independence, Peru has been ruled by the military leaders who fought for independence, the leaders of the War of the Pacific, representatives of the aristocracy, and democratically elected leaders. Also, the history of the presidency has involved civil wars, coups and violence. More than once, several individuals claimed the right to be president at the same time.

Different titles have been used, such as "Protector of Peru" (used by José de San Martín), and "Supreme Protector" (by Andrés de Santa Cruz).

The following table contains a list of the individuals who have served as President of Peru.

List of Presidents of Peru[edit]

Protectorate of Peru (1821–1822)[edit]

The Protectorate of Peru existed from August 3, 1821 until September 20, 1822.

No. Protector
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political Party Form of entry Title
1 José de San Martín (retrato, c.1828).jpg José de San Martín
(1778–1850)
August 3, 1821 – September 20, 1822 Independent Proclaimed by open cabildo in Lima Protector of Peru

Republic of Peru (1822–1836)[edit]

The Republic of Peru was declared on July 28, 1821 but it was constituted on September 20, 1822. It existed until August 11, 1836.

No. President
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political Party Form of entry Title
2 LunaPizarro1.jpg Francisco Xavier de Luna Pizarro
(1780–1855)
September 20, 1822 – September 22, 1822 Independent Interim officeholder, by resignation of San Martin (as President of the First Constituent Congress of Peru) Interim President
3 4 5 6 LaMar1.jpg Government Junta: September 22, 1822 – February 27, 1823 Independent Elected by the Congress from among its members Supreme Governing Board of Peru
7 José Bernardo de Tagle by José Gil de Castro.jpg José Bernardo de Tagle y Portocarrero, Marqués de Torre Tagle
(1779–1825)
February 27, 1823 – February 28, 1823 Independent Designated by the Congress after the Balconcillo mutiny Interim President
1 Jose de la Riva Aguero Sanchez Boquete.JPG José de la Riva Agüero y Sánchez Boquete
(1783–1853)
February 28, 1823 – June 23, 1823 Independent Ratified by the Congress after being imposed by the Balconcillo mutiny Constitutional President
8 Francisco Valdivieso.jpg Francisco Valdivieso y Prada
(1773–1828)
June 23, 1823 – July 17, 1823 Independent Elected provisionally by the Congress to exercise power on areas not affected by the war, while Sucre assumed "military power" Interim Head of the Government
9 Antonio José de Sucre (portrait) 1795-1830.jpg Antonio José de Sucre y Alcalá
(1795–1830)
June 23, 1823 – July 17, 1823 Independent Elected provisionally by the Congress to exercise "military power" Supreme Military Chief
7 José Bernardo de Tagle by José Gil de Castro.jpg José Bernardo de Tagle y Portocarrero, Marqués de Torre Tagle
(1779–1825)
July 17, 1823 – August 16, 1823 Independent Elected by the Congress, delegated by Sucre Interim President
7 José Bernardo de Tagle by José Gil de Castro.jpg José Bernardo de Tagle y Portocarrero, Marqués de Torre Tagle
(1779–1825)
August 16, 1823 – February 10, 1824 Independent Ratified by the Congress as President (according to the new Constitution) Constitutional President
10 Simon Bolivar.jpg Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios
(1783–1830)
February 10, 1824 – January 28, 1827 Independent Granted the supreme military and political authority by the Constitutional Congress Liberator
11 Andréssantacruz2.jpg Government Junta:

Andrés de Santa Cruz y Calaumana
(1792–1865)

January 28, 1827 – June 9, 1827 Independent Elected by the Congress after the revolt that ended the Bolivarian regime President of the Government Junta
12 Manuel Salazar y Baquijano.jpg Manuel Salazar y Baquíjano
(1777–1850)
June 9, 1827 – August 22, 1827 Independent Vice President in charge of government (due to the arrival of La Mar from Guayaquil) Interim President
3 LaMar1.jpg José de la Mar Cortázar
(1778–1830)
9 June 1827 (22 August 1827) – 7 June 1829 (20 May 1828) Independent Elected by the Congress Constitutional President
13 Manuel Salazar y Baquijano.jpg Manuel Salazar y Baquíjano
(1777–1850)
May 20, 1828 – June 6, 1829 Independent Vice President in charge of government (due to the absence of La Mar during the Gran Colombia–Peru War) Interim President
14 Agutierrezf.png Antonio Gutiérrez de la Fuente
(1796–1878)
June 6, 1829 – September 1, 1829 Military Coup d'état (in charge until the Congress elected the provisional president) Commander-in-chief
15 Gamarra.jpg Agustín Gamarra Messia
(1785–1841)
September 1, 1829 – December 19, 1829 Independent Elected by the Congress Provisional President
14 Agutierrezf.png Antonio Gutiérrez de la Fuente
(1796–1878)
September 21, 1829 – November 25, 1829 Military Provisional Vice President in charge of the government (due to trip of Gamarra on the occasion of the peace settlement with Gran Colombia) Commander-in-chief
16 Gamarra.jpg Agustín Gamarra Messia
(1785–1841)
December 19, 1829 – December 20, 1833 Independent Direct elections Constitutional President
17 LunaPizarro1.jpg Francisco Xavier de Luna Pizarro
(1780–1855)
December 20, 1833 – December 21, 1833 Independent President of the National Convention (Constituent Congress) (in charge until the provisional president elected by the Congress took office) Interim President
18 Luis Jose de Orbegoso y Moncada.jpg Luis José de Orbegoso y Moncada
(1795–1847)
December 21, 1833 – August 11, 1836 Independent Elected by the National Convention (Congress) Provisional President

Peru-Bolivian Confederation (1836–1839)[edit]

In 1836, the south of the country declared itself independent by creating the Republic of South Peru, while the north of the country became the Republic of North Peru. The two states confederated with the Republic of Bolivia to form the Peru–Bolivian Confederation on October 28, 1836. Marshal Andrés de Santa Cruz served as the Supreme Protector of the Confederation. Simultaneously, the actual control of each Republic remained in the hands of their respective presidents. The Peru-Bolivian Confederation dissolved on August 25, 1839.

No. Supreme Protector
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political Party Title
11 Andréssantacruz2.jpg Andrés de Santa Cruz y Calaumana
(1792–1865)
February 7, 1836 (October 28, 1836) – August 25, 1839 (February 20, 1839) Independent Supreme Protector of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation

Republic of North Peru (1836–1839)[edit]

The Republic of North Peru existed from August 11, 1836 until August 25, 1839.

No. President
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political Party Title
18 Luis Jose de Orbegoso y Moncada.jpg Luis José de Orbegoso y Moncada
(1795–1847)
August 21, 1837 – July 30, 1838 Independent Constitutional President
19 Jose de la Riva Aguero Sanchez Boquete.JPG José de la Riva Agüero y Sánchez Boquete
(1783–1858)
August 1, 1838 – January 24, 1839 Independent Constitutional President

Republic of South Peru (1836–1839)[edit]

The Republic of South Peru existed from March 17, 1836 until August 25, 1839.

No. President
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political Party Title
20 Ramon Herrera.png Ramón Herrera y Rodado
(1799–1882)
September 17, 1837 – October 12, 1838 Independent Constitutional President
21 Pío de Tristán.jpg Juan Pío de Tristán y Moscoso
(1773–1859)
October 12, 1838 – February 23, 1839 Independent Constitutional President

Republic of Peru (1839–)[edit]

The Republic of Peru was reestablished on August 25, 1839.

No. President
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political Party Form of entry Title
22 Gamarra.jpg Agustín Gamarra Messia
(1785–1841)
August 25, 1838 – August 15, 1839 Military Proclaimed by open cabildo in Lima President of the Republic
August 15, 1839 – July 10, 1840 Appointed by the General Congress of Huancayo Provisional President
July 10, 1840 – November 18, 1841 (†) Direct elections Constitutional President
23 Manuel Menéndez.jpg Manuel Menéndez Gorozabel
(1793–1847)
November 18, 1841 – August 16, 1842 Independent Constitutional succession (as Vice President) Provisional President
24 Juan Crisostomo Torrico.jpg Juan Crisóstomo Torrico González
(1808–1875)
August 16, 1842 – August 20, 1842 Military Self-proclamation Commander-in-chief
25 Juan Bautista de Lavalle.jpg Juan Bautista de Lavalle y Zugasti
(1782–1851)
August 20, 1842 – October 20, 1842 Independent Took over the government as President of the Council of Ministers Interim President
26 Francisco Vidal 1.jpg Juan Francisco de Vidal La Hoz
(1800–1863)
October 20, 1842 – March 15, 1843 Military Self-proclamation (assumed the power after defeating Torrico in the battle of Agua Santa) President of the Republic
27 Figuerola.jpg Justo Figuerola de Estrada
(1771–1854)
March 15, 1843 – March 19, 1843 Independent Provisional President
28 Eleuterio Aramburú.png Eleuterio Aramburú
(1774–1846)
March 19, 1843 – March 21, 1843 Military Took over the government as commander of the garrison of Lima Interim President
29 José Rufino Echenique.jpg José Rufino Echenique
(1808–1887)
March 21, 1843 – March 27, 1843 Military Took over the government as Prefect of Lima Interim President
30 President Pezet.jpg Juan Antonio Pezet
(1809–1879)
March 27, 1843 – April 7, 1843 Military Assumed the power on behalf of Vivanco Interim President
31 Manuel Ignacio de Vivanco 2.jpg Manuel Ignacio de Vivanco Iturralde
(1806–1873)
April 7, 1843 – June 17, 1844 Military Self-proclamation Supreme Director of the Republic
32 Domingo Nieto.jpg Domingo Nieto y Márquez
(1803–1844)
September 3, 1843 – February 17, 1844 (†) Military Self-proclamation (starting the constitutionalist revolution against Vivanco) President of the Supreme Provisional Governing Junta
33 RamonCastilla.jpg Ramón Castilla y Marquesado
(1797–1867)
February 17, 1844 – December 11, 1844 Military Replaced Nieto as President of the Junta President of the Supreme Provisional Governing Junta
34 Domingo Elias.jpg Domingo Elías Carbajo
(1805–1867)
November 30, 1843 – June 17, 1844 Independent Assumed the power on behalf of Vivanco (as Prefect of Lima) Interim President
June 17, 1844 – August 10, 1844 Self-proclamation in Lima (ignoring the authority of Vivanco) Commander-in-chief
27 Figuerola.jpg Justo Figuerola de Estrada
(1771–1854)
August 10, 1844 – October 7, 1844 Independent Provisional President
23 Manuel Menéndez.jpg Manuel Menéndez Gorozabel
(1793–1847)
October 7, 1844 – April 20, 1845 Independent Transitional constitutional succession (as First Vice-President of the Council of State) Provisional President
33 RamonCastilla.jpg Ramón Castilla y Marquesado
(1797–1867)
April 20, 1845 – April 20, 1851 Military Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
(the first President of Peru to complete his full term of office)
35 José Rufino Echenique.jpg José Rufino Echenique Benavente
(1808–1887)
April 20, 1851 – January 5, 1855 Military Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
33 RamonCastilla.jpg Ramón Castilla y Marquesado
(1797–1867)
February 1854 – January 5, 1855 Military Self-proclamation (in southern and central parts of the country) Interim President
36 Jose Miguel Medina.jpg José Miguel Medina
(1804-1884)
July 17, 1854 – January 5, 1855 Military Assumed the power on behalf of Echenique (as President of the Council of State) Head of the Executive Branch
33 RamonCastilla.jpg Ramón Castilla y Marquesado
(1797–1867)
January 5, 1855 – October 24, 1857 Military Self-proclamation (assumed the power after defeating Echenique in the battle of La Palma) Provisional President of the Republic
37 Jose Maria Raygada.jpg José Maria Raygada y Gallo
(1795–1859)
April 2, 1857 – July 28, 1858 Military Took over the government as President of the Council of Ministers Commander-in-chief
31 Miguelsanroman.png Miguel de San Román y Meza
(1802–1863)
July 28, 1858 – October 24, 1858 Military Assumed the power on behalf of Castilla (as President of the Council of Ministers) Commander-in-chief
33 RamonCastilla.jpg Ramón Castilla y Marquesado
(1797–1867)
October 24, 1858 – October 24, 1862 Military Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
38 Juan Manuel del Mar.JPG Juan Manuel del Mar
(1805–1862)
September 29, 1859 – March 21, 1860 Independent Assumed the power on behalf of Castilla (as Vice President) Head of the Executive Branch
31 Miguelsanroman.png Miguel de San Román y Meza
(1802–1863)
October 24, 1862 – April 3, 1863 (†) Military Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
33 RamonCastilla.jpg Ramón Castilla y Marquesado
(1797–1867)
April 3, 1863 – April 9, 1863 Military Self-proclamation Head of the Executive Branch
39 Pedro Diez Canseco 2.jpg Pedro Diez Canseco Corbacho
(1815–1893)
April 9, 1863 – August 5, 1863 Military Provisional succession (as Second Vice President) Commander-in-chief
30 President Pezet.jpg Juan Antonio Pezet Rodríguez
(1809–1879)
August 5, 1863 – November 6, 1865 Military Constitutional succession (as First Vice President) Constitutional President of the Republic
39 Pedro Diez Canseco 2.jpg Pedro Diez Canseco Corbacho
(1815–1893)
November 6, 1865 – November 28, 1865 Military Provisional president
40 Mariano Prado.jpg Mariano Ignacio Prado Ochoa
(1825–1901)
November 28, 1865 – February 15, 1867 Military Self-proclamation Commander-in-chief of the Republic
February 15, 1867 – August 31, 1867 Designated by Congress Provisional President of the Republic
August 31, 1867 – January 5, 1868 Designated by Congress and direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
41 Luis La Puerta.jpg Luis La Puerta de Mendoza
(1811–1896)
October 12, 1867 – January 8, 1868 Military Assumed the power on behalf of Prado (as President of the Council of Ministers) Head of the Executive Branch
39 Pedro Diez Canseco 2.jpg Pedro Diez Canseco Corbacho
(1815–1893)
September 23, 1867 – January 7, 1868 Military Self-proclamation in Arequipa Head of the Executive Branch
42 Antonio Gutierrez de la Fuente.jpg Antonio Gutiérrez de la Fuente
(1796–1878)
January 7, 1868 – January 8, 1868 Military Presidential designation (as President of the Council of Ministers) Provisional president
43 Francisco Diez Canseco.jpg Francisco Diez Canseco
(1821–1884)
January 8, 1868 – January 22, 1868 Military Head of the Government
39 Pedro Diez Canseco 2.jpg Pedro Diez Canseco Corbacho
(1815–1893)
January 22, 1868 – August 2, 1868 Military Constitutional succession (recognized in Cabildo Abierto de Lima) Provisional president
44 Balta1.jpg José Balta y Montero
(1814–1872)
August 2, 1868 – July 22, 1872 (July 26, 1872 [†]) Military Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
45 Tgutierrez.png Tomás Gutiérrez
(1817-1872)
July 22, 1872 – July 26, 1872 (†) Military Coup d'état Supreme Leader of the Republic
43 Francisco Diez Canseco.jpg Francisco Diez Canseco
(1821–1884)
July 26, 1872 – July 27, 1872 Military Provisional succession (as Second Vice President of Balta) Interim President
46 HerenciaZevallos.jpg Mariano Herencia Zevallos
(1820–1873)
July 27, 1872 – August 2, 1872 Military Constitutional succession (as First Vice President of Balta) Constitutional President of the Republic
47 ManuelPardo.jpg Manuel Pardo y Lavalle
(1834–1878)
August 2, 1872 – August 2, 1876 Civilista Party Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
40 Mariano Prado.jpg Mariano Ignacio Prado Ochoa
(1825–1901)
August 2, 1876 – December 18, 1879 Civilista Party Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
41 Luis La Puerta.jpg Luis La Puerta de Mendoza
(1811–1896)
May 16, 1879 – December 2, 1879 Civilista Party First Vice President (served on behalf of Prado) Head of the Executive Branch
December 18, 1879 – December 23, 1879 Constitutional succession Transitional President of the Republic
48 Presidente Nicolás de Piérola.jpg Nicolás de Piérola Villena
(1839–1913)
December 23, 1879 – January 15, 1881 Independent Self-proclamation Commander-in-chief
July 29, 1881 – November 28, 1881 Appointed by the National Assembly of Ayacucho Provisional President
49 Garcia Calderon.jpg Francisco García Calderón Landa
(1834–1905)
March 12, 1881 – July 10, 1881 Independent Elected by open cabildo in Magdalena Provisional President of the Republic
July 10, 1881 – September 28, 1881 (November 6, 1881) Ratified by the Congress of Chorrillos
50 Lizardo Montero.jpg Lizardo Montero Flores
(1832–1905)
September 28, 1881 – October 28, 1883 Civilista Party Constitutional succession (oath before the Judicial Court of Cajamarca) Provisional President of the Republic
51 Miguel Iglesias colaboracionista con Chile.jpg Miguel Iglesias Pino de Arce
(1830–1909)
August 31, 1882 – December 30, 1882 Military Self-proclamation in Cajamarca (Grito de Montán) Commander-in-chief
December 30, 1882 – March 1, 1884 Elected by the Assembly of the North (Cajamarca) Regenerating President
March 1, 1884 – December 3, 1885 Ratified by the Constituent Assembly Provisional President of the Republic
52 Andrés Avelino Cáceres 3.jpg Andrés Avelino Cáceres Dorregaray
(1836–1923)
July 16, 1884 – August 3, 1885 Military Self-proclamation (central part of the country) Self-proclaimed President
53 Antarenas.png Antonio Arenas Merino
(1808–1891)
December 3, 1885 – June 3, 1886 Independent In charge of the Congress (as President of the Council of Ministers) President of the Provisional Government Junta
52 Andrés Avelino Cáceres 3.jpg Andrés Avelino Cáceres Dorregaray
(1836–1923)
June 3, 1886 – August 10, 1890 Constitutional Party Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
54 Remigio Morales Bermudez 3.jpg Remigio Morales Bermúdez
(1836–1894)
August 10, 1890 – April 1, 1894 (†) Constitutional Party Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
55 Justiniano Borgoño 2.jpg Justiniano Borgoño Castañeda
(1836–1921)
April 1, 1894 – August 10, 1894 Constitutional Party Constitutional succession (as Second Vice President) Transitional President of the Republic
52 Andrés Avelino Cáceres 3.jpg Andrés Avelino Cáceres Dorregaray
(1836–1923)
August 10, 1894 – March 20, 1895 Constitutional Party Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
56 Manuel Candamo.jpg Manuel Candamo Iriarte
(1841–1904)
March 20, 1895 – September 8, 1895 Independent Transitional designation President of the Provisional Government Junta
48 Presidente Nicolás de Piérola.jpg Nicolás de Piérola Villena
(1839–1913)
September 8, 1895 – September 8, 1899 Democratic Party Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
57 Eduardo López de Romaña 3.jpg Eduardo López de Romaña Alvizuri
(1847–1912)
September 8, 1899 – September 8, 1903 Civilista Party Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
56 Manuel Candamo.jpg Manuel Candamo Iriarte
(1841–1904)
September 8, 1903 – April 18, 1904 (May 7, 1904 [†]) Civilista Party Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
58 SerapioCalderon.jpg Serapio Calderón Lazo de la Vega
(1843–1922)
April 18, 1904 – May 7, 1904 Civilista Party Second Vice President (appointed due to the illness of Candamo) Head of the Executive Branch
May 7, 1904 – September 24, 1904 Constitutional succession (sworn in following the death Candamo) Constitutional President of the Republic
59 Jose Pardo (1).jpg José Pardo y Barreda
(1864–1947)
September 24, 1904 – September 24, 1908 Civilista Party Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
60 Augusto B Leguia 1.jpg Augusto B. Leguía y Salcedo
(1863–1932)
September 24, 1908 – September 24, 1912
(1st term)
Civilista Party Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
61 Guillermo Billinghurst 3.jpg Guillermo Billinghurst Angulo
(1851–1915)
September 24, 1912 – February 4, 1914 Democratic Party Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
62 Óscar Benavides.jpg Óscar R. Benavides Larrea
(1876–1945)
February 4, 1914 – May 15, 1914 Military Coup d'état President of the Government Junta
May 15, 1914 – August 18, 1915 Ratified by Congress Provisional President of the Republic
59 Jose Pardo (1).jpg José Pardo y Barreda
(1864–1947)
August 18, 1915 – July 4, 1919 Civilista Party Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
60 Augusto B Leguia 1.jpg Augusto B. Leguía y Salcedo
(1863–1932)
July 4, 1919 – October 12, 1919
(2nd term)
Democratic Reformist Party Coup d'état after direct elections (already President-elect) Provisional President of the Republic
October 12, 1919 – October 12, 1924
(2nd term cont.)
Direct elections (before the coup d'etat) Constitutional President of the Republic
October 12, 1924 – October 12, 1929
(3rd term)
Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
October 12, 1929 – August 25, 1930
(4th term)
Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
63 Manuel María Ponce.jpg Manuel María Ponce Brousset
(1874–1966)
August 25, 1930 – August 27, 1930 Military Appointed President of the Military Junta constituted after the resignation of Leguía President of the Military Junta
64 Sánchez Cerro.jpg Luis Miguel Sánchez Cerro
(1889–1933)
August 27, 1930 – March 1, 1931 Military Coup d'état President of the Government Junta
65 Mariano Holguin.jpg Mariano Holguín Maldonado
(1860–1945)
March 1, 1931 – March 1, 1931 Independent Presidential designation (while the Government Junta elected a President of the Republic) President of the Assembly of Notables
66 Ricardo Leoncio Elias.jpg Ricardo Leoncio Elías Arias
(1874–1951)
March 1, 1931 – March 5, 1931 Military Transitional designation by Board of Notables (as President of the Supreme Court) President of the Provisional Board
67 Gustavo A Jimenez.jpg Gustavo A. Jiménez
(1886–1933)
March 5, 1931 – March 11, 1931 Military Coup d'état President of the Transitory Government Board
68 Samanez Ocampo.jpg David Samanez Ocampo y Sobrino
(1866–1947)
March 11, 1931 – December 8, 1931 Independent Transitional designation by Assembly of Notables President of the Government Junta
64 Sánchez Cerro.jpg Luis Miguel Sánchez Cerro
(1889–1933)
December 8, 1931 – April 30, 1933 (†) Revolutionary Union Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
69 Óscar Benavides.jpg Oscar R. Benavides Larrea
(1876–1945)
April 30, 1933 – December 8, 1939 Military Designated by the Constituent Assembly Constitutional President of the Republic
70 Manuel Prado Ugarteche.jpg Manuel Prado y Ugarteche
(1889–1967)
December 8, 1939 – July 28, 1945 Independent Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
71 José Luis Bustamante y Rivero.jpg José Luis Bustamante y Rivero
(1894–1989)
July 28, 1945 – October 29, 1948 National Democratic Front Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
72 Gral.Manuel A. Odría.jpg Manuel A. Odría
(1896–1974)
October 29, 1948 – May 31, 1950 Military Coup d'état
73 Zenón Noriega.jpg Zenón Noriega Agüero
(1900–1957)
May 31, 1950 – July 28, 1950 Military Provisional designation Provisional President
72 Gral.Manuel A. Odría.jpg Manuel A. Odría Amoretti
(1896–1974)
July 28, 1950 – July 28, 1956 Odriíst National Union Direct elections (only candidate) Constitutional President of the Republic
74 President Don Manuel Prado.JPG Manuel Prado y Ugarteche
(1889–1967)
July 28, 1956 – July 18, 1962 Pradist Democratic Movement Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
75 R. Perez Godoy.jpg Ricardo Pérez Godoy
(1905–1982)
July 18, 1962 – March 3, 1963 Military Coup d'état President of the Military Government Junta
76 N. Lindley Lopez.jpg Nicolás Lindley López
(1908–1995)
March 3, 1963 – July 28, 1963 Military Coup d'état President of the Military Government Junta
77 Fernando Belaúnde Terry 1980.jpg Fernando Belaúnde Terry
(1912–2002)
July 28, 1963 – October 3, 1968 Popular Action Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
78 Juan Velasco Alvarado.jpg Juan Velasco Alvarado
(1910–1977)
October 3, 1968 – August 30, 1975 Military Coup d'état President of the Revolutionary Government of the Armed Forces
79 F. Morales Bermúdez.jpg Francisco Morales Bermúdez Cerrutti
(1921–)
August 30, 1975 – July 28, 1980 Military Coup d'état President of the Revolutionary Government of the Armed Forces
80 Fernando Belaúnde Terry 1980.jpg Fernando Belaúnde Terry
(1912–2002)
July 28, 1980 – July 28, 1985 Popular Action Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
81 Garciaalan09112006-1.jpg Alan García Pérez
(1949–2019)
July 28, 1985 – July 28, 1990 American Popular Revolutionary Alliance Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
82 Al Fujimori.jpg Alberto Fujimori Fujimori
(1938–)
July 28, 1990 – April 5, 1992
(1st term)
Cambio 90 Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
April 5, 1992 – January 9, 1993
(1st term cont.)
Self-coup. Dissolved the Congress President of the Government of Emergency and National Reconstruction
January 9, 1993 – July 28, 1995
(1st term cont.)
Ratified by the Democratic Constituent Congress Constitutional President of the Republic
July 28, 1995 – July 28, 2000
(2nd term)
Cambio 90Sí Cumple Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
(82) July 28, 2000 – November 21, 2000
(3rd term)
Sí Cumple Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
83 VPC May 2003.jpg Valentín Paniagua Corazao
(1936–2006)
November 22, 2000 – July 28, 2001 Popular Action Constitutional succession (as President of the Congress) Constitutional President of the Republic
84 Alejandro Toledo (8682).jpg Alejandro Toledo Manrique
(1946–)
July 28, 2001 – July 28, 2006 Possible Peru Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
81 Garciaalan09112006-1.jpg Alan García Pérez
(1949–2019)
July 28, 2006 – July 28, 2011 American Popular Revolutionary Alliance Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
85 Ollanta Humala 2014.jpg Ollanta Humala Tasso
(1962–)
July 28, 2011 – July 28, 2016 Peruvian Nationalist Party Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
86 Pedro Pablo Kuczynski 2016 (cropped).jpg Pedro Pablo Kuczynski Godard
(1938–)
July 28, 2016 – March 21, 2018 Peruvians for Change Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
87 Martín Vizcarra Cornejo (cropped).png Martín Vizcarra Cornejo
(1963–)
March 23, 2018 – present Peruvians for Change Constitutional succession (as First Vice President) Constitutional President of the Republic

Timeline[edit]

Martín VizcarraPedro Pablo KuczynskiOllanta HumalaAlejandro ToledoValentín PaniaguaAlberto FujimoriAlan GarcíaFrancisco Morales BermúdezJuan Velasco AlvaradoFernando Belaúnde TerryNicolás Lindley LópezRicardo Pérez GodoyZenón Noriega AgüeroManuel A. OdríaJosé Luis Bustamante y RiveroManuel Prado y UgartecheDavid Samanez OcampoGustavo JiménezRicardo Leoncio Elías AriasMariano Holguín MaldonadoLuis Miguel Sánchez CerroManuel María Ponce BroussetÓscar R. BenavidesGuillermo BillinghurstAugusto B. LeguíaJosé Pardo y BarredaSerapio CalderónEduardo López de RomañaManuel CandamoJustiniano BorgoñoRemigio Morales BermúdezAntonio ArenasAndrés Avelino CáceresMiguel IglesiasLizardo Montero FloresFrancisco García CalderónNicolás de PiérolaManuel PardoMariano Herencia ZevallosTomás GutiérrezJosé BaltaFrancisco Diez CansecoLuis La PuertaMariano Ignacio PradoPedro Diez CansecoJuan Manuel del MarMiguel de San Román y MezaJosé Maria Raygada y GalloJosé Miguel MedinaDomingo ElíasRamón CastillaDomingo NietoManuel Ignacio de VivancoJuan Antonio PezetJosé Rufino EcheniqueEleuterio AramburúJusto FiguerolaJuan Francisco de VidalJuan Bautista de Lavalle y ZugastiJuan Crisóstomo TorricoManuel MenéndezLuis José de OrbegosoAgustín GamarraAntonio Gutiérrez de la FuenteAndrés de Santa CruzSimón BolívarAntonio José de SucreFrancisco Valdivieso y PradaJosé de la Riva AgüeroJosé Bernardo de Tagle y Portocarrero, Marquis of Torre TagleManuel Salazar y BaquíjanoFelipe Antonio AlvaradoJosé de la MarFrancisco Xavier de Luna PizarroJosé de San Martín

Living former presidents of Peru[edit]

All persons who have been non-interim presidents of Peru since 1985 were prosecuted in later years.

As of April 2019, there are five living former presidents of Peru. In order of office they are:

The most recent president to die was Alan Garcia (1985-1990, 2006-2011) on 17 April 2019, who committed suicide before being arrested.

Francisco Morales Bermudez[edit]

Bermudez was sentenced to life in prison by an Italian court in January 2017.[2]

Alberto Fujimori[edit]

Prior to his resignation in 2000, Alberto Fujimori escaped to his home country of Japan seeking political refuge, where he faxed his resignation to Peru. He unsuccessfully attempted to run for a parliamentary position in the Parliament of Japan, and ultimately returned to Latin America in 2006 to run for the 2006 presidential elections.

The refugee president's flight diverted to Chile, where he stayed for six days. Peruvian officials and the President of Peru during the time expressed discontent at Chilean officials for allowing the indicted former president into the continent without repercussion. Ultimately, Fujimori flew back to Peru for unstated reasons and was arrested.

Fujimori was convicted of corruption, bribery, human rights violations, crimes against humanities, murder, and other charges, for 25 years of prison until 2031. Fujimori served his sentence until 2017, where then Peruvian President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski issued a presidential pardon, clearing Fujimori of his conviction.

Following the resignation of Kuczynski, the pardon was declared illegitimate and Fujimori was arrested and returned to confinement. Presently, Fujimori still remains in custody, serving the rest of his 25-year sentence.

Alejandro Toledo[edit]

Following the end of his term in 2006, Toledo abruptly withdrew from Peruvian politics. Toledo and his spouse, Eliane Karp, both moved to California, in the United States, where they have resided since, to avoid persecution.

Toledo and the former First Lady were charged with multiple offenses of corruption and probing, and have been summoned to Peru for a trial. Toledo ignored this warning and proceeded to remain in the United States. Toledo claimed to have been a professor at Stanford University, but the university verified that Toledo was solely invited as a one-time guest speaker to the institution.

Many efforts have been made by former President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski and President Martin Vizcarra to extradite Toledo, but no responses have been heard from the United States government.

In March 2019, Toledo was temporarily arrested for public drunkenness in California, and was released later that night. Via a call in, Toledo denied that he was arrested. There is currently a $25,000 reward for the ex-president.

Ollanta Humala[edit]

Humala and former First Lady Nadine Heredia were abruptly arrested following the end of his term. Both of them were detained for 6 months for investigation on the means of corruption, but were later released.

There were no conclusions or evidence provided by the investigation. Humala continues to reside in Lima.

Pedro Pablo Kuczynski[edit]

Following his resignation in March 2018, Kuczynski quietly left the Government Palace and returned to his home in the district of San Isrido. Kuczynski remained out of the public eye for the following ten months, but was then summoned to the Department of Justice. All of Kuczynski's bank accounts were frozen and he was prohibited from leaving the country.

Kuczynski made few public appearances, but on the first anniversary of his resignation, Kuczynski made his first major public appearance on El Commercio. The former president mentioned his present financial ruins and the amounts of loans he was forced to make. Additionally, Kuczynski mentioned that he felt betrayed by Martin Vizcarra, the incumbent President of Peru who succeeded Kuczynski following his resignation.

On 10 April 2019, Kuczynski was arrested for primary corruption charges on the basis of an ongoing investigation into his connections with Odebrecht, money laundering, and bribery.

Titles and styles[edit]

The President of the Republic of Peru is the Head of the Peruvian State, Head of the Peruvian Government and the Supreme Commander of the Peruvian Armed Forces.

The official style is:

His/Her Excellency [name of the president]

Common usages include:

El Presidente de la Republica / The President of the Republic

Line of succession[edit]

Names of incumbents as of 2018.

President of the Republic: Martín Alberto Vizcarra Cornejo

1- Vice President of the Republic: Mercedes Rosalba Aráoz Fernández

2- President of Congress: Daniel Enrique Salaverry Villa

3- First Vice President of Congress: Leyla Felícita Chihuán Ramos

4- Second Vice President of Congress: Segundo Leocadio Tapia Bernal

5- Third Vice President of Congress: Yeni Vilcatoma de la Cruz

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Political Constitution of Peru, Article 112" (PDF).
  2. ^ "Italy gives Peru dictator life in prison for 1970s murders". Perú Reports. 2017-01-20. Retrieved 2019-04-03.