# Quart

The quart (abbreviation qt.) is an English unit of volume equal to a quarter gallon. It is divided into two pints or four cups. Historically, the exact size of the quart has varied with the different values of gallons over time and in reference to different commodities. Presently, three kinds of quarts remain in use: the liquid quart and dry quart of the US customary system and the imperial quart of the British imperial system. All are roughly equal to one metric litre.

## Name

The term comes from the Latin quartus (meaning one-quarter) via the French quart. However, although the French word quart has the same root, it frequently means something entirely different. In Canadian French in particular, the quart is called pinte whilst the pint is called chopine.

## History

Since gallons of various sizes have historically been in use, the corresponding quarts have also existed with various sizes.

## Definitions and equivalencies

### US liquid quart

In the United States, all traditional length and volume measures have been legally standardized for commerce by the international yard and pound agreement of 1959 using the definition of 1 yard being exactly equal to 0.9144 meter. From this definition is derived the metric equivalencies for inches, feet, and miles; as well as area measures; and measures of volume. The US liquid quart equals 57.75 cubic inches, which is exactly equal to 0.946352946 litres.[1][2]

 1 US liquid quart = 1/4 US liquid gallons = 2 US liquid pints = 4 US liquid cups = 8 US liquid gills = 32 US fluid ounces = 57.75 cubic inches[3] ≡ 0.946352946 litres[2][4] ≈ 33.307 imperial fluid ounces

### US dry quart

In the United States, the dry quart is equal to 1/4 of a US dry gallon, exactly 1.101220942715 litres.

 1 US dry quart = 1/32 US bushels = 1/8 US pecks = 1/4 US dry gallons = 2 US dry pints = 67.2 cubic inches ≡ 1.101220942715 litres[2][4] ≈ 38.758 imperial fluid ounces

### Imperial quart

The imperial quart, which is used for both liquid and dry capacity, is equal to one quarter of an imperial gallon, or exactly 1.1365225 litres.

 1 imperial quart = 1/4 imperial gallons = 2 imperial pints = 40 imperial fluid ounces ≡ 1.1365225 litres[5][6] ≈ 69.355 cubic inches ≈ 38.430 US fluid ounces

In French Canada, by federal law, the imperial quart is called pinte.[7][8]

## Winchester quart

The Winchester quart is an archaic measure,[9] roughly equal to 2 Imperial quarts or 2.25 litres. The 2.5 L bottles in which laboratory chemicals are supplied are sometimes referred to as Winchester quart bottles, although they contain slightly more than a traditional Winchester quart.

## Reputed quart

The reputed quart was a measure equal to two thirds of an Imperial quart (or one sixth of an Imperial gallon) at about 0.7577 litres, which is approximately equal to one US fifth (0.757 litres).

The reputed quart was previously recognized as a standard size of wine bottle in the United Kingdom, and is only slightly larger than the current standard wine bottle of 0.75 L.[10][11]

## References

1. ^ "Authorized tables", United States Code, Title 15, ch. 6, subchapter I, sec. 205, accessed 19 July 2008.
2. ^ a b c Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI)—US government publication
3. ^ One US liquid gallon is defined as 231 cubic inches.
4. ^ a b This has been the exact conversion since the 1964 redefinition of the litre and the 1959 redefinition of the inch.
5. ^ This has been the exact conversion since the redefinition of the imperial gallon in 1985 (UK), c. 1964 (Canada).
6. ^ Text of the Units of Measurement Regulations 1995 as originally enacted or made within the United Kingdom, from legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 3 May 2011.