Quintillus

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Quintillus
Augustus
Antoninianus Quintillus-s3243.jpg
IMP. QQVINTILLVS AVG. / DIANA LVCIF Paris mint
Emperor of the Roman Empire
Reign270 (17–177 days)
PredecessorClaudius Gothicus
SuccessorAurelian
Bornunknown
Sirmium, Pannonia Inferior
(present-day Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia)
Died270
Aquileia, Italia
Issue2 sons
Full name
Marcus Aurelius Claudius Quintillus
Regnal name
Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Claudius Quintillus Augustus

Quintillus (Latin: Marcus Aurelius Claudius Quintillus Augustus;[1] Died April 270) was Roman Emperor for a few months in 270.

Early life[edit]

Quintillus was born at Sirmium in Pannonia Inferior.[2] Originating from a low-born family, Quintillus came to prominence with the accession of his brother Claudius Gothicus to the imperial throne in 268. Quintillus was possibly made Procurator of Sardinia during his brother’s reign.

Reign of Quintillus[edit]

Quintillus was declared emperor either by the Senate or by his brother’s soldiers upon the latter's death in 270. Eutropius reports Quintillus to have been elected by soldiers of the Roman army immediately following the death of his brother;[3] the choice was reportedly approved by the Roman Senate. Joannes Zonaras reports him elected by the Senate itself.[4] Records, however, agree that the legions which had followed Claudius in campaigning along the Danube were either unaware or disapproving of Quintillus' elevation. They instead elevated their current leader Aurelian as emperor.[5]

The few records of Quintillus' reign are contradictory. They disagree on the length of his reign, variously reported to have lasted as few as 17 days and as many as 177 days (about six months).[6] Records also disagree on the cause of his death. Historia Augusta reports him murdered by his own soldiers in reaction to his strict military discipline.[7] Jerome reports him killed, presumably in conflict with Aurelian.[8] John of Antioch and Joannes Zonaras reported Quintillus to have committed suicide by opening his veins and bleeding himself to death;[4][9] John reports the suicide to have been assisted by a physician.[10] Claudius Salmasius noted that Dexippus recorded the death without stating causes.[11] All records however agree in placing the death at Aquileia.

Quintillus was reportedly survived by his two sons.[12]

The Historia Augusta reports Claudius and Quintillus having another brother named Crispus and through him a niece, Claudia, who reportedly married Eutropius and was mother to Constantius Chlorus.[13] Some historians however suspect this account to be a genealogical fabrication to flatter Constantine I.[14]

Legacy[edit]

Surviving Roman records considered Quintillus a moderate and capable Emperor.[15] He was seen as a champion of the Senate and thus compared to previous Emperors Galba and Pertinax. All three were highly regarded by Senatorial sources despite their failure to survive a full year of reign.[14]

Family tree[edit]

previous
Valerian
Roman Emperor
253-260
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gallienus
Roman Emperor
253-268
 
Claudius Gothicus
Roman Emperor
268-270
 
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg
Quintillus
Roman Emperor
270
 
Aurelian
Roman Emperor
270-275
Ulpia Severina
 
Marcus Claudius Tacitus
Roman Emperor
275-276
 
next
Florianus
Roman Emperor
276
 
 
 
Saloninus
Roman Emperor
258-260

Sources[edit]

Primary sources[edit]

Secondary sources[edit]

  • Banchich, Thomas, "Quintillus (270 A.D)", De Imperatoribus Romanis
  • Jones, A.H.M., Martindale, J.R. The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Vol. I: AD260-395, Cambridge University Press, 1971
  • Southern, Pat. The Roman Empire from Severus to Constantine, Routledge, 2001
  • Gibbon, Edward. Decline & Fall of the Roman Empire (1888)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jones, pg. 759
  2. ^ "These men are usually called the Illyrian emperors since they all were born in that province (Illyricum) and were raised to power by legions stationed there." The Ancient World, Joseph Ward Swain
  3. ^ Eutropius IX:12
  4. ^ a b Zonaras, 12:26
  5. ^ Gibbon, Ch. 11
  6. ^ Southern, pg. 110
  7. ^ Historia Augusta, Claudius, 12:5
  8. ^ Jerome, Chronica s.a. 271
  9. ^ "Quintillus". Retrieved 2018-08-05.
  10. ^ John of Antioch, fr. 154 FHG IV, p. 599
  11. ^ Historia Augusta, Claudius, 12:6
  12. ^ Historia Augusta, Claudius, 13:9
  13. ^ Historia Augusta, Claudius, 13:1
  14. ^ a b Banchich, www.roman-emperors.org/quintil.htm
  15. ^ See Eutropius, IX:12
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Claudius II
Roman Emperor
270
Succeeded by
Aurelian