Rajaram I

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Rajaram I
Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire
Chhatrapati Rajaram.jpg
Flag of the Maratha Empire.svg 3rd Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire
Reign11 March 1689– 3 March 1700
Coronation20 February 1689
PredecessorSambhaji
SuccessorShivaji II
Born(1670-02-24)24 February 1670[citation needed]
Rajgad fort
Died3 March 1700(1700-03-03) (aged 30)
Sinhagad fort, Maharashtra
Spouse
Issue
HouseBhonsle
FatherShivaji I
MotherSoyarabai
ReligionHinduism

Rajaram Bhonsle I (24 February[citation needed] 1670 – 3 March 1700 Sinhagad[1]) was the younger son of Maratha ruler Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, and half-brother of Sambhaji Maharaj. He took over the Maratha Empire as its third Chhatrapati after his brother's death at the hands of the Mughal emperor, Aurangzeb in 1689. His eleven-year reign was marked with a constant struggle against the Mughals.

Early life and family[edit]

Rajaram was born to Shivaji and his younger wife, Soyarabai on 24 February, 1670. He was thirteen years younger than his brother, Sambhaji. Given the ambitious nature of Soyarabai, Rajaram was installed on the Maratha throne upon the death of his father in 1680. However, Sambhaji quickly won over the Maratha generals to his side and claimed the throne. Upon Sambhaji's death, Rajaram was crowned as Chhatrapati of the Maratha state.[2].

Rajaram married three times. His first marriage was at the age of ten to Jankibai, the five-year-old daughter of Shivaji's army chief, Prataprao Gujar.[3] His other wives were Tarabai, the daughter of Hambirrao Mohite, the army chief who succeeded Prataprao, and Rajasbai from the influential Ghatge family of Kagal. Rajaram had three sons, Raja Karna, born out of wedlock to a slave woman, Shivaji II with Tarabai, and Sambhaji II with Rajasbai.[4]


Coronation and attack by the Mughals[edit]

After the death of Sambhaji, Rajaram was crowned at Raigad on 12 March 1689. As the Mughals started laying siege to the region around Raigad on 25 March 1689, the widow of Sambhaji ( Yesubai) and her minister Ramchandra Pant Amatya sent young Rajaram to the stronghold of Pratapgad through Kavlya ghat.[citation needed]The Maratha army fought with the Mughals and led the new Maratha king, Rajaram to escape through Kavlya ghat to the fort of Jinji in present-day state of Tamil Nadu via Pratapgad and Vishalgad forts, Rajaram reached Keladi (Near present day Sagar in Karnataka) in disguise and sought refuge from Keladi Chennamma - The brave kannada queen fought the Mughals and ensured safe passage and escape of Rajaram to Jinji where he reached after a month and a half on 1 November 1689, Keladi Chennamma fought the jungle warfare which frustrated the Mughals and the Mughals proposed peace accord for the first time with an Indian ruler, Keladi Chennamma.[5] Details of this escape are known from the incomplete poetical biography of Rajaram, the Rajaramacharita written by his Rajpurohit, Keshav Pandit, in Sanskrit.[6]

Siege of Jinji[edit]

Aurangzeb deputed Ghazi-ud-din Firoze Jung against the Marathas in the Deccan, and specially sent Zulfiqar Khan Nusrat Jung to capture the Jingi Fort. He laid siege to it in September, 1690. After three failed attempts, it was finally captured after seven years on 8 January 1698. Rajaram, however, escaped and fled first to Vellore and later to Vishalgarh.[7]

Santaji and Dhanaji[edit]

Rajaram occupied the fort at Jinji from 11 Nov. 1689, but left before it fell in 1698, setting up his court at fort Satara. During that period when Jinji remained unconquered, "the intrepid Maratha commanders, Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav, wrought havoc in the Karnataka and Maharashtra by defeating the Mughal generals and cutting off their lines of communication."[8]

Death[edit]

A memorial atop Sinhgad Fort marking the place of death of Rajaram.

Rajaram died of lung disease in 1700 at Sinhagad near Pune in Maharashtra leaving behind widows and infants. Janakibai[9], one of his widows, committed Sati upon Rajaram's death.[10] Another of Rajaram's widows, Tarabai proclaimed her young son, Shivaji II as the Chhatrapati and ruled as his regent. However, the release of Shahu, by the successors of Aurangzeb led to an internecine conflict between Tarabai and Shahu with the latter becoming the winner and occupant of the throne.[11][12][13] Tarabai established a separate seat at Kolhapur and installed her son as the rival Chhatrapati. She was shortly deposed by Rajasbai, the other surviving widow of Rajaram. Rajasbai installed the other son of Rajaram called Sambhaji II on the Kolhapur throne. The Kolhapur line has continued to this day through natural succession and adoptions per Hindu custom.[citation needed]

Legacy[edit]

Rajaram commissioned a history of his father which is known as Sabhasad Bakhar after the writer of the work, Krishnaji Anant Sabhasad who was an officer in the service of Rajaram[14]. This is the only Marathi historical work about Shivaji that was written by an author who had been a contemporary of Shivaji. All later biographies were written decades or centuries after Shivaji's death and use content from Sabhasad Bakhar[15].

See also[edit]

Preceded by
Sambhaji
Chhatrapati of the
Maratha Empire

1689–1700
Succeeded by
Shivaji II

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Majumdar, R.C. (ed.) (2007). The Mughul Empire, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 81-7276-407-1, p.296
  2. ^ Mehta, J. L. (2005). Advanced study in the history of modern India, 1707-1813. Slough: New Dawn Press, Inc. p. 45-52. ISBN 9781932705546.
  3. ^ Mehta, J. L. (2005). Advanced study in the history of modern India, 1707-1813. Slough: New Dawn Press, Inc. p. 51. ISBN 9781932705546.
  4. ^ Pati, Biswamoy (editor); Guha, Sumit; Chatterjee, Indrani (2000). Issues in modern Indian history : for Sumit Sarkar. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan. pp. 29, 30. ISBN 9788171546589.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  5. ^ Majumdar, R.C. (ed.) (2007). The Mughul Empire, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 81-7276-407-1, pp.289,365-70
  6. ^ Majumdar, R.C. (ed.) (2007). The Mughul Empire, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 81-7276-407-1, p.609
  7. ^ Majumdar, R.C. (ed.) (2007). The Mughul Empire, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 81-7276-407-1, pp.294-5
  8. ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 200–201. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
  9. ^ Gokhale, Kamal. Rajaram Chhatrapati in Marathi Vishwakosh. Wai, Maharashtra India: Marathi Vishwakosh.
  10. ^ Feldhaus, ed. by Anne (1996). Images of women in Maharashtrian literature and religion. Albany: State University of New York Press. p. 183. ISBN 978-0791428375.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  11. ^ mehta, JL (1981). Advanced study in the history of medieval India. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. p. 562. ISBN 978-81-207-1015-3.
  12. ^ Cox, Edmund Charles. A short history of the Bombay Presidency. Thacker, 1887, pages 126-129.
  13. ^ Thompson, Edward; Garratt, G.T. (1999). History of British rule in India. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. p. 56. ISBN 81-7156-803-3.
  14. ^ Sabhasad, Krishnaji (1920). Śiva Chhatrapati. Translated by Sen, Surendra Nath. Calcutta: University of Calcutta. ISBN 9781371468125.
  15. ^ Sabhasad, Krishnaji Anant (Author); Sen, Surendra Nath (translator) (1920). Siva Chhatrapati. University of Calcutta. pp. 251–252.

References[edit]

External links[edit]