|Alternative name||Rakhi Garhi|
|Area||80–105 hectares (0.80–1.05 km2; 0.31–0.41 sq mi) (Gregory Possehl, Rita P. Wright, Raymond Allchin, Jonathan Mark Kenoyer) |
350 hectares (3.5 km2; 1.4 sq mi)
|Cultures||Indus Valley Civilization|
|Excavation dates||1963, 1997–2000, 2011-present|
Rakhigarhi, Rakhi Garhi (Rakhi Shahpur + Rakhi Khas), is a village in Hisar District in the state of Haryana in India, situated 150 kilometers to the northwest of Delhi. It is the site of a pre-Indus Valley Civilisation settlement going back to about 6500 BCE. Later, it was also part of the mature Indus Valley Civilisation, dating to 2600-1900 BCE. The site is located in the Ghaggar-Hakra river plain, some 27 km from the seasonal Ghaggar river.
Rakhigarhi encompasses a set of seven mounds, and there are many more settlement mounds in the immediate vicinity. Not all of them were occupied at the same time. Depending on which mounds to include, the estimates of the size of Rakhigarhi have been given variously as between 80 and 550 hectares. In January 2014, the discovery of additional mounds resulted in it becoming the largest Indus Valley Civilization site, overtaking Mohenjodaro (300 Hectares) by almost 50 hectares, resulting in almost 350 hectares.
The size and uniqueness of Rakhigarhi has drawn much attention of archaeologists all over the world. It is nearer to Delhi than other major sites, indicating the spread of the Indus Valley Civilization east across North India. Much of the area is yet to be excavated and published.:215 Another related site in the area is Mitathal, which is still awaiting excavation.
In May 2012, the Global Heritage Fund, declared Rakhigarhi one of the 10 most endangered heritage sites in Asia. A study by the Sunday Times, found that the site is not being looked after, the iron boundary wall is broken, and villagers sell the artefacts they dig out of the site and parts of site are now being encroached by private houses.
There are many other important archaeological sites in this area, in the old river valley to the east of the Ghaggar Plain. Among them are Kalibangan, Kunal, Haryana, Balu, Haryana, Bhirrana, and Banawali.
According to Jane McIntosh, Rakhigarhi is located in the valley of the prehistoric Drishadvati River that originated in Siwalik Hills. Chautang is a tributary of Sarsuti river which in turn is tributary of Ghaggar river (Drishadvati River).}
Lohari Ragho is a smaller site nearby.
The ASI excavated the place for three winters, starting from 1997. The excavation has been stopped for years because of a CBI investigation on the misuse of funds. Much of the findings are donated to the National Museum.
In 1963, Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) began excavations at this site, and, though little has been published about the excavations. Further excavations were conducted the ASI headed by the archaeologist, Amarendra Nath, between 1997 and 2000.[note 1] The more recent excavations have been performed by Vasant Shinde, an archaeologist from the Deccan College.
The ASI's detailed excavation of the site revealed the size of the lost city and recovered numerous artefacts, some over 5,000 years old. Rakhigarhi was occupied at Early Harappan times. Evidence of paved roads, drainage system, large rainwater collection, storage system, terracotta bricks, statue production, and skilled working of bronze and precious metals have been uncovered. Jewellery, including bangles made from terracotta, conch shells, gold, and semi-precious stones, have also been found.
There are nine mounds in Rakhigarhi which are named RGR-1 to RGR-9, of which RGR-5 is thickly populated by establishment of Rakhishahpur village and is not available for excavations. RGR-1 to RGR-3, RGR6 to RGR9 and some part of RGR-4 are available for excavations.
In 2014 six radiocarbon datings from excavations al Rakhigarhi between 1997 and 2000 were published, corresponding to the three periods at the site as per archaeologist Amarendra Nath (Pre-formative, Early Harappan, and Mature Harappan). Mound RGR-6 revealed a Pre-formative stage designated as Sothi Phase with the following two datings: and years before present, converted to B.C.E. and B.C.E.
Most scholars, including Gregory Possehl, Jonathan Mark Kenoyer, Raymond Allchin and Rita P. Wright believe it to be between 80 hectares and 100+ hectares in area. Furthermore, Possehl did not believe that all mounds in Rakhigarhi belong to the same Indus Valley settlement, stating, "RGR-6, a Sothi-Siswal site known as Arda, was probably a separate settlement."
Amarendra Nath's who did excavations between 1997 and 2000, reported that the site covers more than 300 hectares (3.0 km2) in size with 7 mounds, five of which are integrated. With new find of two additional mounds of 25 hectares each in 2014-15 during joint excavations conducted by the Haryana Archaeological Department, Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute and Seoul National University, the site has now been found much larger to be over 350 hectares (3.5 km2), making it the largest Indus Valley Civilization site and town in the world.
Digging so far reveals a well planned city with 1.92 m wide roads, a bit wider than in Kalibangan. The pottery is similar to Kalibangan and Banawali. Pits surrounded by walls have been found, which are thought to be for sacrificial or some religious ceremonies. Fire was used extensively in their religious ceremonies. There are brick lined drains to handle sewage from the houses. Terracotta statues, weights, bronze artefacts, comb, copper fish hooks, needles and terracotta seals have also been found. A bronze vessel has been found which is decorated with gold and silver. A gold foundry with about 3000 unpolished semi-precious stones has been found. Many tools used for polishing these stones and a furnace were found there. A burial site has been found with 11 skeletons, with their heads in the north direction. Near the heads of these skeletons, utensils for everyday use were kept. The three female skeletons have shell bangles on their left wrists. Near one female skeleton, a gold armlet has been found. In addition semi precious stones have been found lying near the head, suggesting that they were part of some sort of necklace.
In April 2015, four complete human skeletons were excavated from mound RGR-7. These skeletons belonged to two male adults, one female adult and one child. Pottery with grains of food as well as shell bangles were found around these skeletons.
As the skeletons were excavated scientifically without any contamination, archaeologists think that with the help of latest technology on these skeletons and DNA obtained, it is possible to determine how Harappans looked like 4500 years ago. DNA tests have been carried out on a single skeleton. Results announced in September 2018 showed that the skeleton had no Steppe DNA which may support the idea that Steppe DNA was introduced to India later by the Indo-Aryans.
Fire altars and apsidal structures were revealed in Rakhigarhi.
Hunting tools like copper hafts and fish hooks have been found here. Presence of various toys like mini wheels, miniature lids, sling balls, animal figurines indicates a prevalence of toy culture. Signs of flourishing trade can be seen by the excavation of stamps, jewelry and 'chert' weights. Weights found here are similar to weights found at many other IVC sites confirming presence of standardized weight systems.
So far 53 burial sites with 46 skeletons have been discovered. Anthropological examination done on 37 skeletons revealed 17 to be of adults, 8 to be of subadults while the age of 12 skeletons could not be verified. Sex detection of 17 skeletons was successful out of which 7 were Male and 10 Female skeletons. Most of the burials were typical burials with skeletons in a supine position. Atypical burials had skeletons in a prone position. Some graves are just pits while some are brick lined with lots of pottery in it. Some of them also had votive pots with Animal remains symbolizing offerings to the dead. Bone remains of secondary burials were not charred hence ruling out the possibility of cremation practices. While these burials retained many of the Harappan features, group burials and prone position burials are distinct. Paleo-parasitical studies and DNA analysis to determine the lineage is being undertaken.
A granary belonging to mature Harappan phase (2600 BCE to 2000 BCE) has been found here. Granary is made up of mud-bricks with a floor of ramped earth plastered with mud. It has 7 rectangular or square chambers. Significant traces of lime & decomposed grass are found on the lower portion of the granary wall indicating that it can also be the storehouse of grains with lime used as insecticide & grass used to prevent entry of moisture. Looking at the size, it appears to be a public granary or a private granary of elites.
A cemetery of Mature Harappan period is discovered at Rakhigarhi, with eight graves found. Often brick covered grave pits had wooden coffin in one case. Different type of grave pits were undercut to form an earthen overhang and body was placed below this; and then top of grave was filled with bricks to form a roof structure over the grave.:293
Parasite eggs which were once existed in the stomach of those buried were found in the burial sites along with human skeletons. Analysis of Human aDNA obtained from human bones as well as analysis of parasite and animal DNA will be done to assert origins of these people.
There is also Haryana Rural Antique Museum 60 km away, which is maintained by CCS HAU in its Gandhi Bhawan, exhibits evolution of agriculture and vanishing antiques. Jahaj Kothi Museum, named after George Thomas, is located inside Firoz Shah Palace Complex and maintained by Archaeological Survey of India.
- Amarendra Nath was later found guilty for forging bills during the excavation at Rakhigarhi.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rakhigarhi.|
- 2015 Man and Environment Journal article on Rakhigarhi burials
- Haryana Samvad Newsletter: Detailed report on Rakhigarhi with color photographs, page 1-15
- "Harappa's greatest centre sheds light on our today". The Sunday Guardian. 16 September 2012.
- Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Singh, Sukhvir (May 2015). "Harrapan interments at Rakhigarhi" (PDF). International Journal of Informative & Futuristic Research (IJIFR). 2 (9): 3403–3409. ISSN 2347-1697. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
- "We Are All Harappans Outlook India".
- Tejas Garge (2010), Sothi-Siswal Ceramic Assemblage: A Reappraisal. Ancient Asia. 2, pp.15–40. doi:10.5334/aa.10203
- Wright, Rita P. (2009), The Ancient Indus: Urbanism, Economy, and Society, Cambridge University Press, p. 133, ISBN 978-0-521-57219-4, retrieved 29 September 2013 Quote: "There are a large number of settlements to the east on the continuation of the Ghaggar Plain in northwest India. ... Kalibangan, Rakhigarhi, and Banawali are located here. Rakhigarhi was over 100 hectares in size."
- Nath, Amarendra, Tejas Garge and Randall Law, 2014. Defining the Economic Space of the Harappan Rakhigarhi: An Interface of the Local Subsistance Mechanism and Geological Provenience Studies, in Puratattva 44, Indian Archaeological Society, New Delhi, pp. 84 academia.edu
- Possehl, Gregory L. (2002), The Indus Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective, Rowman Altamira, p. 72, ISBN 978-0-7591-0172-2 Quote: "The site is about 17 meters in height. The southern face of the mounds is rather abrupt and steep. The northern side slopes down to the surrounding plain. The contours of the site have led the excavator to divide up the place into five mounds (RGR-1 through 5). RGR-6, a Sothi-Siswal site known as Arda, was probably a separate settlement. I have visited Rakhigarhi and believe that it is 80 hectares in size."
- Harappa’s Haryana connect: Time for a museum to link civilisations
- Nath, Amarendera; et, al (2015). "Harrapan interments at Rakhigarhi". Man and Environment. XL (2): 11. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
- Possehl, Gregory L. (2002). The indus civilization : a contemporary perspective (2. print. ed.). Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press. pp. 63, 71, 72. ISBN 9780759101722.
- McIntosh, Jane R. (2008). The ancient Indus Valley : new perspectives. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. p. 293. ISBN 9781576079072.
- "Rakhigarhi likely to be developed into a world heritage site". India Today. 31 March 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
- Archana, Khare Ghose (3 June 2012). "Can Rakhigarhi, the largest Indus Valley Civilisation site be saved?". Sunday Times. Retrieved 5 June 2012.
- Wright, Rita P. (2009), The Ancient Indus: Urbanism, Economy, and Society, Cambridge University Press, p. 133, ISBN 978-0-521-57219-4, retrieved 29 September 2013
- Census of India, 2011
- } McIntosh, The Ancient Indus Valley: New Perspectives. Understanding ancient civilizations. ABC-CLIO, 2008 ISBN 1576079074 p76
- name="Ambala">AmbalaOnline - Rrvers of Ambala
- Chopra, Sanjeev (25 September 2010). "Overflowing Ghaggar, Tangri inundate some villages along Punjab-Haryana border". The Indian Express. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
- "Former Archaeological Survey director sentenced to jail for fraud". Hindustan Times. 15 October 2015. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
- Wright, Rita P. (2009), The Ancient Indus: Urbanism, Economy, and Society, Cambridge University Press, p. 107, ISBN 978-0-521-57219-4 Quote: "Rakhigarhi will be discussed briefly in view of the limited published material" (p 107)
- Sinopoli, Carla M. (2015), "Ancient South Asian cities in their regions", in Norman Yoffee (ed.), The Cambridge World History, Cambridge University Press, p. 325, ISBN 978-0-521-19008-4 Quote: "Excavations have also occurred at Rakhigarhi, but only brief notes have been published, and little information is currently available on its form and organization. (page 325)"
- Nath, Amarendra (31 December 2014). "Excavations at Rakhigarhi [1997-98 to 1999-2000]" (PDF). Archaeological Survey of India. Archaeological Survey of India. p. 306. Retrieved 22 February 2016.
- Shinde, Vasant; Green, Adam; Parmar, Narender; Sable, P. D. (2012–2013). "Rakhigarhi and the Harappan Civilization: Recent Work and New Challenges". Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute. 72/73: 48. JSTOR 43610687.
- "Harappan Surprises". Frontline. 13 June 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
- Chandigarh Newsline, 2/23/2007, 'Rakhigarhi is the Largest Harappan Site Ever Found'
- Archaeological Survey of, India. "Indian Archaeology 1997-98" (PDF). Excavation at Rakhigarhi. Archaeological Survey of INdia. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
- "Rakhigarhi, the biggest Harappan site". The Hindu. 27 March 2014.
- Coningham, Robin; Young, Ruth (2015), The Archaeology of South Asia: From the Indus to Asoka, c.6500 BCE–200 CE, Cambridge University Press, p. 183, ISBN 978-0-521-84697-4 Quote: Mohenjo-daro covered an area of more than 250 hectares, Harappa exceeded 150 hectares, Dholavira 100 hectares and Ganweriwala and Rakhigarhi around 80 hectares each."(p 183)
- Kenoyer, Jonathan M. (1998), Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization, Oxford University Press, p. 49, ISBN 978-0-19-577940-0Quote: "Within a few hundred years the thriving town had grown six times larger, covering an area of over 1 50 hectares. ... civilization: Mohenjo-daro (+200 ha), Harappa (+ 150 ha), Ganweriwala and Rakhigarhi (+80 ha) and Dholavira (100 ha)"(page 49)
- Allchin, F. R.; Erdosy, George (1995), The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States, Cambridge University Press, p. 78, ISBN 978-0-521-37695-2 Quote: "Rakhigarhi at 80 hectares is the largest site followed by Banawali at 25 hectares."
- Heitzman, James (2008), The City in South Asia, Routledge, p. 35, ISBN 978-1-134-28962-2 Quote: "They include Mohenjodaro (with a city core of about 100 hectares, and suburbs possibly covering more than 200 hectares) in Sind; Harappa (more than 150 hectares) in the center of Pakistani Punjab; Dholavira (more than 100 hectares) in Gujarat; Ganweriwala (82 hectares) in Pakistani Punjab near the border with Rajasthan; and Rakhigarhi (between 80 and 105 hectares) in Haryana."
- "Dig this! 5,000-yr-old skeletons found in Hisar". Hindustan Times. 15 April 2015.
- "Why Hindutva is Out of Steppe with new discoveries about the Indus Valley people".
- "Virtual Harappans to come alive". The Hindu. 3 May 2015.
- "4500-year-old DNA from Rakhigarhi reveals evidence that will unsettle Hindutva nationalists". India Today. Retrieved 21 October 2018.
- "Dig this! 5,000-yr-old skeletons found in Hisar". Hindustan Times. 15 April 2015.
- "Mysteries of Rakhigarhi's Harappan Necropolis: In burials from 4,000 years ago, women both exalted, condemned". Indian Express. 26 March 2018.
- Shinde, Vasant S.; Kim, Yong Jun; Woo, Eun Jin; Jadhav, Nilesh; Waghmare, Pranjali; Yadav, Yogesh; Munshi, Avradeep; Chatterjee, Malavika; Panyam, Amrithavalli (21 February 2018). "Archaeological and anthropological studies on the Harappan cemetery of Rakhigarhi, India". PLOS ONE. 13 (2): e0192299. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0192299. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 5821334. PMID 29466426.
- "Ancient granary found in Haryana". The Hindu. 2 May 2014.
- "Scientists to study parasite eggs in Harappan graves". The Times of India. 12 January 2014.
- "Biomedical Studies on Archaeology". 19 February 2014.
- Harappan museum at Rakhigarhi
- "Gazetteer of India Haryana, Hisar" (PDF). revenueharyana.gov.in. Government OF Haryana. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 May 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
- Jahaj Kothi museum