Republic of Negros
Republic of Negros
Location of the Republic of Negros in the Philippines
|Status||Provisional Revolutionary Government (1898)|
Constituent of the Federal State of the Visayas (1898–1899)
US Protectorate (1899–1901)
|Common languages||Hiligaynon, Cebuano and Spanish|
|Governor General of the Provinces|
|President of the Chamber of Deputies|
|Legislature||Chamber of Deputies|
|Historical era||Century XIX-XX|
• End of the Negros Revolution
|November 27 1898|
• Surrender of Negros to U.S. forces
|March 4 1899|
|Today part of||Philippines|
Part of a series on the
|History of the Philippines|
The Republic of Negros (Hiligaynon: Republika sang Negros; Cebuano: Republika sa Negros; Filipino: Republika ng Negros; Spanish: República de Negros) was a short-lived cantonal revolutionary republic in the eponymous Visayan island, and later, an administrative division, which existed while the Philippines was under Spanish and American sovereignty.
From November 3–6, 1898, the Negrenses rose in revolt against the Imperial Spanish authorities headed by the politico-military governor, colonel Isidro de Castro. The Spaniards decided to surrender upon seeing armed troops marching in a pincer movement towards Bacolod, the main city of the island. The revolutionaries, led by generals Juan Araneta, from Bago and Aniceto Lacson, from Talisay, were actually carrying fake arms consisting of rifles carved out of palm fronds and cannons of rolled bamboo mats painted black. On 5 November, Spanish officials surrendered themselves to native leaders. A provisional government was then established with Aniceto Lacson as President, and a notice of this was sent to Emilio Aguinaldo in Luzon.
On November 27, 1898, the unicameral Chamber of Deputies (Spanish: Cámara de Diputados) met in Bacolod and declared the establishment of the Cantonal Republic of Negros (Spanish: República Cantonal de Negros). The Chamber of Deputies acted as a Constituent Assembly to draft a constitution. Eventually, the proposed constitution of the Federal Republic of Negros was not implemented. With the looming invasion of the United States Army, President Aniceto Lacson raised the American flag in the Casa Real to welcome the army as a friendly force. Despite the initial protest from the Negros Oriental deputies, the republic was surrendered to U.S. forces on March 4, 1899, and came under U.S. protection on April 30, 1899, as a separate state from the rest of the Philippine Islands. On 22 July 1899, it was renamed the Republic of Negros. However, on 30 April 1901, it had been dissolved and the island of Negros was annexed to the Philippine Islands by the United States, which retained control until the Japanese imperial occupation in World War II.
On January 1, 1899, the Federal Republic of Negros was proclaimed as a State or Canton with two Provinces. Notice of its establishment was sent to General Aguinaldo. On March 4, the island of Negros was surrendered to U.S. forces.
The leaders of the short-lived republic were:
(November 5, 1898 - November 27, 1898)
November 5, 1898 - July 22, 1899
(President in Negros Occidental only until November 27, 1898)
(November 24, 1898 - November 27, 1898)
November 5, 1898 - July 22, 1899
(President in Negros Oriental only)
July 22, 1899 - November 6, 1899
President of the Chamber of Deputies Eusebio Luzurriaga Secretary of the Treasury Simeon Lizares Secretary of the Interior Nicolas Golez Secretary of Public Works Agustin Amenablar Secretary of Agriculture and Commerce Juan Araneta Secretary of War Antonio Ledesma Jayme
July 24, 1854 - October 9, 1937
Secretary of Justice Melecio Severino
November 6, 1899 - April 30, 1901
Governor-General of the Provinces
In Bago City, the event was chronicled in a historic marker found in the Public Plaza, which bears the following inscription:
|“||REPUBLICA DE NEGROS
In this plaza of Bago was proclaimed the Republica de Negros by the revolutionary forces led by general Juan Anacleto Araneta, 5 November 1898. Witnessed by Ananias Diokno, representative of the Central Revolutionary Government. This Republic acknowledged the authority of the First Philippine Republic under Emilio Aguinaldo.
- "The Two Republics of Negros". Retrieved 26 October 2012.
- "What is the República Negrénse?". Archived from the original on 30 September 2013. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
- Kalaw 1921, p. 148
- "Negros History". Sillman University. The Philippine Revolution.
- Two-article series:
- "Pacete: The fate of the Federal Republic of Negros". Sun-Star Philippines.
- "Pacete: The fate of the Federal Republic of Negros 2". Sun-Star Philippines.
- Zaide, Gregorio F. (1970). Philippine Constitutional History and Constitutions of Modern Nations: With Full Texts of the Constitutions of the Philippines and Other Modern Nations. Modern Book Co. p. 34.
- WorldStatesmen. "Philippines - Republic of Negros". Retrieved 10 August 2010.
- Kalaw, Maximo Manguiat (1921). The Present Government of the Philippines. Oriental commercial. ISBN 1-4067-4636-3.(Note: 1. The book cover incorrectly lists author as "Maximo M Lalaw", 2. Originally published in 1921 by The McCullough Printing Co., Manila)