Republic of Negros

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Republic of Negros

Hiligaynon: Republika sang Negros
Cebuano: Republika sa Negros
1898–1899
Flag of Negros
Flag of the Revolutionary Government in Bacolod (1899)[1][2]
Location of the Republic of Negros in the Philippines
Location of the Republic of Negros in the Philippines
StatusProvisional Revolutionary Government (1898)
Constituent of the Federal State of the Visayas (1898–1899)
US Protectorate (1899–1901)
CapitalBacolod
Common languagesHiligaynon, Cebuano and Spanish
GovernmentRepublic
President 
Governor General of the Provinces 
President of the Chamber of Deputies 
LegislatureChamber of Deputies
Historical eraCentury XIX-XX
• End of the Negros Revolution
November 27 1898
• Surrender of Negros to U.S. forces
March 4 1899
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Spanish East Indies
Federal State of the Visayas
Federal State of the Visayas
United States Military Government of the Philippine Islands
Today part of Philippines

The Republic of Negros (Hiligaynon: Republika sang Negros; Cebuano: Republika sa Negros; Filipino: Republika ng Negros; Spanish: República de Negros) was a short-lived cantonal revolutionary republic in the eponymous Visayan island, and later, an administrative division, which existed while the Philippines was under Spanish and American sovereignty.

History[edit]

Official flag of the Negros Revolution until 1898. The flag would be changed when the Negros Republic was established (1898-1901)

From November 3–6, 1898, the Negrenses rose in revolt against the Imperial Spanish authorities headed by the politico-military governor, colonel Isidro de Castro. The Spaniards decided to surrender upon seeing armed troops marching in a pincer movement towards Bacolod, the main city of the island. The revolutionaries, led by generals Juan Araneta, from Bago and Aniceto Lacson, from Talisay, were actually carrying fake arms consisting of rifles carved out of palm fronds and cannons of rolled bamboo mats painted black. On 5 November, Spanish officials surrendered themselves to native leaders. A provisional government was then established with Aniceto Lacson as President, and a notice of this was sent to Emilio Aguinaldo in Luzon.[3]

On November 27, 1898, the unicameral Chamber of Deputies (Spanish: Cámara de Diputados) met in Bacolod and declared the establishment of the Cantonal Republic of Negros (Spanish: República Cantonal de Negros). The Chamber of Deputies acted as a Constituent Assembly to draft a constitution. Eventually, the proposed constitution of the Federal Republic of Negros was not implemented.[4] With the looming invasion of the United States Army, President Aniceto Lacson raised the American flag in the Casa Real to welcome the army as a friendly force. Despite the initial protest from the Negros Oriental deputies, the republic was surrendered to U.S. forces on March 4, 1899, and came under U.S. protection on April 30, 1899, as a separate state from the rest of the Philippine Islands.[5][4] On 22 July 1899, it was renamed the Republic of Negros. However, on 30 April 1901, it had been dissolved and the island of Negros was annexed to the Philippine Islands by the United States,[6] which retained control until the Japanese imperial occupation in World War II.

On January 1, 1899, the Federal Republic of Negros was proclaimed as a State or Canton with two Provinces. Notice of its establishment was sent to General Aguinaldo. On March 4, the island of Negros was surrendered to U.S. forces.[3][5]

Republican leaders[edit]

The leaders of the short-lived republic were:[7]

Aniceto Lacson
(November 5, 1898 - November 27, 1898)
November 5, 1898 - July 22, 1899

(President in Negros Occidental only until November 27, 1898)
President
Demetrio Larena
(November 24, 1898 - November 27, 1898)
November 5, 1898 - July 22, 1899

(President in Negros Oriental only)
Vice-President
José Luzuriaga
July 22, 1899 - November 6, 1899
President of the Chamber of Deputies
Eusebio Luzurriaga Secretary of the Treasury
Simeon Lizares Secretary of the Interior
Nicolas Golez Secretary of Public Works
Agustin Amenablar Secretary of Agriculture and Commerce
Juan Araneta Secretary of War
Antonio Ledesma Jayme
July 24, 1854 - October 9, 1937
Secretary of Justice
Melecio Severino
November 6, 1899 - April 30, 1901
Governor-General of the Provinces

Commemoration[edit]

Historical marker commemorating the republic in Bago City

In Bago City, the event was chronicled in a historic marker found in the Public Plaza, which bears the following inscription:

November 5 has been observed as a special non-working holiday in Negros Occidental through Republic Act No. 6709, signed by President Corazon Aquino on 10 February 1989.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Two Republics of Negros". Retrieved 26 October 2012.
  2. ^ "What is the República Negrénse?". Archived from the original on 30 September 2013. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
  3. ^ a b Kalaw 1921, p. 148
  4. ^ a b "Negros History". Sillman University. The Philippine Revolution.
  5. ^ a b Two-article series:
  6. ^ Zaide, Gregorio F. (1970). Philippine Constitutional History and Constitutions of Modern Nations: With Full Texts of the Constitutions of the Philippines and Other Modern Nations. Modern Book Co. p. 34.
  7. ^ WorldStatesmen. "Philippines - Republic of Negros". Retrieved 10 August 2010.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 10°N 123°E / 10°N 123°E / 10; 123