Rhinoceros philippinensis

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Rhinoceros philippinensis
Temporal range: Pleistocene
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Perissodactyla
Family: Rhinocerotidae
Genus: Rhinoceros
R. philippinensis
Binomial name
Rhinoceros philippinensis
Von Koenigwald, 1956

Rhinoceros philippinensis is a Pleistocene-aged species of rhinoceros endemic to the Philippine islands. Fossil remains have been found in modern day Metro Manila and Kalinga.

The species was first described by Von Koenigwald in 1956.[1] though his specimen has been lost and he did not provide for a holotype.[2]

Fort Bonifacio fossil[edit]

A fossilized jaw of . philippinensis was unearthed by Mr. de Asis on May 13, 1965 in the Fort Bonifacio area. The specimen was unearthed from an ash deposit produced by the volcano called th Guadalupe Formation. The specimen had a length of 12.07 centimeters (4.75 in), width of 6.87 centimeters (2.70 in), and a thickness of 9.47 centimeters (3.73 in). It has a weight of 800 grams (28 oz)[3]

Kalinga fossil[edit]

Some of the Rhinoceros philippinensis bones retrieved from the Kalinga site

A 75 percent complete fossil of the R. philippinensis was unearthed in Rizal, Kalinga along with 57 stone tools.[4] A 2018 study puts the date of the rhino fossil at around 709 thousand years old after the rhino's tooth enamel was subjected to electron spin resonance dating. The authors of the study have found butchery marks on the bones of the ribs, metacarpals and both humeri and suggested that the rhino had been butchered by early humans or hominins, although no bones from any hominin were found at the site.[5]


  1. ^ "The Recently Extinct Plants and Animals Database Extinct Mammals: Placental Mammals: Rhinoceros philippinensis [sic]". Cubits.org. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  2. ^ van der Geer, Alexandra; Lyras, George; de Vos, John; Dermitzakis, Michael (11 February 2011). "Greater Luzon-Greater Negros-Panay-Greater Mindanao: Middle-Late Pleistocene". Evolution of Island Mammals: Adaptation and Extinction of Placental Mammals on Islands. John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  3. ^ "Rhinoceros philippinensis" (in Filipino). National Museum of the Philippines. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  4. ^ Ingicco, Thomas; et al. (May 3, 2018). "Earliest known hominin activity in the Philippines by 709 thousand years ago". Nature.
  5. ^ Tarlach, Gemma (2 May 2018). "Hominin Head-Scratcher: Who Butchered This Rhino 709,000 Years Ago?". Discover Magazine. Retrieved 3 May 2018.