Robot tax

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A robot tax is a legislative strategy to disincentivize the replacement of workers by machines and bolster the social safety net for those who are displaced. While the automation of manual labour has been contemplated since before the industrial revolution, the issue has received increased discussion in the 21st century due to newer developments such as machine learning.[1][2][3]

Assessments of the risk vary widely with one study finding that 47% of the workforce is automatable in the United States, and another study finding that this figure is 9% across 21 OECD countries.[4][5] The idea of taxing companies for deploying robots continues to be controversial with opponents arguing that such measures will stifle innovation and impede the economic growth that technology has consistently brought in the past. Proponents have pointed to the phenomenon of "income polarization" which threatens the jobs of low-income workers who lack the means to enter the knowledge-based fields in high demand.[6] Bank of England economist Andy Haldane has called the rise of automation "a regressive income tax on the unskilled".[7]

Arguments for[edit]

Tax law professor Xavier Oberson has called for robots to be tax-compliant so that government spending can continue even as the pool of taxable income for human workers decreases.[8] Oberson's proposals suggest taxing robot owners until robots themselves have the ability to pay, pending further advances in artificial intelligence.[9][10]

In a 2015 Reddit discussion, Stephen Hawking criticized machine owners for initiating a "lobby against wealth resdistribution".[11] Following Elon Musk's statement that universal basic income should offset the employment effects of robots, Bill Gates gave an interview in favour of a robot tax.[12][7] Support for an automation tax by American politicians can be traced back to 1940 in which Joseph C. O'Mahoney tabled one such bill in the Senate. In 2017, San Francisco supervisor Jane Kim made these strategies the subject of a task force, stating that income disparity attributable to robots is widely visible in her district.[13]

Arguments against[edit]

Critics including Jim Stanford and Tshilidzi Marwala have discussed the futility of a robot tax given the malleability in the definition of "robot".[14][15] In particular, autonomous elements are present in many 21st century devices that are not normally considered robots. Economist Yanis Varoufakis has discussed the additional complication of determining how much a human worker would have hypothetically made in a labour sector that has been dominated by robots for decades. He has instead proposed a variation of universal basic income called the "universal basic dividend" to combat income polarization.[16]

Robotics companies including Savioke and the Advancing Automation trade group have fought robot taxes, calling them an "innovation penalty".[17][18] ABB Group CEO Ulrich Spiesshofer compared taxing robots to taxing software and pointed to the fact that countries with a low unemployment rate have a high automation rate.[19] EU Commissioner Andrus Ansip rejected the idea of a robot tax stating that any jurisdiction implementing one would become less competitive as technological companies are incentivized to move elsewhere.[20] The 2019 World Development Report, prepared by Simeon Djankov and Federica Saliola of the World Bank, opposed a robot tax arguing that it would result in reduced productivity and increased tax avoidance by large corporations and their shareholders.[21]

Existing laws[edit]

On August 6, 2017, South Korea under President Moon, passed what has been called the first robot tax. Rather than taxing entities directly, the law reduces tax breaks that were previously awarded to investments into robotics.[22][23] A robot tax had previously been part of Mady Delvaux's bill imposing ethical standards for robots in the European Union. However, the European Parliament rejected this aspect when it voted on the law.[24]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "In the Future, Will Everyone Be Unemployed?". 4 August 2014.
  2. ^ Censky, Annalyn. "What 0% unemployment looks like". cnn.com.
  3. ^ Thompson, Derek. "A World Without Work". Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  4. ^ Carl Benedikt Frey; Michael Osborne (September 2013). "The Future of Employment: How susceptible are jobs to computerisation?" (publication). Oxford Martin School. Retrieved 7 November 2015.
  5. ^ Arntz, M., T. Gregory and U. Zierahn (2016), "The Risk of Automation for Jobs in OECD Countries: A Comparative Analysis", OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers, No. 189, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi.org.mutex.gmu.edu/10.1787/5jlz9h56dvq7-en.
  6. ^ McKinsey Global Institute (December 2017). Jobs Lost, Jobs Gained: Workforce Transitions in a Time of Automation. Mckinsey & Company. pp. 1–20. Retrieved February 20, 2018.
  7. ^ a b French, Sally. "Bill Gates says robots should be taxed like humans". Retrieved 4 March 2017.
  8. ^ Oberson, Xavier (1 November 2017). "Vers une imposition des robots ou de leur usage ?". Expert Focus, EXPERTsuisse: 896.
  9. ^ Oberson, Xavier (1 January 2017). "Taxer les robots?, L'émergence d'une capacité contributive électronique". Pratique juridique actuelle, Dike Verlag AG: 232. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  10. ^ Oberson, Xavier (4 April 2017). "Taxing Robots? From the Emergence of an Electronic Ability to Pay to a Tax on Robots or the Use of Robots" (PDF). World Tax Journal. 9 (2).
  11. ^ Bolton, Doug. "Stephen Hawking says robots could make us all rich and free – but we're more likely to end up poor and unemployed". Independent. Retrieved 4 March 2017.
  12. ^ "Elon Musk: Robots will take your jobs, government will have to pay your wage". CNBC. Retrieved 4 March 2017.
  13. ^ Robinson, Melia (2017-05-02). "San Francisco is considering a once unthinkable measure to offset the threat of job-killing robots". Business Insider. Retrieved 2018-12-23.
  14. ^ Marwala, Tshilidzi. "On Robot Revolution and Taxation" (PDF). arXiv. Cornell University Library. Retrieved 7 August 2018.
  15. ^ Dunlop, Tim (2017-03-12). "What is a robot exactly and how do we make it pay tax". The Guardian. Retrieved 2019-01-25.
  16. ^ Varoufakis, Yanis. "A Tax on Robots?". Innovation & Technology. Retrieved 4 March 2017.
  17. ^ Said, Carolyn (2017-12-06). "San Francisco to robot: Don't crowd our sidewalks". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2019-01-25.
  18. ^ Cousins, Steve (2017). "Is a "robot tax" really an "innovation penalty"?". Tech Crunch. Retrieved 2019-01-25.
  19. ^ Cutmore, Geoff; Rosenfeld, Everett (2017-03-18). "Bill Gates wants to tax robots but one robot maker says that's 'as intelligent' as taxing software". CNBC. Retrieved 2019-01-25.
  20. ^ "EU Commissioner Says No to Bill Gates' Robot Tax Idea". Retrieved 17 June 2017.
  21. ^ "The Changing Nature of Work". World Bank. Retrieved 6 October 2018.
  22. ^ McGoogan, Cara (2017-08-09). "South Korea introduces world's first 'robot tax'". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2018-12-23.
  23. ^ Sung-won, Yoon (2018-08-07). "Korea takes first steps to introduce 'robot tax'". Korea Times. Retrieved 2018-12-23.
  24. ^ "European parliament calls for robot law, rejects robot tax". Reuters. 2017-02-16. Retrieved 2018-12-23.