Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Tunis

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Archdiocese of Tunis

Latin: Archidioecesis Tunetanus

French: Archidiocèse de Tunis
Arabic: أبرشية تونس
Location
CountryTunisia
Statistics
Area62,632 sq mi (162,220 km2)
Population
- Total
- Catholics

10,955,000
(number unknown) (1%)
Information
DenominationRoman Catholic
RiteLatin Rite
CathedralSt Vincent de Paul
Current leadership
PopeFrancis
ArchbishopIlario Antoniazzi
Website
official site of archdiocese of tunis

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Tunis is a Roman Catholic diocese in Tunis, Tunisia. It was founded on 10 November 1884 under the name "Archdiocese of Carthage", with territory corresponding to that of the then French protectorate of Tunisia. On 9 July 1964, it became a territorial prelature under the ecclesiastical title of Prelature of Tunis. It was made a diocese, keeping the name of Tunis, on 31 May 1995, and raised to the rank of archdiocese on 22 May 2010.[1]

In July 1964, pressure from President Habib Bourguiba's government of the Republic of Tunisia, which was in a position to close down all the Catholic churches in the country, forced the Holy See to abide by a modus vivendi bilateral agreement which regulated its legal status according to the 1959 Constitution of Tunisia.[2] The modus vivendi gave the Catholic Church in Tunisia legal personality and stated that it was legally represented by the prelate nullius of Tunis.[2](p917) The Holy See chose the prelate nullius but the government could object against the candidate before an appointment.[2](p920) The modus vivendi banned the Catholic Church from any political activity in Tunisia.[2](p918) This particular agreement was unofficially described as instead a modus non moriendi ("a way of not dying"). By it, all but five of the country's more than seventy churches were handed over to the state, including what had been the cathedral of the archdiocese, while the state, for its part, promised that the buildings would be put only to use of public interest consonant with their previous function.[3][4][5]

Pope Paul VI suppressed the Archdiocese of Carthage and erected the Prelature nullius of Tunis, in his 1964 apostolic constitution Prudens Ecclesiae, to conform to the bilateral agreement.[6] The Archdiocese of Carthage reverted to the status of a titular see. The first archbishop of the titular see, Agostino Casaroli, was appointed on 4 July 1967. The Annuario Pontificio of that period described the titular archiepiscopal see of Carthage as "founded in the 3rd century, metropolitan see of Proconsularis or Zeugitana, restored as an archiepiscopal see on 10 November 1884, titular archbishopric 9 July 1964".[7] The history of the territorial prelature was given as "founded 9 July 1964, previously an archbishopric under the name of Carthage founded 10 November 1884".[8]

The prelature was elevated to an exempt diocese, directly subject to the Holy See, in 1995.[9][a] In 2010, it was promoted to an exempt archdiocese.[11] The summary of the history of the residential archdiocese of Tunis now given in the Annuario Pontificio is: "archbishopric under the name of Carthage 10 November 1884; Prelature of Tunis 9 July 1964; diocese 31 May 1995; archbishopric 22 May 2010."[12] The ancient see of Carthage, on the other hand, being no longer a residential bishopric, is listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see in the same publication as distinct from the modern see of Tunis. As a summary history of the titular see of Carthage it states: "founded in the 3rd century, metropolitan see of Proconsularis or Zeugitana, restored as an archiepiscopal see on 10 November 1884, titular metropolitan see 9 July 1964".[13]

The Cathedral of St. Vincent de Paul is the cathedral of the archdiocese of Tunis. What was the cathedral of the archdiocese of Carthage, the Saint Louis Cathedral, is owned by the Tunisian state and is used for concerts.

History[edit]

Background: ancient see of Carthage[edit]

The ancient see of Carthage, which is now a titular see,[14] was much less extensive than the archdiocese of Tunis. The territory of the archdiocese is coterminous with that of Tunisia, and thus corresponds approximately to that of the entire Roman provinces of Africa Proconsularis (Zeugitana) and Byzacena. The ancient diocese was only one of many bishoprics within the former of these Roman provinces.

On the other hand, the archdiocese does not enjoy the influence that the ancient diocese had over a large number of bishoprics in an area, encompassing not only today's Tunisia but also much of Algeria.

Apostolic prefecture[edit]

In 1684, Pope Urban VIII established an apostolic prefecture at Tunis for Ottoman Tunisia, which Pope Gregory XVI raised to the rank of an apostolic vicariate in 1843.[15]

Apostolic administration[edit]

In 1881, Tunisia became a French protectorate, and in the same year Charles Lavigerie, who was archbishop of Algiers, became apostolic administrator of the vicariate of Tunis. In the following year, Lavigerie became a cardinal. He "saw himself as the reviver of the ancient Christian Church of Africa, the Church of Cyprian of Carthage",[16] and, on 10 November 1884, was successful in his great ambition of having the metropolitan see of Carthage restored, with himself as its first archbishop.[17] In 1053, Pope Leo IX settled a dispute about primacy in the Roman province of Africa between the bishops of Carthage and Gummi by declaring that, after the Bishop of Rome, the first archbishop and chief metropolitan of the whole of Africa is the bishop of Carthage nor can he, for the benefit of any bishop in the whole of Africa, lose the privilege received once for all from the holy Roman and apostolic see, but he will hold it until the end of the world as long as the name of our Lord Jesus Christ is invoked there, whether Carthage lie desolate or whether it some day rise glorious again."[18] In line with this, Pope Leo XIII acknowledged the revived Archdiocese of Carthage as the primatial see of Africa and Lavigerie as primate.[19][20][21] (The statement by Auguste Boudinhon that the acknowledgement was made in 1893, the year after Lavigerie's death,[22] if not mistaken, is a reference to some renewed recognition.) From then until 1964, the Annuario Pontificio presented the see of Carthage as "founded in the 3rd century, metropolitan see of Proconsularis or Zeugitana, restored as archbishopric 10 November 1884".[23]

In July 1964, pressure from the Tunisian government under President Habib Bourguiba, which was in a position to close down all the Catholic churches in the country, forced the Holy See to accept an agreement of the type known as a modus vivendi, a term that literally means "a way of living". This particular agreement was unofficially described as instead a modus non moriendi ("a way of not dying"). By it, all but 5 of the country's more than 70 churches were handed over to the state, including what had been the cathedral of the archdiocese, while the state, for its part, promised that the buildings would be put only to use of public interest consonant with their previous function.[24][25][26]

In view of the changed situation, the Holy See considered the ancient see of Carthage as no longer restored to residential status, and listed it thenceforth as a titular see. The residential archdiocese's territory became that of the Territorial Prelature of Tunis, established on 9 July 1964. The first archbishop of the titular see, Agostino Casaroli, was appointed on 4 July 1967. The Annuario Pontificio of that period described the titular archiepiscopal see of Carthage as "founded in the 3rd century, metropolitan see of Proconsularis or Zeugitana, restored as an archiepiscopal see on 10 November 1884, titular archbishopric 9 July 1964".[27] The history of the territorial prelature was given as "founded 9 July 1964, previously an archbishopric under the name of Carthage founded 10 November 1884".[28]

Diocese[edit]

The Prelature was elevated to Diocese in 1995. In 2010, it was promoted to Archdiocese. The summary of the history of the residential archdiocese of Tunis now given in the Annuario Pontificio is: "archbishopric under the name of Carthage 10 November 1884; Prelature of Tunis 9 July 1964; diocese 31 May 1995; archbishopric 22 May 2010."[1] The ancient see of Carthage, on the other hand, being no longer a residential bishopric, is listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see in the same publication as distinct from the modern see of Tunis. As a summary history of the titular see of Carthage it states: "founded in the 3rd century, metropolitan see of Proconsularis or Zeugitana, restored as an archiepiscopal see on 10 November 1884, titular metropolitan see 9 July 1964".[14]

The cathedral of the archdiocese of Tunis is the Cathedral of St. Vincent de Paul. What was the cathedral of the archdiocese of Carthage, the Saint Louis Cathedral (Carthage), is owned by the Tunisian state and is used for concerts.

Ordinaries[edit]

Apostolic Vicars of Tunis[edit]

  1. Fidèle Sutter, OFMCap (5 July 1844 – 28 June 1881)
  2. Spiridion-Salvatore-Costantino Buhadgiar, OFMCap (12 August 1884 – 20 November 1884)

Archbishops of Carthage[edit]

  1. Charles Lavigerie (10 November 1884 – 26 November 1892)
  2. Barthélemy Clément Combes (16 June 1893 – 20 February 1922)
  3. Alexis Lemaître, M. Afr. (20 February 1922 – 16 May 1939)
  4. Charles-Albert Gounot, CM (16 May 1939 – 20 June 1953)
  5. Paul-Marie-Maurice Perrin (29 October 1953 – 9 July 1964)

Territorial Prelates of Tunis[edit]

  1. Michel Callens, M. Afr. (9 Jan 1965 – 19 August 1990)
  2. Fouad Twal (30 May 1992 – 31 May 1995)

Bishops of Tunis[edit]

  1. Fouad Twal (31 May 1995 – 8 September 2005)
  2. Maroun Elias Nimeh Lahham (8 September 2005 – 22 May 2010)

Archbishops of Tunis[edit]

  1. Maroun Elias Nimeh Lahham (22 May 2010 – 19 January 2012)
  2. Ilario Antoniazzi (21 February 2013 – )

Auxiliary bishops[edit]

Bishops who were priests of the diocese[edit]

This list contains bishops of other dioceses who were originally priests of the Archdiocese of Tunis.

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Although 1983 CIC canon 431 § 2 states that "[a]s a rule, exempt dioceses are no longer to exist", this case, according to 1983 CIC canon 3, is an exception that must conform to agreements such as the 1964 modus vivendi.[10]

Sources[edit]

  1. ^ a b Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 759
  2. ^ a b c d Cicognani, Amleto G.; Slim, Mongi (1964-06-27). "Conventio (Modus Vivendi) inter Apostolicam Sedem et Tunetanam Rempublicam" (PDF). Acta Apostolicae Sedis. Vatican City: Typis Polyglottis Vaticanis (published 1964-11-30). 56 (15): 917–924. ISSN 0001-5199.
  3. ^ "Closing down the churches". The Tablet. 218 (6481). London. 1964-08-08. pp. 6–7. ISSN 0039-8837. Retrieved 2014-11-16.
  4. ^ Twal, Fouad (2005-03-19). "Tunisie : réouverture de l'église de Jerba, un 'signe de la coexistence des croyants' ". zenit.org (in French). New York: Innovative Media (published 2005-03-21). Zenit News Agency. Archived from the original on 2015-01-11.
  5. ^ Diez, Martino (2013-04-15). "The life of the Catholics from the time of Bourguiba to now". oasiscenter.eu. Milan: Fondazione Internazionale Oasis. Archived from the original on 2014-12-25.
  6. ^ "Carthaginensis (Tunetanae)" (in Latin). From Pope Paul VI (1964-07-09). "Prudens Ecclesiae" (PDF). Acta Apostolicae Sedis (in Latin). Vatican City: Typis Polyglottis Vaticanis (published 1965-03-30). 57 (3): 217–218. ISSN 0001-5199. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-06-15. summa Nostra potestate cathedralem archiepiscopalem Sedem Carthaginensem e numero cathedralium Ecclesiarum tollimus atque exstinguimus, eandem in ordinem titulo tantum exstantium redigentes, eiusque loco praelaturam «nullius» Tunetanam erigimus, quae iisdem finibus cingetur ac prior Ecclesia, atque Apostolicae Sedi directo subicietur.
  7. ^ Annuario pontificio (in Italian) (1969 ed.). Vatican Polyglot Press. 1969. p. 578. ISSN 0390-7252 https://books.google.com/books?id=RQ7jAAAAMAAJ. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  8. ^ Annuario pontificio (in Italian) (1969 ed.). Vatican Polyglot Press. 1969. p. 767. ISSN 0390-7252 https://books.google.com/books?id=RQ7jAAAAMAAJ. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  9. ^ "Tunetana" (in Latin). From Pope John Paul II (1995-05-31). "Antiquorum istius" (PDF). Acta Apostolicae Sedis (in Latin). Vatican City: Typis Polyglottis Vaticanis (published 1995-09-11). 87 (9): 775. ISSN 0001-5199. Tunetanam territorialem Praelaturam, Apostolicae Sedi immediate subiectam, ad gradum dioecesis evehimus, iisdem superioribus retentis finibus atque omnibus iuribus officiisque congruentibus concessis secundum iuris canonici praescripta.
  10. ^ Beal, John P.; Coriden, James A.; Green, Thomas J., eds. (2000). "Canon 3". New commentary on the Code of Canon Law (Study ed.). New York [u.a.]: Paulist Press. pp. 50–51.
  11. ^ "Tunetana" (in Latin). From Pope Benedict XVI (2010-02-22). "Cum in Tunetana" (PDF). Acta Apostolicae Sedis (in Latin). Vatican City: Typis Polyglottis Vaticanis (published 2010-03-05). 102 (3): 141–142. ISSN 0001-5199. Summa igitur Nostra potestate dioecesim Tunetanam, Apostolicae Sedi immediate subiectam, ad gradum ac dignitatem archidioecesis attollimus iisdem servatis finibus.
  12. ^ Annuario pontificio (in Italian) (2013 ed.). Libreria Editrice Vaticana. 2013. p. 759. ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1. ISSN 0390-7252. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  13. ^ Annuario pontificio (in Italian) (2013 ed.). Libreria Editrice Vaticana. 2013. p. 860. ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1. ISSN 0390-7252. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  14. ^ a b Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 860
  15. ^ One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a work now in the public domain: Alzog, Johann B. (1903). "The missions of the Catholic Church". In Pabisch, Francis J.; Byrne, Thomas S. (eds.). Manual of universal church history. 3 (Translated, with additions, from the 9th German ed.). Cincinnati: Robert Clarke. p. 933. OCLC 679368682.
  16. ^ Hastings, Adrian (2004) [1994]. "The Victorian Missionary". The Church in Africa, 1450-1950. history of the Christian Church. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 255. doi:10.1093/0198263996.003.0007. ISBN 9780198263999.
  17. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Lavigerie, Charles Martial Allemand" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  18. ^ Patrologia Latina, vol. 143, coll. 727–731
  19. ^ Joseph Sollier, "Charles-Martial-Allemand Lavigerie" in Catholic Encyclopedia (New York 1910)
  20. ^ Jenkins, Philip (2011). The next christendom : the coming of global Christianity (3rd ed.). Oxford [u.a.]: Oxford University Press. p. 46. ISBN 9780199767465.
  21. ^  Jackson, Samuel Macauley, ed. (1910). "Lavigerie, Charles Martial Allemand". New Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge. 6 (third ed.). London and New York: Funk and Wagnalls. p. 425.
  22. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Boudinhon, Auguste (1911). "Primate" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. 12. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  23. ^ Annuario pontificio (in Italian) (1964 ed.). Vatican Polyglot Press. 1964. p. 95. ISSN 0390-7252 https://books.google.com/books?id=LM8PAQAAIAAJ. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  24. ^ "Closing Down the Churches", in The Tablet, 8 August 1964. Retrieved 16 November 2014
  25. ^ Modus vivendi entre le Saint Siège et la République Tunisienne
  26. ^ The life of the Catholics from the time of Bourguiba to now
  27. ^ Annuario Pontificio 1969 (Vatican Polyglot Press 1969), p. 578
  28. ^ Annuario Pontificio 1969 (Vatican Polyglot Press 1969), p. 767
  29. ^ a b "Archdiocese of Tunis". Catholic Dioceses in the World. GCatholic.org. Retrieved 2 March 2012.

Coordinates: 36°48′01″N 10°10′44″E / 36.80028°N 10.17889°E / 36.80028; 10.17889