Rusyns

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Rusyns
Flag of Carpathian Ruthenia.svg
Flag of Carpathian Ruthenia
Karpatska Ukraina-2 COA.svg
Coat of Arms of Carpathian Ruthenia
Total population
75,000–85,000[a]
Regions with significant populations
 Slovakia33,482[1]
 Serbia14,246[2]
 Ukraine10,183[3]
 United States8,934 [note 1][4]
 Croatia2,879[5]
 Hungary2,342[6]
 Czech Republic1,109[7]
 Polandat 638–10,531 [note 2][8]
 Romaniaat least 200 [note 3][9][10][11]
Languages
Rusyn · Ukrainian · Slovak · Serbian
Religion
Mostly Greek Catholic (Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church) with Eastern Orthodox minority (Russian Orthodox Church and Serbian Orthodox Church)
Related ethnic groups
Other Slavs
(especially Ukrainians · Pannonian Rusyns · Boykos · Hutsuls · Lemkos)

Rusyns (Rusyn: Русины / Rusynŷ), sometimes referred to as Rusnaks (Rusyn: Руснакы / Rusnakŷ) also known as Carpatho-Ruthenians or Carpatho-Russians, are an East Slavic people, who speak an East Slavic language known as Rusyn. As a distinctive people, Rusyns descend from an East Slavic population that inhabited the northern regions of the Eastern Carpathians since the Early Middle Ages. Together with other East Slavs from neighboring regions, they were often labeled by the common exonym Ruthenians, or by the regionally more specific designation Carpathian Ruthenians, and subgroup designation Boykos, Hutsuls and Lemkos. Unlike their eastern neighbors, who adopted the use of the ethnonym Ukrainians in the early 20th century, Rusyns kept and preserved their original name. As residents of northeastern regions of the Carpathian Mountains, Rusyns are closely connected to, and also sometimes associated with, other Slavic communities in the region, like the Slovak highlander community of Gorals (literally, "Highlanders").

The main regional designations for Rusyns are: Carpatho-Rusyns, Carpatho-Ruthenians and Carpatho-Russians, with the Carpathian prefix referring to Carpathian Ruthenia (Rusynia), a historical cross-border region encompassing south-western parts of modern Ukraine, north-eastern regions of Slovakia, and south-eastern parts of Poland. In official Ukrainian contexts, the various subgroups of Carpatho-Rusyns are often known collectively as Verkhovyntsi, (Верховинці) literally meaning "Highlanders".

The endonym Rusyn has frequently gone unrecognised by various governments, and has in other cases been prohibited.[12] Today, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Serbia and Croatia officially recognize contemporary Rusyns as an ethnic minority.[13] In 2007, Carpatho-Rusyns were recognized as a separate ethnicity in Ukraine by the Zakarpattia Regional Council, and in 2012 the Rusyn language gained official regional status in certain areas of the province, as well as nationwide based on the 2012 Law of Ukraine, "On the principles of the state language policy". Most contemporary self-identified ethnic Rusyns live outside of Ukraine.

Of the estimated 1.2 million people of Rusyn origins,[12] as few as 90,000 individuals have been officially identified as such in recent national censuses (see infobox above). This is due, in part, to the refusal of some governments to count Rusyns and/or allow them to self-identify on census forms, especially in Ukraine.[14] The ethnic classification of Rusyns as a separate East Slavic ethnicity distinct from Russians, Ukrainians, or Belarusians is, consequently, politically controversial.[15][16][17] The majority of scholars on the topic consider Rusyns to be an ethnic subgroup of the Ukrainian people.[18][19] This is disputed by some non-mainstream scholars, [20] as well as other scholars from the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Canada, and the United States. According to the 2001 Ukrainian Census, about a third of Rusyns in Ukraine speak the Ukrainian language, while others stick to their native language.[21]

The terms "Rusyn," "Ruthenes," "Rusniak," "Lemak," "Lyshak," and "Lemko" are considered by some scholars to be historic, local and synonymical names for Carpathian Ukrainians; others hold that the terms "Lemko" and "Rusnak" are simply regional variations of "Rusyn" or "Ruthene".[12]

Origins[edit]

The region of Carpathian Ruthenia (Zakarpattia) and Prykarpattia since the Early Middle Age was inhabited by the tribes of White Croats,[22] and partly Dulebes.[23][24][25] There existed different theories to explain Rusyns origin.[26] According to Paul Robert Magocsi, the origin of the present-day Carpatho-Rusyns is complex and not exclusively related to the Kievan Rus'. The ancestors are the early Slavs whose movement to the Danubian Basin was influenced by Huns and Pannonian Avars between the 5th and 6th century, the White Croats who lived in both slopes of the Carpathians and built many hill-forts in the region including Uzhhorod ruled by mythical ruler Laborec, the Rusyns of Galicia and Podolia, and Vlachian shepherds of Transylvania.[23][27] George Shevelov also considered connection with East Slavic tribes, specifically for the Hutsuls, and possibly Boykos, argued descendance from the Ulichs who were not native in the region.[28]

Population genetics[edit]

The 2006 mitochondrial DNA study of Carpathian Highlanders - Lemkos, Hutsuls and Boykos people - showed a common ancestry with other modern Europeans.[29] A 2009 analysis of maternal lineages found that Hutsuls have the highest frequency of the haplogroup H1 found in Central and Eastern populations to that date. Lemkos shared the highest frequency of haplogroup I (11.3%), identical to 2005 sampled population of the island of Krk in Croatia indicating a founder effect, and the highest frequency of haplogroup Haplogroup M* in the region. However, the haplogroup frequencies in Boykos were very different as had atypically low frequencies of haplogroup H (20%) and J (5%) for a European population. Comparison of eight other Central and Eastern European populations (Belorussian, Croatian, Czech, Hungarian, Polish, Romanian, Russian, Ukrainian), showed that the three groups had a greater distance between themselves than these populations, with Boykos showing the greatest distance from all and did not cluster with anyone, Lemkos being closest to the Czech and Romanian (0.17) population, while Hutsuls closest to the Croatian (0.11) and Ukrainian (0.16) population.[30]

The 2014 Y-DNA studies of 200 Pannonian Rusyns in the region of Vojvodina, Serbia, found they mostly belong to haplogroup R1a (43%), I2 (20%), E-V13 (12.5%), and R1b (8.5%), while I1, G2a, J2b, N1 between 2.5-4.5 percent, and J1, R1, T, and H only in traces of less than 1%.[31] They clustered closest to the Ukrainian and Slovakian population, "providing evidence for their genetic isolation from the Serbian majority population".[32]

Modern history[edit]

Constitutional Law on the Autonomy of Subcarpathian Rus' (1938)

During the Dissolution of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (1918), various parts of Rusyn people were faced with different political challenges. Those who lived in northeastern counties of the Hungarian part of the former Monarchy were faced with pretensions of Hungary, Romania and Czechoslovakia. On the other hand, those who lived in the former Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria were faced with pretensions of Poland and Ukraine.[33]

Rusyns formed two ephemeral states after World War I: the Lemko-Rusyn Republic and Komancza Republic. Prior to this time, some of the founders of the Lemko-Rusyn Republic were sentenced to death or imprisoned in Talerhof by the prosecuting attorney Kost Levytsky (Ukrainian: Кость Леви́цький), future president of the West Ukrainian National Republic.[34] In the interwar period, the Rusyn diaspora in Czechoslovakia enjoyed liberal conditions to develop their culture (in comparison with Ukrainians in Poland or Romania).[35]

In October 1938, a series of political reforms were initiated, leading to the creation of the Second Czechoslovak Republic, consisting of three autonomous political entities, one of them being the Subcarpathian Rus' (Rusyn: Підкарпатьска Русь). On 11 October 1938, first autonomous Government of Subcarpathian Rus was appointed, headed by prime-minister Andrej Bródy. Soon after, a crisis occurred between pro-Rusyn and pro-Ukrainian fractions, leading to the fall of Bródy government on 26 October. New regional government, headed by Avgustyn Voloshyn, adopted a pro-Ukrainian course and opted for the change of name, from Subcarpathian Rus' to Carpathian Ukraine.[33]

That move led to the creation of a particular terminological duality. On 22 November 1938, authorities of the Second Czechoslovak Republic proclaimed the Constitutional Law on the Autonomy of Subcarpathian Rus' (Czech: Ústavní zákon o autonomii Podkarpatské Rusi), officially reaffirming the right of self-determination of Rusyn people (preamble), and confirming full political and administrative autonomy of Subcarpathian Rus', with its own assembly and government. In the constitutional system of the Second Czechoslovak Republic, the region continued to be known as the Subcarpathian Rus', while local institutions promoted the use of the term Carpathian Ukraine.[33]

The Republic of Carpatho-Ukraine, which existed for one day on March 15, 1939, before it was occupied and annexed by Hungary, is sometimes considered to have been a self-determining Rusyn state that had intentions to unite with Kiev.[citation needed] The Republic's president, Avgustyn Voloshyn, was an advocate of writing in Rusyn.[citation needed]

The Rusyns have always been subject to larger neighbouring powers, such as Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Slovakia, Poland, the Soviet Union, Ukraine, and Russia. In contrast to the modern Ukrainian national movement that united Western Ukrainians with those in the rest of Ukraine, the Rusyn national movement took two forms: one considered Rusyns a separate East Slavic nation, while the other was based on the concept of fraternal unity with Russians.

Most of the predecessors of the Eastern Slavic inhabitants of present-day Western Ukraine, as well as of Western Belarus, referred to themselves as Ruthenians (Rusyns) (Ukrainian: Русини, transliteration Rusyny) prior to the 19th century. Many of them became active participants in the creation of the Ukrainian nation and came to call themselves Ukrainians (Ukrainian: Українці, transliteration Ukrayintsi). There were, however, ethnic Rusyn enclaves, which were not a part of this movement: those living on the border of the same territory or in more isolated regions, such as the people from Carpathian Ruthenia, Poleshuks, or the Rusyns of Podlaskie. In the Soviet era, Boykos, Lemkos, Hutsuls, Rusyns, Ruski, Cossacks, Pinchuks, Polishchuks, and Lytvyns were classified as Ukrainian sub-groups.

Historically, the Polish and Hungarian states are considered to have contributed to the development of a Rusyn identity that is separate from that of traditional Ruthenians. Rusyns were recorded as a separate nationality by the censuses taken in pre-World War II Czechoslovakia and Hungary, In Poland, until 1939, 'Rusin' has been the official description of the whole nation, while "Ukrainians" were commonly the people involved in a nationalist movement. Nowadays all Polish citizens are allowed to define themselves by a single or double nationality,[36] i.e. "Lemko-Ukrainian", "Lemko-Polish", "Polish-Ukrainian", "Ukrainian-Polish" etc.

According to the 2001 Ukrainian census,[37][verification needed] an overwhelming majority of Boykos, Lemkos, Hutsuls, Verkhovyntsi and Dolynians in Ukraine stated their nationality as Ukrainian. However, some of these ethnic groups consider themselves to be separate ethnicities, while others identify themselves as Rusyns. About 10,100 people, or 0.8%, of Ukraine's Zakarpattia Oblast (Province) identified themselves as Rusyns; by contrast, 1,010,000 considered themselves Ukrainians.[3] Research conducted by the University of Cambridge during the height of political Rusynism in the mid-1990s that focused on five specific regions within the Zakarpattia Oblast having the strongest pro-Rusyn cultural and political activism, found that only nine percent of the population of these areas claimed Rusyn ethnicity.[38][39] These numbers may change with the further acceptance of Rusyn identity and the Rusyn language in educational systems in the area; nevertheless in the present day, according to the Ukrainian census, most – over 99% – of the local inhabitants consider themselves to be Ukrainians.[3]

The Rusyn national movement is much stronger among those Rusyn groups that became geographically separated from present-day Ukrainian territories, for example, the Rusyn emigrants in the United States and Canada, as well as the Rusyns living within the borders of Slovakia. The 2001 census in Slovakia showed that 24,000 people considered themselves ethnically Rusyn while 11,000 considered themselves to be ethnically Ukrainian.[40] The Pannonian Rusyns in Serbia, who migrated there during the rule of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, also consider themselves to be Rusyns. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, some Rusyns resettled in Vojvodina (in present-day Serbia), as well as in Slavonia (in present-day Croatia). Still, other Rusyns migrated to the northern regions of the present Bosnia and Herzegovina. Until the 1971 Yugoslav census, both Ukrainians (Serbian Cyrillic: Украјинци, tr. Ukrajinci) and Rusyns (Serbian Cyrillic: Русини, tr. Rusini) in these areas were recorded collectively as "Ruthenes". Podkarpatskije Rusiny is considered the Rusyn "national anthem".[citation needed]

Since 1992, the Zakarpattia regional council has twice appealed for recognition of Rusyns as a distinct nationality to the Ukrainian parliament (Verkhovna Rada). According to the 2001 All-Ukrainian Census, approximately 10,000 self-identified Rusyns reside within Zakarpattia Oblast alone. In August 2006, the UN Committee on liquidation on racial discrimination urged the Government of Ukraine to recognize Rusyns as a national minority.[citation needed] This is recognized in 22 countries around the globe.[citation needed] In March 2007, the Zakarpattia Regional Council adopted a decision which recognized Rusyns as a separate national minority at the oblast level.[13] By the same decision the Zakarpattia Regional Council petitioned the Ukrainian central authorities to recognize Rusyns as an ethnic minority at the state level.

Autonomist and separatist movements[edit]

A considerable controversy has arisen regarding the Rusyn separatist movement led by the Orthodox priest Dmitri Sidor (now Archbishop of Uzhorod, in the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate)), his relationship with the Russian Orthodox Church and funding for his activities.[41][42] Russia has, as a result of the Russian census of 2002, recognized the Rusyns as a separate ethnic group in 2004, and has been accused[by whom?] of fueling ethnic tensions and separatism among Rusyns.[43]

A criminal case under Part 2, Art. 110 of the Ukrainian Criminal Code was initiated after the 1st European Congress of Rusyns took place in Mukachevo on June 7, 2008. At that particular congress, it was recognized the reinstating of the Zakarpattia's special status as special "territory of Rusyns to the south of the Carpathians" with self-government under the constitutional name Subcarpathian Rus. On October 29, in Mukachevo at a 2nd Congress, a memorandum was signed calling for the authorities to recognise the Subcarpathian Rus autonomy (by December 1). That same day, according to the Kommersant-Ukraine (Ukrainian edition) agents of the Security Service of Ukraine (SBU) questioned Dmytro Sidor and Yevgeniy Zhupan.[44] They were summoned to SBU as witnesses in a criminal case "on the infringement on territorial integrity of Ukraine" initiated in June 2008. However the investigators were interested in the circumstances and sources of financing the 2nd European Congress of Rusyns that took place on October 25, at which the memorandum on reinstating Rusyn statehood was signed. According to Dmytro Sidor the Rusyn movement is financed through business. At the same time, Rusyn leaders claim that it does not infringe on the territorial integrity of the country. Sydor was reportedly convicted on charges relating to separatism in 2012.[citation needed]

Location[edit]

Geographical location of Rusyn homeland (Rusynia)
Four subgroups of Rusyns: Boykos, Dolinyans, Hutsuls, Lemkos
Pannonian Rusyns in Vojvodina, Serbia (2002 census).

Those who use the ethnonym Rusyn for self-identification are primarily people living in the mountainous Transcarpathian region of western Ukraine and adjacent areas in Slovakia who use it to distinguish themselves from Ukrainians living in the central regions of Ukraine.

Those Rusyns who self-identify today have traditionally come from or had ancestors who came from the Eastern Carpathian Mountain region. This region is often referred to as Carpathian Rus'. There are resettled Rusyn communities located in the Pannonian Plain, parts of present-day Serbia (particularly in Vojvodina – see also Ethnic groups of Vojvodina), as well as present-day Croatia (in the region of Slavonia). Rusyns also migrated and settled in Prnjavor, a town in the northern region of present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Many Rusyns emigrated to the United States and Canada. With the advent of modern communications such as the Internet, they are able to reconnect as a community. Concerns are being voiced regarding the preservation of their unique ethnic and cultural legacy.

Religion[edit]

In 1994, the historian Paul Robert Magocsi stated that there were approximately 690,000 Carpatho-Rusyn church members in the United States, with 320,000 belonging to the largest Byzantine Catholic affiliations, 270,000 to the largest Eastern Orthodox affiliations, and 100,000 to various Protestant and other denominations.[45]

Byzantine Catholic[edit]

Most Rusyns are Eastern Catholics of the Byzantine Rite, who since the Union of Brest in 1596 and the Union of Uzhhorod in 1646 have been in communion with the See of Rome.[46][47][48] They have their own particular Church, the Ruthenian Byzantine Catholic Church, distinct from the Latin Catholic Church. It has retained the Byzantine Rite liturgy, sometimes including the Old Church Slavonic language, and the liturgical forms of Byzantine or Eastern Orthodox Christianity.

The Pannonian Rusyns of Croatia are organized under the Byzantine Catholic Eparchy of Križevci, and those in the region of Vojvodina (northern Serbia), are organized under the Byzantine Catholic Eparchy of Saint Nicholas of Ruski Krstur, headed by bishop Đura Džudžar, who is an ethnic Rusyn. Those in the diaspora in the United States established the Byzantine Catholic Metropolitan Church of Pittsburgh.

Eastern Orthodox[edit]

Although originally associated with the Eastern Orthodox Eparchy of Mukachevo, that diocese was suppressed after the Union of Uzhhorod. New Eastern Orthodox Eparchy of Mukachevo and Prešov was created in 1931 under the auspices of the Serbian Orthodox Church.[49] That eparchy was divided in 1945, eastern part joining Russian Orthodox Church as the Eparchy of Mukachevo and Uzhhorod, while western part was reorganized as Eastern Orthodox Eparchy of Prešov of the Czech and Slovak Orthodox Church. The affiliation of Eastern Orthodox Rusyns was adversely affected by the Communist revolution in the Russian Empire and the subsequent Iron Curtain which split the Orthodox diaspora from the Eastern Orthodox believers living in the ancestral homelands. A number of émigré communities have claimed to continue the Orthodox Tradition of the pre-revolution church while either denying or minimizing the validity of the church organization operating under Communist authority. For example, the Orthodox Church in America (OCA) was granted autocephalous (self-governing) status by the Moscow Patriarchate in 1970. Although approximately 25% of the OCA was Rusyn (referred to as "Ruthenian") in the early 1980s, an influx of Eastern Orthodox émigrés from other nations and new converts wanting to connect with the Eastern Church have lessened the impact of a particular Rusyn emphasis in favor of a new American Orthodoxy.

Many Rusyn Americans left Catholicism for Eastern Orthodoxy in the 19th century due to disputes with the Latin Church bishops, who viewed different practices in the Byzantine Rite (such as married clergy) with suspicion. After a bitter fight with Archbishop John Ireland, Father Alexis Toth, himself a Rusyn from Hungary, converted to Eastern Orthodoxy and eventually led as many as 20,000 Rusyn-Americans from Catholicism into Eastern Orthodoxy, for which he was canonized by the Orthodox Church.

Another large segment of Rusyn Americans belong to the American Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Diocese, which is headquartered in Johnstown, Pennsylvania. From its early days, this group was recognized by the Ecumenical Patriarchate as a self-governing diocese.

Ethnic subgroups[edit]

Rusyns subgroups are Carpathian Rusyns, mostly from Carpathian Ruthenia who speak Carpathian Rusyn language,[50] and Pannonian Rusyns, mostly from Voivodina who speak Pannonian Rusyn language. Other more specific ethnic groups with regional identity are Lemkos, considered as a distinct ethnic minority in Slovakia or with some ethnic recognition in Poland, but controversially both with Boykos and Hutsuls are also considered as part of Ukrainian nationality in Ukraine.[30][51][52][53] Some scholars also regarded them as a Vlach minority.[54]

Image gallery[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The total figure is merely an estimation; sum of all the referenced populations below.
  1. ^ Respondents in the U.S. census identified as Carpatho Rusyn
  2. ^ According to the 2011 Polish census, 10,531 respondents identified as Lemkos, separately from Rusyns.
  3. ^ While an estimated 200 people identified themselves as "Rusyns" in 2011, in the 2002 Romanian census, 3,890 people identified as Hutsuls (Romanian: Huțuli; Rusyn Hutsuly) – a minority whose members often identifiy or are regarded as a subgroup of the Rusyns. A further 61,091 Romanian citizens identified as Ukrainian (Romanian: Ucraineni). As the archaic exonym "Ruthenians" was applied indiscriminately to both Rusyns and Ukrainians, some Ukrainian-Romanians may also regard themselves as Rusyns in the sense of a subgroup of a broader Ukrainian identity.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Permanently resident population by nationality and by regions and districts" (PDF) (in Slovak). Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-17.
  2. ^ Становништво према националној припадности [Population by ethnicity]. Serbian Republic Institute of Statistics (in Serbian). Archived from the original on 2013-04-16.
  3. ^ a b c Чисельність осіб окремих етнографічних груп украінського етносу та їх рідна мова [Number of persons individual ethnographic groups of the Ukrainian ethnicity and their native language]. ukrcensus.gov.ua (in Ukrainian). 2001. Retrieved 4 March 2016. Карта говорiв української мови, 10.10.2008; Энциклопедический словарь: В 86 томах с иллюстрациями и дополнительными материалами. Edited by Андреевский, И.Е. − Арсеньев, К.К. − Петрушевский, Ф.Ф. − Шевяков, В.Т., s.v. Русины. Online version. Вологда, Russia: Вологодская областная универсальная научная библиотека, 2001 (1890−1907), 10.10.2008; Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Edited by Gordon, Raymond G., Jr., s.v. Rusyn. Fifteenth edition. Online version. Dallas, Texas, U.S.A.: SIL International, 2008 (2005), 10.10.2008; Eurominority: Peoples in search of freedom. Edited by Bodlore-Penlaez, Mikael, s.v. Ruthenians. Quimper, France: Organization for the European Minorities, 1999–2008, 10.10.2008.
  4. ^ "Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more ancestry categories reported, 2010 American Community Survey, 1-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 30, 2012.
  5. ^ "STANOVNIŠTVO PREMA NARODNOSTI, PO GRADOVIMA/OPĆINAMA, POPIS 2001" [Population by ethnicity in cities and municipalities, 2001 Census] (in Croatian). State Institute for Statistics of the Republic of Croatia.
  6. ^ Vukovich, Gabriella (2018). Mikrocenzus 2016 - 12. Nemzetiségi adatok [2016 microcensus - 12. Ethnic data] (PDF). Hungarian Central Statistical Office (in Hungarian). Budapest. ISBN 978-963-235-542-9. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  7. ^ "Rusínská národnostní menšina". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  8. ^ "Ludność. Stan i struktura demograficzno społeczna" [State and structure of the social demographics of the population] (PDF). Central Statistical Office of Poland (in Polish). 2013. p. 91. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
  9. ^ Moser, Michael (2016). ""Rusyn"". In Tomasz Kamusella, Motoki Nomachi & Catherine Gibson (eds.). The Palgrave Handbook of Slavic Languages, Identities and Borders. Basingstoke UK: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 132.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  10. ^ "Populaţia după etnie" (PDF) (in Romanian). Institutul Naţional de Statistică. Retrieved 2011-10-28.
  11. ^ "Date naţionale" (in Romanian). Erdélyi Magyar Adatbank. Archived from the original on 2011-09-29. Retrieved 2011-10-28.
  12. ^ a b c Paul Magocsi (1995). "The Rusyn Question". Political Thought. 2–3 (6).
  13. ^ a b Ukraine’s ethnic minority seeks independence. RT
  14. ^ "Законодавство України не дозволяє визнати русинів Закарпаття окремою національністю". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  15. ^ Professor Ivan Pop: Encyclopedia of Subcarpathian Ruthenia(Encyclopedija Podkarpatskoj Rusi). Uzhhorod, 2000. With support from Carpatho-Russian ethnic research center in the USA ISBN 9667838234
  16. ^ Paul Robert Magocsi, Encyclopedia of Rusyn History and Culture . University of Toronto Press, June 2002. ISBN 978-0-8020-3566-0
  17. ^ Tom Trier (1998), Inter-Ethnic Relations in Transcarpathian Ukraine
  18. ^ Wilson, Andrew (2000), The Ukrainians: Unexpected Nation, New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08355-6.
  19. ^ Taras Kuzio (2005), "The Rusyn Question in Ukraine: Sorting Out Fact from Fiction" Archived 2009-03-27 at the Wayback Machine, Canadian Review of Studies in Nationalism, XXXII
  20. ^ Trochanowski, Piotr (14 January 1992). "Lemkowszczyzna przebudzona" [Lemkivshchyna Awakened]. Gazeta Wyborcza (Krakowski dodatek) (in Polish). Cracow. p. 2.
  21. ^ "Number of persons of individual ethnic groups other than those of Ukrainian ethnicity and their native language" Чисельність осіб окремих етнографічних груп украінського етносу та їх рідна мова [Number of persons of individual ethnic groups other than those of Ukrainian ethnicity and their native language] (in Ukrainian). State Committee for Statistics of Ukraine: 2001 Census. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  22. ^ Вортман Д.Я., Косміна О.Ю. (2007). КАРПАТИ КРАЇНСЬКІ. Encyclopedia of Ukrainian History (in Ukrainian). 2. Naukova Dumka, NASU Institute of History of Ukraine. p. 528. ISBN 966-00-0734-5. Не пізніше 6 ст. нас. Східнокарпатського регіону стає переважно слов'ян. Одне з літописних племен – білих хорватів (див. Хорвати) – локалізують у Передкарпатті. Наприкінці 10 ст. їх підкорив вел. кн. київ. Володимир Святославич і таким чином зх. кордони Київської Русі сягнули Карпат
  23. ^ a b Magocsi, Paul Robert (1995). "The Carpatho-Rusyns". Carpatho-Rusyn American. XVIII (4). The purpose of this somewhat extended discussion of early history is to emphasize the complex origins of the Carpatho-Rusyns. They were not, as is often asserted, exclusively associated with Kievan Rus', from which it is said their name Rusyn derives. Rather, the ancestors of the present-day Carpatho-Rusyns are descendants of: (1) early Slavic peoples who came to the Danubian Basin with the Huns; (2) the White Croats; (3) the Rusyns of Galicia and Podolia; and (4) the Vlachs of Transylvania.
  24. ^ Magocsi, Paul Robert (2002). The Roots of Ukrainian Nationalism: Galicia as Ukraine's Piedmont. University of Toronto Press. pp. 2–4. ISBN 9780802047380.
  25. ^ Sedov, Valentin Vasilyevich (2013) [1995]. Славяне в раннем Средневековье [Sloveni u ranom srednjem veku (Slavs in Early Middle Ages)]. Novi Sad: Akademska knjiga. pp. 168, 444, 451. ISBN 978-86-6263-026-1.
  26. ^ Motta, Giuseppe (2014). Less than Nations: Central-Eastern European Minorities after WWI, Volumes 1 and 2. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 156. ISBN 978-1-4438-5859-5. There were different theories to explain the presence of Rusyns. In his The settlements, economy and history of the Rusyns of Subcarpathia (1923) A. Hodinka wondered if Russians arrived before the Magyars, at the same time or later? Were they White Croats? Slavs who mixed with nomad Vlachs?
  27. ^ Magocsi, Paul R. (30 July 2005). Our people: Carpatho-Rusyns and their descendants in North America. Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers. p. 5. ISBN 9780865166110.
  28. ^ George Shevelov (2002) [1979]. "A Historical Phonology of the Ukrainіan Language" (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 2008-07-23. Говорячи про Україну, слід брати до уваги такі доісторичні слов’янські племена, перелічені та/або згадані в Київському Початковому літописі, як деревляни (Середнє Полісся), сіверяни (Східне Полісся), поляни (Київщина, цебто ядро Русі), бужани (називані також волинянами або дулібами), уличі або улучі, тиверці (Подністров’я) та хорвати (Карпати? Перемищина?). Дуліби востаннє згадуються в записі за 907 р., уличі за 922 р., поляни й тиверці за 944 р., деревляни за 990 р., хорвати за 992 р., сіверяни за 1024 р. Дивлячись суто географічно, середньополіські говірки можуть бути виведені від деревлян, східнополіські від сіверян, західноволинські від дулібів; висловлено також гіпотезу, обстоювану — з індивідуальними нюансами — низкою вчених (Шахматовим, Лєр-Сплавінським, Зілинським, Нідерле, Кобилянським та ін.), що гуцули, а можливо й бойки, є нащадками уличів, які під тиском печенігів залишили свої рідні землі над Богом, переселившися до цієї частини карпатського реґіону. Проте нам нічого не відомо про мовні особливості, якими відрізнялися між собою доісторичні слов’янські племена на Україні, а отже будь-які спроби пов’язати сучасні говірки зі згаданими племенами ані довести, ані, навпаки, спростувати незмога.
  29. ^ Willis, Catherine (2006). "Study of the Human Mitochondrial DNA Polymorphism". McNair Scholars Journal. 10 (1). Retrieved 2009-06-21.
  30. ^ a b Nikitin, Alexey G.; Kochkin, Igor T.; June, Cynthia M.; Willis, Catherine M.; Mcbain, Ian; Videiko, Mykhailo Y. (2009). "Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in Boyko, Hutsul and Lemko populations of Carpathian highlands". Human Biology. 81 (1): 43–58. doi:10.3378/027.081.0104. PMID 19589018.
  31. ^ Veselinovic; et al. (2014). "Genetic polymorphism of 17 Y chromosomal STRs in the Rusyn population sample from Vojvodina Province, Serbia". International Journal of Legal Medicine. 128 (2): 273–274. doi:10.1007/s00414-013-0877-9. PMID 23729201.
  32. ^ Rębała; et al. (2014). "Northern Slavs from Serbia do not show a founder effect at autosomal and Y-chromosomal STRs and retain their paternal genetic heritage". Forensic Science International: Genetics. 8 (1): 126–131. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2013.08.011. PMID 24315599. Retrieved 10 November 2018.
  33. ^ a b c Rychlík & Rychlíková 2016.
  34. ^ Vavrik, Vasilij Romanowicz (2001). Terezin i Talergof : k 50-letnej godovščine tragedii galic.-rus. naroda (in Russian). Moscow: Soft-izdat. OCLC 163170799. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
  35. ^ Orest Subtelny, Ukraine. A History. Second edition, 1994. p. 350-351. Subtelny treats transcarpathian Rusyns as a group of Ukrainians
  36. ^ Ludność. Stan i struktura demograficzno-społeczna. Narodowy Spis Powszechny Ludności i Mieszkań 2011
  37. ^ "Ukrainian National Census 2001" Всеукраїнського перепису населення 2001 [Ukrainian National Census 2001] (in Ukrainian). ukrcensus.gov.ua. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  38. ^ Taras Kuzio (2005). The Rusyn Question in Ukraine: Sorting Out Fact from Fiction. Archived 2009-03-27 at the Wayback Machine Canadian Review of Studies in Nationalism, XXXII
  39. ^ Political and Ethno-Cultural Aspects of the Rusyns’ problem: A Ukrainian Perspective - by Natalya Belitser, Pylyp Orlyk Institute for Democracy, Kyiv, Ukraine
  40. ^ Peter Nagy. "Slovakia census 2001 - Genealogy". centroconsult.sk. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
  41. ^ Дмитрий Сидор отказался давать показания СБУ и "наехал" на журналистов [Dmitry Sidorov refused to give evidence to a Ukrainian Security Services investigation and "struck back" at journalists]. ua-reporter.com (in Russian). 19 November 2008. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  42. ^ ПОЛІТИЧНЕ РУСИНСТВО І ЙОГО СПОНСОРИ [Political Rusynism and its sponsors]. ua-reporter.com (in Ukrainian). 11 July 2009. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
  43. ^ Україна в лещатах російських спецслужб [Ukraine is in the grip of Russian secret services]. radiosvoboda.org (in Ukrainian). 25 December 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
  44. ^ Лідерів русинів допитали в СБУ [Leaders of Rusyns were questioned at the SBU]. ua.glavred.info (in Ukrainian). 30 October 2008. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011.
  45. ^ Magocsi, Paul R (1994). Our People: Carpatho-Rusyns and Their Descendants in North America. Toronto: Multicultural History Society of Ontario. ISBN 9780919045668. OCLC 30973382.
  46. ^ Pekar 1979.
  47. ^ Litwin 1987, p. 57–83.
  48. ^ Véghseő 2015, p. 147-181.
  49. ^ Eastern Churches Journal: A Journal of Eastern Christendom, vol. 4 (1997), p. 61
  50. ^ Дуличенко А. Д. (2005). "Малые славянские литературные языки. III. Восточнославянские малые литературные языки. IIIа. Карпаторусинский". Языки мира. Славянские языки. М.: Academia. pp. 610–611. ISBN 978-5-87444-216-3.
  51. ^ Encyclopedia of Ukraine: Hutsuls‹See Tfd›(in English)
  52. ^ Richard T.Schaefer (ed.), 2008, Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society, Volume 1, SAGE Publications, p. 1341.
  53. ^ Olson, James Stuart; Pappas, Lee Brigance; Pappas, Nicholas Charles; Pappas, Nicholas C. J. (1994). An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of the Russian and Soviet Empires. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 135–136. ISBN 978-0-313-27497-8.
  54. ^ Ewa Kocój (2015). "Heritage without heirs? Tangible and religious cultural heritage of the Vlach minority in Europe in the context of an interdisciplinary research project". Balcanica Posnaniensia Acta et studia. Baner. Jagiellonian University, Faculty of Management and Social Communication, Kraków, Poland. 22 (1): 141–142. The prevailing religion among Lemkos and Boykos, who are the representatives of the Vlach minority in Poland, Slovakia and Ukraine, includes the Orthodox faith and then the Greek Catholic Church ... Hutsuls, who inhabit the south-west of Ukraine (Chornohora) and the north of Romania, are mostly Orthodox and, to a much lesser extent, Greek Catholics

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Русский язык