Same-sex union legislation

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  Marriage open to same-sex couples (rings: individual cases)
  Legislation or binding domestic court ruling establishing same-sex marriage, but marriage is not yet provided for
  Same-sex marriage recognized when performed in certain other jurisdictions, and accorded greater rights than local same-sex unions (if any)
  Civil unions or domestic partnerships
  Limited legal recognition (registered cohabitation)
  Local certification without legal force
  Limited recognition of marriage performed in certain other jurisdictions (residency rights for spouses)
  Country subject to an international court ruling to recognize same-sex marriage
  Same-sex unions not legally recognized
Legal status of same-sex unions
Marriage
Performed
Recognized

* Not yet in effect, but automatic deadline set by judicial body for same-sex marriage to become legal

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Same-sex marriage is legal (nationwide or in some parts) in the following countries: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Denmark, Ecuador, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico,[nb 1] the Netherlands,[nb 2] New Zealand,[nb 3] Norway, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Taiwan, the United Kingdom,[nb 4] the United States,[nb 5] and Uruguay. A court ruling allowing same-sex marriage in Costa Rica will take effect at latest on 26 May 2020.

Same-sex marriage is recognized, but not performed, in Israel. Furthermore, same-sex marriages performed in the Netherlands are recognized in Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten.

Whether same-sex couples should be allowed to marry has been and remains the topic of debate worldwide. 32 countries and four jurisdictions worldwide have passed constitutional amendments that explicitly prohibit the legal recognition of same-sex marriage and sometimes other forms of legal unions as well.[1] 15 countries and 27 jurisdictions worldwide have authorized civil unions or unregistered cohabitation for same-sex couples as an alternative to marriage. The legal name of those unions as well as the number of rights that they provide can vary greatly.

Legislative efforts to recognise same-sex unions[edit]

National level[edit]

The first legislation of unregistered cohabitation was introduced in the Netherlands in June 1979.[2][3] However, the first substantial recognition of same-sex couples didn't occur before the introduction of a new legal form, that of registered partnerships, which was first enacted in Denmark in June 1989.[4] Many countries have followed with similar legislation since then. Legislation of these forms of legal unions still occur with a variety of different names, even after the introduction of same sex marriage, although sometimes they are overwritten by subsequent legislation of same-sex marriage.

There are currently 15 countries that have an alternative form of legal recognition other than marriage on a national level. Those are Andorra, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Liechtenstein, San Marino, Slovenia and Switzerland.

As of 24 August 2019, legislation to allow an alternative form of legal recognition of same-sex couples other than marriage is pending, or has passed at least one legislative house on a national level in Lithuania, Monaco, the Philippines, and Poland.

As of 24 August 2019, same-sex marriage has been legal (nationwide or in some parts) in Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Denmark, Ecuador, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico,[nb 1] the Netherlands,[nb 2] New Zealand,[nb 3] Norway, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Taiwan, the United Kingdom,[nb 4] the United States,[nb 5] and Uruguay. A court ruling allowing same-sex marriage in Costa Rica will take effect at latest on 26 May 2020.

As of 24 August 2019, legislation to allow same-sex marriage is pending, or has passed at least one legislative house on a national level in Chile, the Czech Republic, Japan, Mexico and Switzerland.

Country Date Same-sex union Upper house Lower house Head of state Law
enacted?
Yes No Yes No
Netherlands Netherlands June 1979 Unregistered cohabitation[2][3] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Netherlands Netherlands December 1980 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[2][3] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Netherlands Netherlands November 1984 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[2][3] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Denmark Denmark June 1986 Unregistered cohabitation[3][5][6] N/A 78 62 Signed Yes Yes
Sweden Sweden June 1987 Unregistered cohabitation[7] N/A Passed N/A[a 1] Yes Yes
Denmark Denmark June 1989 Registered partnership[8][9] N/A 71 47 Signed Yes Yes[a 2]
Norway Norway July 1991 Unregistered cohabitation[10] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Norway Norway April 1993 Registered partnership[11] 18 16 58 40 Signed Yes Yes[a 2]
Sweden Sweden June 1994 Registered partnership[12] N/A 171 141 N/A[a 1] Yes Yes[a 2]
Spain Spain November 1994 Unregistered cohabitation[3] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Hungary Hungary May 1996 Unregistered cohabitation[3][13] N/A 207 73 Signed Yes Yes
Iceland Iceland June 1996 Confirmed cohabitation[14][15] N/A 44 1 Signed Yes Yes[a 2]
Slovakia Slovakia May 1997 Registered partnership[16] N/A Failed No No
Netherlands Netherlands July 1997 Registered partnership[2] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Andorra Andorra December 1997 De facto family union[17] N/A 11 17 No No
Czech Republic Czech Republic June 1998 Registered partnership[18] Failed No No
France France October 1998 Civil solidarity pact[19] Failed No No
Belgium Belgium January 1999 Legal cohabitation[20][21] 39 8 98 10 Signed Yes Yes
Sweden Sweden March 1999 Registered partnership (expansion)[22] N/A Passed N/A[a 1] Yes Yes[a 2]
Denmark Denmark June 1999 Registered partnership (expansion: adoption rights)[23] N/A 61 48 Signed Yes Yes[a 2]
France France November 1999 Civil solidarity pact and concubinage[24] Passed 315 249 Signed Yes Yes
Czech Republic Czech Republic December 1999 Registered partnership[25] 69 91 No No
Slovakia Slovakia February 2000 Registered partnership[16] N/A Failed No No
Canada Canada April 2000 Common-law partnership[26][27][28] Passed 174 72 Signed Yes Yes
Iceland Iceland May 2000 Confirmed cohabitation (expansion: adoption and immigration rights)[29] N/A 49 1 Signed Yes Yes[a 2]
Netherlands Netherlands December 2000 Marriage[30][31] 49 26 109 33 Signed Yes Yes
Norway Norway December 2000 Registered partnership (expansion)[10][32] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes[a 2]
Germany Germany February 2001 Registered life partnership[33] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes[a 2]
Portugal Portugal March 2001 De facto union[34][35] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
New Zealand New Zealand April 2001 De facto relationship[36] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Czech Republic Czech Republic April 2001 Unregistered cohabitation[37] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Norway Norway June 2001 Registered partnership (expansion: adoption rights)[38][39] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes[a 2]
Finland Finland September 2001 Registered partnership[40] N/A 99 84 Signed Yes Yes
Czech Republic Czech Republic October 2001 Registered partnership[41] Failed No No
Sweden Sweden June 2002 Registered partnership (expansion: adoption rights)[42] N/A Passed N/A[a 1] Yes Yes[a 2]
Belgium Belgium February 2003 Marriage[43] 46 15 91 22 Signed Yes Yes
Denmark Denmark May 2003 Registered partnership (expansion)[44] N/A 49 60 No No
Denmark Denmark May 2003 Registered partnership (expansion)[45] N/A 45 60 No No
Denmark Denmark May 2003 Registered partnership (expansion)[46] N/A 43 61 No No
Denmark Denmark June 2003 Registered partnership (expansion)[47] N/A 11 94 No No
Croatia Croatia July 2003 Unregistered cohabitation[48] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Luxembourg Luxembourg May 2004 Free union[49] N/A Failed No No
Luxembourg Luxembourg May 2004 Marriage[50] N/A Failed No No
Luxembourg Luxembourg July 2004 Partnership[51] N/A 33 7 Signed Yes Yes
Panama Panama September 2004 Civil union[52] N/A Failed No No
Germany Germany October 2004 Registered life partnership (expansion: adoption rights)[53] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes[a 2]
Norway Norway November 2004 Marriage[54] N/A Failed No No
United Kingdom United Kingdom November 2004 Civil partnership[55] 251 136 426 49 Signed Yes Yes
New Zealand New Zealand November 2004 De facto relationship (expansion)[56] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
New Zealand New Zealand December 2004 Civil union[57] N/A 65 55 Signed Yes Yes
Czech Republic Czech Republic February 2005 Registered partnership[58] Failed No No
Andorra Andorra March 2005 Stable couple union[59] N/A Passed Signed [a 3] Yes Yes
Slovenia Slovenia March 2005 Registered partnership[60] N/A[a 4] Failed No No
New Zealand New Zealand March 2005 Civil union and de facto relationship (expansion)[61][62] N/A 76 43 Signed Yes Yes
Sweden Sweden June 2005 Registered partnership (expansion)[63] N/A Passed N/A[a 1] Yes Yes[a 2]
Switzerland Switzerland June 2005 Registered partnership[64] Passed Passed N/A Yes Yes
Specific referendum (58.04%)
Spain Spain July 2005 Marriage[65] Vetoed [a 5] 183 136 Signed Yes Yes
Canada Canada July 2005 Marriage[66] 47 21 158 133 Signed Yes Yes
Slovenia Slovenia July 2005 Partnership[67] N/A[a 4] 44 3 Signed Yes Yes
Croatia Croatia October 2005 Registered partnership[68] N/A Failed No No
Czech Republic Czech Republic March 2006 Registered partnership[69] 65 14 86 54 Vetoed [a 6] Yes Yes
Belgium Belgium May 2006 Marriage (expansion: adoption rights)[70][71] 34 33 77 62 Signed Yes Yes
Spain Spain May 2006 Marriage (expansion: medically assisted reproduction)[72] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Denmark Denmark June 2006 Registered partnership (expansion)[73] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes[a 2]
Iceland Iceland June 2006 Confirmed cohabitation (expansion)[74][75] N/A 41 0 Signed Yes Yes[a 2]
France France June 2006 Civil solidarity pact (expansion)[76] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
South Africa South Africa November 2006 Marriage and civil partnership[77] 36 11 229 41 Signed Yes Yes
Portugal Portugal December 2006 De facto union (expansion: immigration rights)[78] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Finland Finland December 2006 Registered partnership (expansion)[79][80] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Spain Spain March 2007 Marriage (expansion: automatic co-parenthood)[72] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Colombia Colombia June 2007 Civil union[81] 29 34 62 43 No No
Hungary Hungary December 2007 Registered partnership[82] N/A 185 154 Signed No No[a 7]
Uruguay Uruguay December 2007 Cohabitation union[83][84] 17 5 Passed Signed Yes Yes
Iceland Iceland May 2008 Confirmed cohabitation (expansion)[85][86] N/A 54 0 Signed Yes Yes[a 2]
Norway Norway June 2008 Marriage[87] 23 17 84 41 Signed Yes Yes
Ecuador Ecuador September 2008 De facto union[88] General constitutional referendum (69.46%) Yes Yes
Portugal Portugal October 2008 Marriage[89] N/A Failed No No
Portugal Portugal October 2008 Marriage[89] N/A Failed No No
United Kingdom United Kingdom November 2008 Civil partnership (expansion)[90] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Australia Australia November 2008 De facto relationship[91] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Sweden Sweden April 2009 Marriage[92] N/A 261 22 N/A[a 1] Yes Yes
Hungary Hungary April 2009 Registered partnership[93][94] N/A 199 159 Signed Yes Yes
France France May 2009 Recognition of unions performed abroad as PACS[95] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Finland Finland May 2009 Registered partnership (expansion: adoption rights)[96] N/A 108 29 Signed Yes Yes
Denmark Denmark June 2009 Registered partnership (expansion)[97] N/A 107 2 Signed Yes Yes[a 2]
Portugal Portugal August 2009 De facto union (expansion: inheritance rights)[98] N/A Passed Vetoed No No
Uruguay Uruguay September 2009 Cohabitation union (expansion: adoption rights)[99][100] 17 6 40 13 Signed Yes Yes
Austria Austria December 2009 Registered partnership[101] 44 8 110 64 Signed Yes Yes
Portugal Portugal January 2010 Marriage[102] N/A Failed No No
Portugal Portugal January 2010 Marriage[103] N/A Failed No No
Portugal Portugal January 2010 Registered civil union[104] N/A Failed No No
Australia Australia February 2010 Marriage[105] 5 45 No No
Portugal Portugal May 2010 Marriage[106] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Denmark Denmark May 2010 Registered partnership (expansion: adoption rights)[107] N/A 60 54 Signed Yes Yes[a 2]
Denmark Denmark June 2010 Marriage[108] N/A 52 57 No No
Iceland Iceland June 2010 Marriage[109][110] N/A 49 0 Signed Yes Yes
Republic of Ireland Ireland July 2010 Civil partnership and unregistered cohabitation[111][112] 48 4 Passed Signed Yes Yes
Argentina Argentina July 2010 Marriage[113] 33 27 126 110 Signed Yes Yes
Luxembourg Luxembourg August 2010 Partnership (expansion)[114] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Portugal Portugal August 2010 De facto union (expansion: inheritance rights)[115][116] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Germany Germany September 2010 Marriage[117] Failed No No
Germany Germany October 2010 Registered life partnership (expansion: tax law)[118] Failed No No
Germany Germany April 2011 Registered life partnership (expansion: tax law and adoption rights)[119] Failed No No
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein June 2011 Registered partnership[120] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Specific referendum (68.76%)
France France June 2011 Marriage[121] 222 293 No No
Germany Germany June 2011 Registered life partnership (expansion: tax law)[122] Failed No No
Portugal Portugal February 2012 Marriage (expansion: adoption rights)[123] N/A Failed No No
Portugal Portugal February 2012 Marriage (expansion: adoption rights)[123] N/A Failed No No
Slovenia Slovenia March 2012 Partnership (expansion)[124] Specific referendum (45.36%) No No
Israel Israel May 2012 Marriage[125] N/A 11 39 No No
Denmark Denmark June 2012 Marriage[126] N/A 85 24 Signed Yes Yes
Germany Germany June 2012 Marriage[127][128] 260 309 No No
San Marino San Marino June 2012 Unregistered cohabitation (only one entitlement)[129] N/A 33 20 Signed Yes Yes
Australia Australia September 2012 Marriage[130] 42 98 No No
Australia Australia September 2012 Marriage[131] 26 41 No No
Germany Germany October 2012 Registered life partnership (expansion: tax law)[132] 253 288 No No
Slovakia Slovakia November 2012 Registered partnership[133] N/A 14 94 No No
Poland Poland January 2013 Registered partnership[134][135] Failed No No
Poland Poland January 2013 Registered partnership[136][137] Failed No No
Poland Poland January 2013 Registered partnership[138] Failed No No
Poland Poland January 2013 Registered partnership[139] Failed No No
Poland Poland January 2013 Partnership agreement[140][141] Failed No No
Germany Germany March 2013 Registered life partnership (expansion: tax law)[142][143] Passed No No
Germany Germany March 2013 Marriage[144] Passed No No
New Zealand New Zealand April 2013 Marriage[145] N/A 77 44 Signed Yes Yes
Colombia Colombia April 2013 Marriage[146] 17 51 No No
Uruguay Uruguay May 2013 Marriage[147][148] 23 8 71 21 Signed Yes Yes
Portugal Portugal May 2013 Marriage (expansion: adoption rights)[149] N/A 77 104 No No
Portugal Portugal May 2013 Marriage (expansion: adoption rights)[149] N/A Failed No No
Portugal Portugal May 2013 Marriage (expansion: adoption rights)[149] N/A Failed No No
France France May 2013 Marriage[150][151] 171 165 331 225 Signed Yes Yes
Australia Australia June 2013 Recognition of marriage performed abroad[152] 28 44 No No
Germany Germany July 2013 Registered life partnership (expansion: tax law)[153][154] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes[a 2]
United Kingdom United Kingdom
(England and Wales)
July 2013 Marriage[155][156] Passed 366 161 Signed Yes Yes
Austria Austria July 2013 Registered partnership (expansion: adoption rights)[157][158] 45 8 Passed Signed Yes Yes
Netherlands Netherlands December 2013 Marriage (expansion: automatic co-parenthood)[159][160] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Portugal Portugal March 2014 Marriage (expansion: adoption rights)[161] N/A 107 112 No No
Malta Malta April 2014 Civil union[162] N/A 37 0 Signed Yes Yes
Belgium Belgium May 2014 Marriage (expansion: automatic co-parenthood)[163][164] 48 2 114 10 Signed Yes Yes
Germany Germany May 2014 Registered life partnership (expansion: adoption rights)[165][166] 111 432 No No
Andorra Andorra May 2014 Marriage[167][168] N/A 6 21 No No
Germany Germany June 2014 Registered life partnership (expansion: adoption rights)[169] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes[a 2]
Romania Romania June 2014 Civil partnership[170][171] 2 110 4 298 No No
Luxembourg Luxembourg June 2014 Marriage[172][173] N/A 56 4 N/A[a 8] Yes Yes
Croatia Croatia July 2014 Life partnership[174] N/A 89 16 N/A[a 9] Yes Yes
Germany Germany July 2014 Registered life partnership (expansion: tax law)[175][176][177] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes[a 2]
San Marino San Marino September 2014 Recognition of marriage performed abroad[178] N/A 15 35 No No
Argentina Argentina October 2014 Cohabitation union[179][180] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Andorra Andorra December 2014 Civil union[181][182] N/A 20 3 Signed Yes Yes
Portugal Portugal January 2015 Marriage (expansion: adoption rights)[183][184] N/A 89 119 No No
Portugal Portugal January 2015 Marriage (expansion: adoption rights)[183][184] N/A 91 119 No No
Portugal Portugal January 2015 Marriage (expansion: adoption rights)[183][184] N/A 91 120 No No
Portugal Portugal January 2015 Marriage (expansion: medically assisted reproduction)[183][184] N/A Failed No No
Republic of Ireland Ireland April 2015 Civil partnership and unregistered cohabitation (expansion: step-adoption rights)[185][186] 20 2 Passed Signed Yes Yes
Chile Chile April 2015 Civil union agreement[187][188] 25 6 78 9 Signed Yes Yes
Ecuador Ecuador June 2015 De facto union (expansion)[189][190][191][192] N/A 89 1 Signed Yes Yes
Israel Israel July 2015 Civil union[193] N/A 39 50 No No
Israel Israel July 2015 Marriage[193] N/A 39 50 No No
Republic of Ireland Ireland August 2015 Marriage (constitutional amendment)[194] 29 3 Passed Signed Yes Yes
Specific constitutional referendum (62.07%)
October 2015 Marriage (statutory legislation)[195][196][197] Passed Passed Signed
Germany Germany November 2015 Registered life partnership (expansion)[198][199] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes[a 2]
Cyprus Cyprus December 2015 Civil cohabitation[200][201] N/A 39 12 Signed Yes Yes
Romania Romania December 2015 Civil partnership[202][203][204] 8 49 Failed No No
Slovenia Slovenia December 2015 Marriage[205][206] N/A[a 4] 51 28 No No
Specific referendum (36.53%)
Greece Greece December 2015 Cohabitation agreement[207] N/A 194 55 Signed Yes Yes
Estonia Estonia October 2014 Cohabitation agreement (framework law)[208][209] N/A 40 38 Signed Yes Yes
January 2016 Cohabitation agreement (implementation law)[210][211] N/A Failed No No
Portugal Portugal February 2016 Marriage and de facto union (expansion: adoption rights)[212] N/A Passed Vetoed [a 6] Yes Yes
Israel Israel February 2016 Civil union[213] N/A 40 47 No No
Switzerland Switzerland March 2016 Registered partnership (expansion: immigration rights)[214][215] 122 62 No No
Luxembourg Luxembourg April 2016 Recognition of marriage performed abroad before 1 January 2015[216] N/A 50 3 N/A[a 8] Yes Yes
Slovenia Slovenia April 2016 Partnership (expansion)[217][218] N/A[a 4] 54 15 N/A[a 9] Yes Yes
Italy Italy May 2016 Civil union and cohabitation agreement[219][220][221] 173 71 372 51 Signed Yes Yes
Portugal Portugal June 2016 Marriage and de facto union (expansion: medically assisted reproduction)[222] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Switzerland Switzerland June 2016 Registered partnership (expansion: adoption rights)[223][224] 25 14 125 68 N/A Yes Yes
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein November 2016 Registered partnership (expansion)[225][226] N/A 25 0 Signed Yes Yes
Greece Greece December 2016 Cohabitation agreement (expansion)[227][228] N/A 201 21 Signed Yes Yes
Austria Austria December 2016 Registered partnership (expansion: naming rights and registration at the civil registration office)[229] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Finland Finland February 2015 Marriage (framework law)[230] N/A 101 90 Signed Yes Yes
April 2016 Marriage (implementation laws)[231][232][233] N/A 106 42 Signed
January 2017 N/A 128 28 Signed
Malta Malta April 2017 Cohabitation[234] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Lithuania Lithuania June 2017 Partnership[235][236] N/A 29 59 No No
Republic of Ireland Ireland July 2017 Civil partnership and unregistered cohabitation (expansion: adoption rights)[237][238] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Germany Germany July 2017 Marriage[239][240][241] Passed 393 226 Signed Yes Yes
Malta Malta August 2017 Marriage[242][243] N/A 66 1 Signed Yes Yes
Chile Chile November 2017 Civil union agreement (expansion)[244][245][246][247] 15 0 70 0 Signed Yes Yes
Australia Australia December 2017 Marriage[248][249] 43 12 131 4 Signed Yes Yes
Finland Finland April 2018 Marriage (expansion: automatic co-parenthood)[250] N/A 122 42 Signed Yes Yes
Greece Greece May 2018 Cohabitation agreement (expansion: foster care)[251][252] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Israel Israel June 2018 Marriage[253] N/A 39 42 No No
Malta Malta June 2018 Marriage, civil union and cohabitation (expansion: medically assisted reproduction)[254][255] N/A 34 27 Signed Yes Yes
Slovakia Slovakia September 2018 Registered partnership[256][257] N/A Failed No No
San Marino San Marino November 2018 Civil union[258][259] N/A 40 4 Signed Yes Yes
Cuba Cuba December 2018 Marriage[260][261] N/A Failed No No
Germany Germany December 2018 Marriage (codification)[262][263] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Romania Romania March 2019 Civil partnership[264][265][266] 2 68 Failed No No
Taiwan Taiwan May 2019 Marriage[267][268] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Montenegro Montenegro July 2019 Life partnership[269] N/A 38 4 No No
Chile Chile 2019 Civil union agreement (expansion: adoption rights)[270] Pending 104 35
San Marino San Marino December 2017 Marriage (for foreign couples - agreement in principle)[271][272] N/A 25 20 Signed
Unknown Marriage (for foreign couples - statutory legislation) N/A
Mexico Mexico Unknown Marriage (codification of federal recognition)[273][274] Pending 415 0
Chile Chile Unknown Marriage[275][276][277] Pending
Czech Republic Czech Republic Unknown Marriage[278] Pending
Germany Germany Unknown Marriage (expansion: automatic co-parenthood)[279] Pending
Japan Japan Unknown Marriage[280] Pending
Lithuania Lithuania Unknown Cohabitation agreement[281][282] N/A Pending
Mexico Mexico Unknown Marriage[283] Pending
Monaco Monaco Unknown Cohabitation agreement[284][285] N/A Pending
Philippines Philippines Unknown Civil partnership[286][287] Pending
Poland Poland Unknown Partnership[288] Pending
Switzerland Switzerland Unknown Marriage[289][290][291] Pending
United Kingdom United Kingdom
(Northern Ireland)
Unknown Marriage[292][293] Pending Pending

Notes:

  1. ^ a b c d e f According to the 1974 Constitution, the King of Sweden is head of state but does not sign or veto any laws enacted by Parliament.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Replaced by the gender-neutral marriage law.
  3. ^ Only one of the two Co-Princes of Andorra signed the law.
  4. ^ a b c d The Slovenian Parliament is incompletely bicameral.
  5. ^ The Spanish Senate voted 131 "yes" to 119 "no" to veto the law. The veto was later overridden by the Spanish Congress of Deputies.
  6. ^ a b Veto overridden.
  7. ^ Ruled unconstitutional.
  8. ^ a b Since the 2008 constitutional change, the assent of the Grand Duke of Luxembourg is not required for the enactment of laws adopted by the Parliament.
  9. ^ a b The President merely promulgates the laws adopted by the Parliament.

Sub-national level[edit]

For status in U.S. states, see Same-sex marriage legislation in the United States

In countries with a federal system of governance, states and territories often may grant recognition to same-sex couples in their own jurisdictions, although unitary states with a level of devolution, such as Spain or the United Kingdom, also offer such legalities to local authorities. The first jurisdiction to enact unregistered cohabitation was British Columbia in Canada in July 1992. The first jurisdiction to legalize registered partnership was Greenland as part of the Kingdom of Denmark in April 1996. Finally, the first sub-national jurisdiction to legalize same-sex marriage was the Canadian province of Ontario in June 2003.

As of 24 August 2019, there are twenty-seven jurisdictions worldwide have legalized some kind of alternative form of legal union of same-sex couples other than marriage. Those are a constituent country of the United Kingdom (Northern Ireland), one prefecture of Japan (Ibaraki), five special wards of Tokyo (Shibuya, Setagaya, Nakano, Edogawa and Toshima), seven designated cities of Japan (Osaka, Fukuoka, Sapporo, Chiba, Kumamoto, Sakai and Kitakyushu), four core cities of Japan (Naha, Hirakata, Yokosuka and Miyazaki), two special cities of Japan (Takarazuka and Odawara), four cities of Japan (Iga, Fuchū (Tokyo), Sōja and Kanuma), one town of Japan (Ōizumi), Aruba, a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, and the Mexican state of Tlaxcala.

For the time being, seventy-seven jurisdictions worldwide have legalized same-sex marriage. Those are:

As of 24 August 2019, legislation to allow same-sex marriage is pending, or has passed at least one legislative house in Curaçao, a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, and the Mexican states of Durango, Guerrero, México, Querétaro, Sonora, Tabasco, and Veracruz.

State/Territory Country Date Same-sex union Upper House Lower house Head of State Law
enacted?
Yes No Yes No
British Columbia British Columbia Canada Canada July 1992 Marriage-like relationship[294][295] N/A 30 17 Signed Yes Yes
British Columbia British Columbia Canada Canada July 1993 Marriage-like relationship (expansion)[296] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
British Columbia British Columbia Canada Canada July 1993 Marriage-like relationship (expansion)[297] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
British Columbia British Columbia Canada Canada July 1993 Marriage-like relationship (expansion)[298] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Australia Australia May 1994 Domestic relationship[299] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Ontario Ontario Canada Canada June 1994 Domestic partnership[300] N/A 58 69 No No
British Columbia British Columbia Canada Canada June 1995 Marriage-like relationship (expansion)[301] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
British Columbia British Columbia Canada Canada July 1995 Marriage-like relationship (expansion: adoption rights)[302] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Greenland Greenland Denmark Denmark May 1993 Inatsisartut: Registered partnership (resolution)[303] N/A 15 0 N/A Yes Yes
April 1996 Folketing: Registered partnership (statutory law)[304][305] N/A 104 1 Signed
Ceuta Ceuta Spain Spain April 1997 De facto union[306] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
British Columbia British Columbia Canada Canada July 1997 Marriage-like relationship (expansion)[307] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Catalonia Catalonia Spain Spain June 1998 Stable couple union[308][309] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Yukon Yukon Canada Canada December 1998 Unregistered cohabitation[310] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Aragon Aragon Spain Spain March 1999 Stable non-married couple[308][311] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Yukon Yukon Canada Canada April 1999 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[312][313] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Alberta Alberta Canada Canada May 1999 Unregistered cohabitation[314] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Quebec Quebec Canada Canada May 1999 De facto union[315] N/A 80 0 Signed Yes Yes
New South Wales New South Wales Australia Australia June 1999 De facto relationship[316] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
British Columbia British Columbia Canada Canada July 1999 Marriage-like relationship (expansion)[317] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Ontario Ontario Canada Canada October 1999 Conjugal relationship[318] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Navarre Navarre Spain Spain July 2000 Stable couple[308][319] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Castilla–La Mancha Castile-La Mancha Spain Spain July 2000 De facto couple[320] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
British Columbia British Columbia Canada Canada July 2000 Marriage-like relationship (expansion)[321] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Australia Australia August 2000 Domestic relationship (expansion)[322] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Nova Scotia Nova Scotia Canada Canada November 2000 Domestic partnership[323][324] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador Canada Canada December 2000 Conjugal relationship[325] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
New Brunswick New Brunswick Canada Canada December 2000 Family relationship[326] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Canton of Geneva Geneva Switzerland Switzerland February 2001 Registered partnership[327][328] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Valencian Community Valencia Spain Spain April 2001 De facto union[329] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Victoria (Australia) Victoria Australia Australia June 2001 Domestic relationship[330] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Manitoba Manitoba Canada Canada July 2001 Common-law relationship[331] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Saskatchewan Saskatchewan Canada Canada July 2001 Spousal relationship[332] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Saskatchewan Saskatchewan Canada Canada July 2001 Spousal relationship (expansion: adoption rights)[333] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Victoria (Australia) Victoria Australia Australia November 2001 Domestic relationship (expansion)[334] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador Canada Canada December 2001 Conjugal relationship (expansion)[335] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Balearic Islands Balearic Islands Spain Spain December 2001 Stable couple[336] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Community of Madrid Madrid Spain Spain December 2001 De facto union[308][337] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador Canada Canada April 2002 Conjugal relationship (expansion: adoption rights)[338] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Western Australia Western Australia Australia Australia April 2002 De facto relationship[339] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Yukon Yukon Canada Canada May 2002 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion: adoption rights)[340] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Asturias Asturias Spain Spain May 2002 Stable couple[341] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Northwest Territories Northwest Territories Canada Canada June 2002 Unregistered cohabitation[312][342] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Quebec Quebec Canada Canada June 2002 Civil union[343] N/A 87 0 Signed Yes Yes
Manitoba Manitoba Canada Canada August 2002 Common-law relationship (expansion: adoption rights)[344] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Manitoba Manitoba Canada Canada August 2002 Common-law relationship (expansion)[345] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Canton of Zürich Zürich Switzerland Switzerland September 2002 Registered partnership[346] Specific cantonal referendum (62.70%) Yes Yes
New South Wales New South Wales Australia Australia October 2002 De facto relationship (expansion)[347][348] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Castile and León Castile and León Spain Spain October 2002 De facto union[349] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Alberta Alberta Canada Canada December 2002 Adult interdependent relationship[350] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Queensland Queensland Australia Australia December 2002 De facto relationship[351] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Andalusia Andalusia Spain Spain December 2002 De facto couple[308][352] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Prince Edward Island Prince Edward Island Canada Canada December 2002 Unregistered cohabitation[353] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Buenos Aires Autonomous City of Buenos Aires Argentina Argentina January 2003 Civil union[354][355] N/A 29 10 Signed Yes Yes
Canary Islands Canary Islands Spain Spain March 2003 De facto couple[308][356] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Extremadura Extremadura Spain Spain March 2003 De facto couple[308][357] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque Country Spain Spain May 2003 De facto couple[308][358] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Río Negro Province Río Negro Argentina Argentina May 2003 Civil union[359] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
South Australia South Australia Australia Australia June 2003 Unregistered cohabitation[360] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Tasmania Tasmania Australia Australia September 2003 Significant relationship and caring relationship[361] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Australia Australia January 2004 Domestic relationship (expansion: adoption rights)[362] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Canton of Neuchâtel Neuchâtel Switzerland Switzerland January 2004 Registered partnership[363] N/A 65 38 Signed Yes Yes
Northern Territory Northern Territory Australia Australia January 2004 De facto relationship[364][365] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Aragon Aragon Spain Spain May 2004 Stable non-married couple (expansion: adoption rights)[366] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Canton of Fribourg Fribourg Switzerland Switzerland May 2004 Registered partnership[363][367] General cantonal referendum (58.03%) Yes Yes
Flag of Sydney.jpg City of Sydney Australia Australia July 2004 Relationship declaration program[368] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Quebec Quebec Canada Canada November 2004 Marriage (codification)[369] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Ontario Ontario Canada Canada March 2005 Marriage (codification)[370] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Northwest Territories Northwest Territories Canada Canada March 2005 Unregistered cohabitation (expansion)[371] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Catalonia Catalonia Spain Spain April 2005 Stable couple union (expansion: adoption rights)[372][373] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Cantabria Cantabria Spain Spain May 2005 De facto couple[374] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Akrotiri and Dhekelia Akrotiri and Dhekelia United Kingdom United Kingdom November 2005 Civil partnership[375] N/A Signed Yes Yes
Isle of Man Isle of Man United Kingdom United Kingdom November 2005 Recognition of civil partnership performed in the United Kingdom[376] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Norfolk Island Norfolk Island Australia Australia February 2006 De facto relationship[377] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Australia Australia June 2006 Civil union[378] N/A Passed Signed No No[b 1]
Mexico City Mexico City Mexico Mexico November 2006 Coexistence partnership[379] N/A 43 17 Signed Yes Yes
South Australia South Australia Australia Australia December 2006 Domestic partnership agreement[380] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Coahuila Coahuila Mexico Mexico January 2007 Civil pact of solidarity[381] N/A 20 13 Signed Yes Yes
Scotland Scotland United Kingdom United Kingdom January 2007 Civil partnership (expansion: adoption rights)[382][383] N/A 101 6 Signed Yes Yes
Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Australia Australia February 2007 Civil partnership[384] N/A Passed Signed No No[b 1]
Alberta Alberta Canada Canada February 2007 Marriage (expansion: adoption rights)[385] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
New Brunswick New Brunswick Canada Canada March 2007 Marriage (expansion: adoption rights)[314] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Victoria (Australia) City of Melbourne Australia Australia April 2007 Relationship declaration program[386] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Victoria (Australia) City of Yarra Australia Australia May 2007 Relationship declaration program[387] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Argentina Villa Carlos Paz Argentina Argentina November 2007 Civil union[388] N/A 12 6 Signed Yes Yes
New South Wales New South Wales Australia Australia November 2007 De facto relationship (expansion)[389] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Galicia (Spain) Galicia Spain Spain December 2007 De facto couple[390] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Melilla Melilla Spain Spain January 2008 De facto couple[391] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Victoria (Australia) Victoria Australia Australia April 2008 Registered domestic relationship[392] 29 10 54 24 Signed Yes Yes
Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Australia Australia May 2008 Civil partnership[393] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Prince Edward Island Prince Edward Island Canada Canada May 2008 Marriage (codification and expansion: adoption rights)[394] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
New South Wales New South Wales Australia Australia June 2008 De facto relationship (expansion)[395] Passed 64 11 Signed Yes Yes
Manitoba Manitoba Canada Canada October 2008 Marriage (codification)[396] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Victoria (Australia) Victoria Australia Australia December 2008 Registered domestic relationship (expansion)[397] Passed 47 34 Signed Yes Yes
New South Wales Municipality of Woollahra Australia Australia December 2008 Relationship declaration program[398] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
New Brunswick New Brunswick Canada Canada December 2008 Marriage (codification) and family relationship (expansion)[399] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Bandera Rio Cuarto.jpg Río Cuarto Argentina Argentina May 2009 Civil union[400] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Greenland Greenland Denmark Denmark May 2009 Registered partnership (expansion: adoption rights)[401] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
New Caledonia New Caledonia France France May 2009 Civil solidarity pact and concubinage[402][403] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
France Wallis and Futuna France France May 2009 Civil solidarity pact and concubinage[402][403] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador Canada Canada May 2009 Marriage (codification)[404] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Scotland Scotland United Kingdom United Kingdom June 2009 Civil partnership (expansion)[405] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Tasmania Tasmania Australia Australia September 2009 Significant relationship (expansion)[406] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Australia Australia November 2009 Civil partnership (expansion)[407] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador Canada Canada December 2009 Marriage (codification)[408] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Mexico City Mexico City Mexico Mexico December 2009 Marriage[409] N/A 39 20 Signed Yes Yes
Queensland Queensland Australia Australia February 2010 De facto relationship (expansion)[410] N/A 45 36 Signed Yes Yes
New South Wales City of Blue Mountains Australia Australia March 2010 Relationship declaration program[411] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
New South Wales New South Wales Australia Australia May 2010 Registered relationship[412][413] 32 5 62 9 Signed Yes Yes
La Rioja (Spain) La Rioja Spain Spain May 2010 De facto couple[414] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Vienna Vienna Austria Austria June 2010 Registered partnership (expansion)[415][416] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Catalonia Catalonia Spain Spain July 2010 Marriage (codification)[417] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
New South Wales New South Wales Australia Australia September 2010 Registered relationship (expansion: adoption rights)[418][419][420] 22 15 45 43 Signed Yes Yes
Tasmania Tasmania Australia Australia October 2010 Out-of-state unions as significant relationship[421][422] Passed 22 3 Signed Yes Yes
New South Wales New South Wales Australia Australia November 2010 Registered relationship (expansion: surrogacy)[423] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Netherlands Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Netherlands Netherlands December 2010 Recognition of unions performed aboard[424] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Isle of Man Isle of Man United Kingdom United Kingdom March 2011 Civil partnership[425] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
South Australia South Australia Australia Australia June 2011 Domestic partnership agreement (expansion)[426] 14 5 24 15 Signed Yes Yes
South Australia South Australia Australia Australia July 2011 Domestic partnership agreement (expansion)[427] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Nunavut Nunavut Canada Canada October 2011 Marriage (codification and expansion: adoption rights)[428] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
British Columbia British Columbia Canada Canada November 2011 Marriage (codification)[429] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Queensland Queensland Australia Australia December 2011 Civil partnership[430][431] N/A 47 40 Signed Yes Yes[b 2]
Guernsey Guernsey United Kingdom United Kingdom December 2011 Recognition of civil partnership performed in the United Kingdom[432] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Jersey Jersey United Kingdom United Kingdom December 2011 Civil partnership[433][434] N/A 33 0 Signed Yes Yes
Queensland Queensland Australia Australia June 2012 Registered relationship[435][436] N/A 69 8 Signed Yes Yes[b 3]
Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Australia Australia September 2012 Civil union[437][438] N/A 11 6 Signed Yes Yes
Tasmania Tasmania Australia Australia September 2012 Marriage[439][440] 6 8 13 11 No No
Netherlands Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Netherlands Netherlands October 2012 Marriage[441] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Tasmania Tasmania Australia Australia October 2012 Significant relationship (expansion)[442][443] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Western Australia City of Vincent Australia Australia December 2012 Relationship declaration program[444] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Macau Macau China China March 2013 Civil union[445] N/A Failed No No
South Australia South Australia Australia Australia July 2013 Marriage[446] Failed No No
Tasmania Tasmania Australia Australia July 2013 Significant relationship (expansion: adoption rights)[447][448] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Colima Colima Mexico Mexico July 2013 Civil union[449][450][451] N/A 17 2 N/A Yes Yes[b 4]
August 2013 N/A Passed Signed
Tasmania Tasmania Australia Australia October 2013 Marriage[452] 6 8 No No
Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Australia Australia October 2013 Marriage[453] N/A 9 8 Signed No No[b 5]
Jalisco Jalisco Mexico Mexico October 2013 Civil union[454] N/A 20 15 Signed Yes Yes
New South Wales New South Wales Australia Australia November 2013 Marriage[455] 19 21 No No
Campeche Campeche Mexico Mexico December 2013 Civil union[456] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Coahuila Coahuila Mexico Mexico February 2014 Civil pact of solidarity (expansion: adoption rights)[457] N/A 23 2 Signed Yes Yes
Scotland Scotland United Kingdom United Kingdom March 2014 Marriage[458][459] N/A 105 18 Signed Yes Yes
Faroe Islands Faroe Islands Denmark Denmark March 2014 Marriage[460] N/A 11 20 No No
Gibraltar Gibraltar United Kingdom United Kingdom March 2014 Civil partnership[461][462] N/A 16 0 Signed Yes Yes
Durango Durango Mexico Mexico April 2014 Marriage[463] N/A Failed No No
Akrotiri and Dhekelia Akrotiri and Dhekelia United Kingdom United Kingdom April 2014 Marriage[464] N/A Signed Yes Yes
British Indian Ocean Territory British Indian Ocean Territory United Kingdom United Kingdom April 2014 Marriage[464] N/A Signed Yes Yes
Alberta Alberta Canada Canada May 2014 Marriage (codification)[465] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Coahuila Coahuila Mexico Mexico September 2014 Marriage[466][467][468] N/A 19 1 Signed Yes Yes
New South Wales New South Wales Australia Australia November 2014 Out-of-state unions as registered relationship[469] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Yukon Yukon Canada Canada December 2014 Marriage (codification)[470] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Shibuya, Tokyo.svg Shibuya Japan Japan March 2015 Partnership certificate[471] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Kaohsiung City.svg Kaohsiung Taiwan Taiwan May 2015 Registered partnership[472] N/A Signed Yes Yes
Pitcairn Islands Pitcairn Islands United Kingdom United Kingdom May 2015 Marriage[473] N/A Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Taipei City.svg Taipei Taiwan Taiwan June 2015 Registered partnership[474] N/A Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Taichung City.svg Taichung Taiwan Taiwan July 2015 Registered partnership[475][476] N/A Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Setagaya, Tokyo.svg Setagaya Japan Japan July 2015 Partnership certificate[477] N/A Signed Yes Yes
Western Australia Town of Port Hedland Australia Australia August 2015 Relationship declaration program[478][479][480] N/A 6 2 Signed Yes Yes
Michoacán Michoacán Mexico Mexico September 2015 Domestic partnership[481][482] N/A 34 0 Signed Yes Yes
Alderney Alderney United Kingdom United Kingdom November 2015 Recognition of marriage and civil partnership performed abroad[483][484][485] N/A 10 0 Signed