This article relies too much on references to primary sources. (September 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Region||Sataplia-Tskaltubo karst massif|
|Altitude||360 m (1,181 ft)|
|Periods||Late Upper Paleolithic|
|Excavation dates||1976, 1985–88, 1989–1992, 2008–2010, 2012–2013|
|Archaeologists||A. N. Kalandadze, |
Satsurblia Cave (Georgian: საწურბლიას მღვიმე) is a paleoanthropological site located near Kumistavi village, Tskaltubo district, in the Imereti region of Georgia. The karst cave was first excavated in 1976 by A. N. Kalandadze.
Prehistoric people first occupied the cave from around 25,500 to 24,400 BP. The next period of human occupation at Satsurblia took place from around 17,000 to 16,200 BP. The hiatus in human occupation at Satsurblia coincides with the Last Glacial Maximum.
Lithic artefacts, bone artefacts, charcoal, flax fibers, and pottery were discovered at the cave. The lithic artefacts show similarities to eastern Epigravettian sites. Perforated pendants made out of stalagmite and polished bovid bone were also discovered. The remains of yellow, red and brown ochre were also found at the site.
Unlike most other Paleolithic sites found in Georgia that relied primarily on hunting one species, the people of Satsurblia appeared to have hunted a slightly more diverse range of species. The animal remains found at Satsurblia were dominated primarily by wild boar, followed by red deer; the remains of aurochs, steppe bison, Capra caucasica, and roe deer were also found. Some brown bear, wolf, fox, and Eurasian beaver remains were also found at the site.
In 2013, archaeologists found a temporal bone fragment of an ancient human in the cave. Direct AMS dating of the bone yielded an estimated date of 13,300 BP for the age of the bone. Researchers successfully extracted DNA from the petrous part of the temporal bone and managed to recover low coverage genomes.
The ancient individual from Satsurblia was male with black hair and brown eyes; however, the individual is one of the earliest found to carry the derived HERC2 allele for blue eyes. The Satsurblia individual also likely had light skin, as he was found to carry the derived SLC24A5 allele for light skin. The Satsurblia individual was also lactose intolerant and did not carry the derived EDAR allele commonly found in East Asians and Native Americans.
The Satsurblia individual is genetically closest to an ancient individual, dating to around 9,700 BP, found at the Kotias Klde rock shelter in Georgia. Together, they form a genetically distinct cluster referred to as Caucasian Hunter-Gatherer (CHG).
The Caucasus hunter-gatherers contributed significantly to modern European populations by way of the Yamna people. Around half of the Yamna people's DNA come from the Caucasus hunter-gatherers. The Caucasus hunter-gatherers also contributed genetically to modern Central Asians and South Asians.
- Martkoplishvili 2015.
- Satsurblia Cave in Georgia
- "Satsurblia: new insights of human response and survival across the Last Glacial Maximum in the southern Caucasus...Location of Satsurblia Cave and other key sites with Upper Palaeolithic occupation in western Georgia". VolcanoDiscovery. Retrieved September 25, 2016.
- "International Archaeological Expedition In Tskaltubo". Georgian National Museum. December 8, 2014. Retrieved September 25, 2016.
- Pinhasi 2014.
- Jone 2015.
- Fu 2016.
- "Palaeolithic DNA from Eurasia". Ancestral Journeys. Retrieved September 25, 2016.
- "Finding a fourth strand of ancient European ancestry". Archaeology News from Past Horizons. November 16, 2015. Retrieved September 25, 2016.
- Fu, Qiaomei; Posth, Cosimo; et al. (May 2, 2016). "The genetic history of Ice Age Europe". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature17993.
- Martkoplishvil, Inga (2015). "Some popular medicinal plants and diseases of the Upper Palaeolithic in Western Georgia". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 166: 42–52. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2015.03.003.
- Jones, Eppie R.; et al. (2015). "Upper Palaeolithic genomes reveal deep roots of modern Eurasians". Nature Communications. 6: 8912. doi:10.1038/ncomms9912. PMC 4660371. PMID 26567969.
- Pinhasi, Ron; et al. (2014). "Satsurblia: New Insights of Human Response and Survival across the Last Glacial Maximum in the Southern Caucasus". PLOS ONE. 9: e111271. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0111271.