SRF Identifiers Aliases , MCM1, serum response factor SRF External IDs OMIM: 600589 MGI: 106658 HomoloGene: 31135 GeneCards: SRF
Gene ontology Molecular function • protein dimerization activity • transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding • transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding • transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II core promoter sequence-specific • transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II transcription factor binding • primary miRNA binding • transcription factor binding • RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding • protein homodimerization activity • serum response element binding • chromatin binding • protein binding • DNA binding • sequence-specific DNA binding • transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II transcription regulatory region sequence-specific binding • transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific binding • chromatin DNA binding • transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding • core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding • RNA polymerase II transcription factor binding • histone deacetylase binding • transcription regulatory region DNA binding • RNA polymerase II sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor binding Cellular component • cytoplasm • cell nucleus • nuclear chromatin • nucleoplasm Biological process • dorsal aorta morphogenesis • bronchus cartilage development • muscle cell cellular homeostasis • lung smooth muscle development • regulation of water loss via skin • transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter • stress fiber assembly • cell migration involved in sprouting angiogenesis • platelet activation • cardiac myofibril assembly • heart looping • cellular senescence • face development • regulation of cell adhesion • long term synaptic depression • neuron projection development • morphogenesis of an epithelial sheet • positive regulation of filopodium assembly • primitive streak formation • cellular response to glucose stimulus • negative regulation of cell proliferation • response to cytokine • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated • heart trabecula formation • actin filament organization • thymus development • angiogenesis involved in wound healing • platelet formation • neuron development • in utero embryonic development • transcription, DNA-templated • positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated • heart development • positive regulation of cell differentiation • branching involved in blood vessel morphogenesis • positive regulation of axon extension • positive regulation of smooth muscle contraction • trachea cartilage development • response to toxic substance • positive regulation of pri-miRNA transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter • positive regulation of transcription by glucose • regulation of smooth muscle cell differentiation • epithelial structure maintenance • associative learning • skin morphogenesis • positive regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity • epithelial cell-cell adhesion • neuron migration • positive regulation of transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter • eyelid development in camera-type eye • thyroid gland development • negative regulation of amyloid-beta clearance • negative regulation of cell migration • developmental growth • hematopoietic stem cell differentiation • gastrulation • trophectodermal cell differentiation • positive thymic T cell selection • response to hormone • cell-matrix adhesion • sarcomere organization • actin cytoskeleton organization • megakaryocyte development • response to hypoxia • positive regulation of transcription via serum response element binding • lung morphogenesis • mesoderm formation • cardiac vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation • mRNA transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter • multicellular organism development • tangential migration from the subventricular zone to the olfactory bulb • positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter involved in myocardial precursor cell differentiation • long-term memory • contractile actin filament bundle assembly • bicellular tight junction assembly • leukocyte differentiation • hippocampus development • positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter • erythrocyte development • negative regulation of pri-miRNA transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter • forebrain development • cell-cell adhesion Sources: Amigo / QuickGO Orthologs Species Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl UniProt RefSeq (mRNA) RefSeq (protein) Location (UCSC) Chr 6: 43.17 – 43.18 Mb Chr 17: 46.55 – 46.56 Mb PubMed search   Wikidata
Serum response factor, also known as SRF, is a transcription factor protein.
Function [ edit ]
Serum response factor is a member of the
MADS ( MCM1, Agamous, Deficiens, and SRF) box superfamily of transcription factors. This protein binds to the serum response element (SRE) in the  promoter region of target genes. This protein regulates the activity of many immediate early genes, for example c-fos, and thereby participates in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, cell growth, and cell differentiation. This gene is the downstream target of many pathways; for example, the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway (MAPK) that acts through the ternary complex factors (TCFs). 
SRF is important during the development of the embryo, as it has been linked to the formation of
mesoderm.  In the fully developed mammal, SRF is crucial for the growth of skeletal muscle.  Interaction of SRF with other proteins, such as  steroid hormone receptors, may contribute to regulation of muscle growth by steroids. Interaction of SRF with other proteins such as myocardin or Elk-1 may enhance or suppress expression of genes important for growth of vascular smooth muscle.
Clinical significance [ edit ]
Lack of skin SRF is associated with
psoriasis and other skin diseases.
Interactions [ edit ]
Serum response factor has been shown to
CEBPB,  
CREB-binding protein, 
ELK4,  
GATA4,  
GTF2F1,  
GTF2I,  
Myogenin,  
Nuclear receptor co-repressor 2, 
Promyelocytic leukemia protein and 
Src, and  TEAD1. 
References [ edit ]
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GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000112658 - Ensembl, May 2017
^ a b c
GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000015605 - Ensembl, May 2017
"Human PubMed Reference:".
"Mouse PubMed Reference:".
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Shore P, Sharrocks AD (April 1995). "The MADS-box family of transcription factors". Eur. J. Biochem. 229 (1): 1–13. doi: 10.1111/j.1432-1033.1995.0001l.x. PMID 7744019.
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"SRF serum response factor". Entrez Gene. National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health.
Sepulveda JL, Vlahopoulos S, Iyer D, Belaguli N, Schwartz RJ (July 2002). "Combinatorial expression of GATA4, Nkx2-5, and serum response factor directs early cardiac gene activity". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (28): 25775–82. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M203122200. PMID 11983708.
Barron MR, Belaguli NS, Zhang SX, Trinh M, Iyer D, Merlo X, Lough JW, Parmacek MS, Bruneau BG, Schwartz RJ (March 2005). "Serum response factor, an enriched cardiac mesoderm obligatory factor, is a downstream gene target for Tbx genes". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (12): 11816–28. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M412408200. PMID 15591049.
Li S, Czubryt MP, McAnally J, Bassel-Duby R, Richardson JA, Wiebel FF, Nordheim A, Olson EN (January 2005). "Requirement for serum response factor for skeletal muscle growth and maturation revealed by tissue-specific gene deletion in mice". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 (4): 1082–7. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0409103102. PMC . 545866 PMID 15647354.
Vlahopoulos S, Zimmer WE, Jenster G, Belaguli NS, Balk SP, Brinkmann AO, Lanz RB, Zoumpourlis VC, Schwartz RJ (March 2005). "Recruitment of the androgen receptor via serum response factor facilitates expression of a myogenic gene". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (9): 7786–92. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M413992200. PMID 15623502.
Koegel H, von Tobel L, Schäfer M, Alberti S, Kremmer E, Mauch C, Hohl D, Wang XJ, Beer HD, Bloch W, Nordheim A, Werner S (April 2009). "Loss of serum response factor in keratinocytes results in hyperproliferative skin disease in mice". J. Clin. Invest. 119 (4): 899–910. doi: 10.1172/JCI37771. PMC . 2662566 PMID 19307725.
Jung DJ, Sung HS, Goo YW, Lee HM, Park OK, Jung SY, Lim J, Kim HJ, Lee SK, Kim TS, Lee JW, Lee YC (July 2002). "Novel transcription coactivator complex containing activating signal cointegrator 1". Mol. Cell. Biol. 22 (14): 5203–11. doi: 10.1128/mcb.22.14.5203-5211.2002. PMC . 139772 PMID 12077347.
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Hanlon M, Sealy L (May 1999). "Ras regulates the association of serum response factor and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (20): 14224–8. doi: 10.1074/jbc.274.20.14224. PMID 10318842.
Sealy L, Malone D, Pawlak M (March 1997). "Regulation of the cfos serum response element by C/EBPbeta". Mol. Cell. Biol. 17 (3): 1744–55. doi: 10.1128/mcb.17.3.1744. PMC . 231899 PMID 9032301.
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Hassler M, Richmond TJ (June 2001). "The B-box dominates SAP-1-SRF interactions in the structure of the ternary complex". EMBO J. 20 (12): 3018–28. doi: 10.1093/emboj/20.12.3018. PMC . 150215 PMID 11406578.
Belaguli NS, Sepulveda JL, Nigam V, Charron F, Nemer M, Schwartz RJ (October 2000). "Cardiac tissue enriched factors serum response factor and GATA-4 are mutual coregulators". Mol. Cell. Biol. 20 (20): 7550–8. doi: 10.1128/mcb.20.20.7550-7558.2000. PMC . 86307 PMID 11003651.
Morin S, Paradis P, Aries A, Nemer M (February 2001). "Serum response factor-GATA ternary complex required for nuclear signaling by a G-protein-coupled receptor". Mol. Cell. Biol. 21 (4): 1036–44. doi: 10.1128/MCB.21.4.1036-1044.2001. PMC . 99558 PMID 11158291.
Joliot V, Demma M, Prywes R (February 1995). "Interaction with RAP74 subunit of TFIIF is required for transcriptional activation by serum response factor". Nature. 373 (6515): 632–5. doi: 10.1038/373632a0. PMID 7854423.
Zhu H, Joliot V, Prywes R (February 1994). "Role of transcription factor TFIIF in serum response factor-activated transcription". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (5): 3489–97. PMID 8106390.
Grueneberg DA, Henry RW, Brauer A, Novina CD, Cheriyath V, Roy AL, Gilman M (October 1997). "A multifunctional DNA-binding protein that promotes the formation of serum response factor/homeodomain complexes: identity to TFII-I". Genes Dev. 11 (19): 2482–93. doi: 10.1101/gad.11.19.2482. PMC . 316568 PMID 9334314.
Kim DW, Cheriyath V, Roy AL, Cochran BH (June 1998). "TFII-I enhances activation of the c-fos promoter through interactions with upstream elements". Mol. Cell. Biol. 18 (6): 3310–20. doi: 10.1128/mcb.18.6.3310. PMC . 108912 PMID 9584171.
Groisman R, Masutani H, Leibovitch MP, Robin P, Soudant I, Trouche D, Harel-Bellan A (March 1996). "Physical interaction between the mitogen-responsive serum response factor and myogenic basic-helix-loop-helix proteins". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (9): 5258–64. doi: 10.1074/jbc.271.9.5258. PMID 8617811.
Biesiada E, Hamamori Y, Kedes L, Sartorelli V (April 1999). "Myogenic basic helix-loop-helix proteins and Sp1 interact as components of a multiprotein transcriptional complex required for activity of the human cardiac alpha-actin promoter". Mol. Cell. Biol. 19 (4): 2577–84. doi: 10.1128/MCB.19.4.2577. PMC . 84050 PMID 10082523.
Yamada K, Osawa H, Granner DK (October 1999). "Identification of proteins that interact with NF-YA". FEBS Lett. 460 (1): 41–5. doi: 10.1016/s0014-5793(99)01311-3. PMID 10571058.
Lee SK, Kim JH, Lee YC, Cheong J, Lee JW (April 2000). "Silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptors, as a novel transcriptional corepressor molecule of activating protein-1, nuclear factor-kappaB, and serum response factor". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (17): 12470–4. doi: 10.1074/jbc.275.17.12470. PMID 10777532.
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External links [ edit ]
This article incorporates text from the
United States National Library of Medicine ( ), which is in the public domain.