Sonamukhi (community development block)
Community development block
|• Type||Community development block|
|• Total||368.30 km2 (142.20 sq mi)|
|Elevation||75 m (246 ft)|
|• Density||430/km2 (1,100/sq mi)|
|• Official||Bengali, English|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-WB|
|Vehicle registration||WB-67, WB-68|
|Lok Sabha constituency||Bishnupur|
|Vidhan Sabha constituency||Sonamukhi|
From Bishnupur kingdom to the British Raj
From around the 7th century AD till around the advent of British rule, for around a millennium, history of Bankura district is identical with the rise and fall of the Hindu Rajas of Bishnupur. The Bishnupur Rajas, who were at the summit of their fortunes towards the end of the 17th century, started declining in the first half of the 18th century. First, the Maharaja of Burdwan seized the Fatehpur Mahal, and then the Maratha invasions laid waste their country.
Bishnupur was ceded to the British with the rest of Burdwan chakla in 1760. In 1787, Bishnupur was united with Birbhum to form a separate administrative unit. In 1793 it was transferred to the Burdwan collectorate. In 1879, the district acquired its present shape with the thanas of Khatra and Raipur and the outpost of Simplapal being transferred from Manbhum, and the thanas of Sonamukhi, Kotulpur and Indas being retransferred from Burdwan. However, it was known for sometime as West Burdwan and in 1881 came to be known as Bankura district.
Sonamukhi is located at.
Sonamukhi CD Block is located in the eastern part of the district and belongs to the fertile low lying alluvial plains, similar to the predominating rice lands in the adjacent districts of West Bengal. Here, the eye constantly rests on wide expanses of rice fields, green in the rains but parched and dry in summer.
Sonamukhi CD Block is bounded by Kanksa and Galsi I CD Block, in Bardhaman district across the Damodar, on the north, Patrasayer CD Block on the east, Bishnupur and Onda CD Blocks on the south and Gangajalghati and Barjora CD Blocks on the west.
It is located 43 km from Bankura, the district headquarters.
Sonamukhi CD Block has an area of 378.85 km2. It has 1 panchayat samity, 10 gram panchayats, 120 gram sansads (village councils), 186 mouzas and 161 inhabited villages. Sonamukhi police station serves this block. Headquarters of this CD Block is at Sonamukhi.
In Bankura district 148,177 hactres or 21.5% of total geographical area of the district is forested. The forests contain the best quality sal (Shorea robusta) trees. Large forest areas exist in Sonamukhi, Joypur, Bishnupur, Khatra and Ranibandh areas.
As per the 2011 Census of India Sonamukhi CD Block had a total population of 158,697, all of which were rural. There were 81,610 (51%) males and 77,087 (49%) females. Population below 6 years was 18,881. Scheduled Castes numbered 69,646 (43.89%) and Scheduled Tribes numbered 5,560 (3.50%).
As per 2001 census, Sonamukhi block had a total population of 142,305, out of which 73,200 were males and 69,105 were females. Sonamukhi block registered a population growth of 15.07 per cent during the 1991-2001 decade. Decadal growth for the district was 15.15 per cent. Decadal growth in West Bengal was 17.84 per cent.
Large villages (with 4,000+ population) in Sonamukhi CD Block are (2011 census figures in brackets): Dhan Simla (5,995).
Other villages in Sonamukhi CD Block are (2011 census figures in brackets): Kochdihi (3,296), Hamirhati (955), Pear Bera (2,761), Dihipara (1,574), Dhulai (2,607), Panchal (3,266) and Manik Bazar (1,757).
As per the 2011 census the total number of literates in Sonamukhi CD Block was 92,500 (66.16% of the population over 6 years) out of which males numbered 54,107 (75.23% of the male population over 6 years) and females numbered 38,393 (56.55%) of the female population over 6 years). The gender disparity (the difference between female and male literacy rates) was 18.69%.
|Literacy in CD Blocks of|
|Bankura Sadar subdivision|
|Saltora – 61.45%|
|Mejia – 66.83%|
|Gangajalghati – 68.11%|
|Chhatna – 65.73%|
|Bankura I – 68.74%|
|Bankura II – 73.59%|
|Barjora – 71.67%|
|Onda – 65.82%|
|Indas – 71.70%|
|Joypur – 74.57%|
|Patrasayer – 64.8%|
|Kotulpur – 78.01%|
|Sonamukhi – 66.16%|
|Bishnupur – 66.30%|
|Indpur – 67.42%|
|Ranibandh – 68.53%|
|Khatra – 72.18%|
|Hirbandh – 64.18%|
|Raipur – 71.33%|
|Sarenga – 74.25%|
|Simlapal – 68.44%|
|Taldangra – 70.87%|
2011 Census: CD Block Wise
Primary Census Abstract Data
Language and religion
Bengali is the local language in these areas.
In the 2011 census Hindus numbered 136,400 and formed 86.00% of the population in Sonamukhi CD Block. Muslims numbered 19,236 and formed 12.13% of the population. Christians numbered 17 and formed 0.01% of the population. Others numbered 2,944 and formed 1.86% of the population. Others include Addi Bassi, Marang Boro, Santal, Saranath, Sari Dharma, Sarna, Alchchi, Bidin, Sant, Saevdharm, Seran, Saran, Sarin, Kheria, and other religious communities.
161 or 87% of mouzas in Sonamukhi CD Block were electrified by 31 March 2014.
In 2013-14, persons engaged in agriculture in Sonamukhi CD Block could be classified as follows: bargadars 16.33%, patta (document) holders 15.97%, small farmers (possessing land between 1 and 2 hectares) 4.70%, marginal farmers (possessing land up to 1 hectare) 1.43% and agricultural labourers 61.57%.
In 2003-04 net area sown Sonamukhi CD Block was 17,348 hectares and the area in which more than one crop was grown was 14,119 hectares.
In 2013-14, the total area irrigated in Sonamukhi CD Block was 21,675 hectares, out of which 14,900 hectares was by canal water, 250 hectares by tank water, 580 hectares by river lift irrigation, 866 hectares by deep tube well, 4,825 hectares by shallow tubewell, 12 hectares by open dug wells and 242 hectares by other methods.
In 2013-14, Sonamukhi CD Block produced 45,542 tonnes of Aman paddy, the main winter crop, from 17,209 hectares, 1,466 tonnes of Aus paddy from 662 hectares, 32,128 tonnes of Boro paddy from 11,216 hectares, 766 tonnes of wheat from 404 hectares and 29,573,000 tonnes of potatoes from 2,843 hectares. It also produced pulses and mustard.
Handloom and pottery industries
The handloom industry engages the largest number of persons in the non farm sector and hence is important in Bankura district. The handloom industry is well established in all the CD Blocks of the district and includes the famous Baluchari saris. In 2004-05 Sonamukhi CD Block had 79 silk looms in operation. In Sonamukhi municipal area (outside the CD Block) there were 527 looms in operation.
Bankura district is famous for the artistic excellence of its pottery products that include the famous Bankura horse. The range of pottery products is categorised as follows: domestic utilities, terracota and other decorative items and roofing tiles and other heavy pottery items. Around 3,200 families were involved in pottery making in the district in 2002. 76 families were involved in Sonamukhi CD Block.
|Sources:   |
In 2013-14, Sonamukhi CD Block had 4 ferry services and 10 originating/ terminating bus routes.
In 2013-14, Sonamukhi CD Block had 155 primary schools with 11,196 students, 14 middle schools with 1,426 students, 5 high schools with 2,290 students and 12 higher secondary schools with 10,359 students. Sonamukhi CD Block had 280 institutions for special and non-formal education with 11,066 students. Sonamukhi (municipal town) had a general college outside the CD Block. Sonamukhi CD Block had 9 mass literacy centres.
Sonamukhi College was established in 1966.
In 2014, Sonamukhi CD Block had 1 rural hospital and 4 primary health centres with total 72 beds and 5 doctors. It had 26 family welfare sub centres and 1 family welfare centre. 10,588 patients were treated indoor and 229,493 patients were treated outdoor in the hospitals, health centres and subcentres of the CD Block and municipal town.
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- "District Census Handbook Bankura" (PDF). pages 13-17. Directorate of Census Operations West Bengal. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
- O’Malley, L.S.S., ICS, Bankura, Bengal District Gazetteers, pp. 1-20, first published 1908, 1995 reprint, Government of West Bengal
- "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Bankura". Tables 2.1, 2.2. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
- "Official Website of Bankura district". Natural Resources - Forestry. Bankura District Administration. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
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- "Provisional population totals, West Bengal, Table 4, Bankura District". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
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- "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Bankura". Tables 8.2, 17.2, 18.2, 18.1, 20.1, 21.2, 4.4, 3.1, 3.3 – arranged as per use. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
- "District Human Development Report: Bankura" (PDF). April 2007. Page: 58. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 23 August 2016.
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- "Bankura-Masagram DEMU 78052". India Rail Info.
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- "78056 Bankura-Masagram DEMU". India Rail Info. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
- Google maps
- "District Census Handbook Bankura, Series 20 Part XII A, Census of India 2011" (PDF). Page 545: Map of Sonamukhi CD Block and alphabetical list of villages. Directorate of Census Operations 2011. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- "List of State Highways in West Bengal". West Bengal Traffic Police. Retrieved 23 August 2016.
- "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Bankura". Tables 4.4, 4.6. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
- "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Bankura". Tables 3.1, 3.2, 3.3. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 25 August 2016.