Sonarpur (community development block)

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Sonarpur
Community development block
Sonarpur is located in West Bengal
Sonarpur
Sonarpur
Location in West Bengal
Sonarpur is located in India
Sonarpur
Sonarpur
Location in India
Coordinates: 22°26′57″N 88°23′29″E / 22.4491°N 88.3915°E / 22.4491; 88.3915Coordinates: 22°26′57″N 88°23′29″E / 22.4491°N 88.3915°E / 22.4491; 88.3915
Country India
StateWest Bengal
DistrictSouth 24 Parganas
SubdivisionBaruipur
Area
 • Total120.63 km2 (46.58 sq mi)
Elevation
9 m (30 ft)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total219,863
 • Density1,800/km2 (4,700/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialBengali, English
Time zoneUTC+5.30 (IST)
PIN
700150
Telephone code+91 33
Vehicle registrationWB-01 to WB-10, WB-19 to WB-22, WB-95 to WB-99
Lok Sabha constituencyJadavpur
Vidhan Sabha constituencySonarpur Dakshin, Sonarpur Uttar
Websitewww.s24pgs.gov.in

Sonarpur is a community development block that forms an administrative division in Baruipur subdivision of South 24 Parganas district in the Indian State of West Bengal.

Geography[edit]

Sonarpur CD block is located at 22°26′57″N 88°23′29″E / 22.4491°N 88.3915°E / 22.4491; 88.3915. It has an average elevation of 9 metres (30 ft).

Sonarpur CD block is bounded by Garia neighbourhood of Kolkata in the north, Bhangar I, Bhangar II and Canning II CD blocks in the east, Baruipur CD block in the south, Thakurpukur Maheshtala and Bishnupur I CD blocks in the west.[1][2]

South 24 Parganas district is divided into two distinct physiographic zones: the marine-riverine delta in the north and the marine delta zone in the south. As the sea receded southwards, in the sub-recent geological period, a large low-lying plain got exposed. Both tidal inflows and rivers have deposited sediments in this plain. The periodical collapse of both the natural Levees and man-made embankments speed up the process of filling up of the depressions containing brackish water wetlands. The marine delta in the south is formed of interlacing tidal channels. As non-saline water for irrigation is scarce, agriculture is monsoon-dominated. Some parts of the wetlands are still preserved for raising fish.[3]

Sonarpur CD block has an area of 120.63 km2. It has 1 panchayat samity, 11 gram panchayats, 156 gram sansads (village councils), 75 mouzas and 65 inhabited villages, as per the District Statistical Handbook, South Twenty-four Parganas.Sonarpur police station serves this block.[4]Headquarters of this CD block is at Sonarpur. [5]

Gram panchayats of Sonarpur CD block/panchayat samiti are Bonhugly I, Bonhugly II, Kalikapur I, Kalikapur II, Kamrabad, Kheadaha I, Kheadaha II, Langalberia, Polghat, Protapnagar and Sonarpur II.[6]

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

As per the 2011 Census of India, Sonarpur CD block had a total population of 219,863, of which 175,713 were rural and 44,150 were urban. There were 112,238 (51%) males and 107,625 (49%) females. Population below 6 years was 22,880. Scheduled Castes numbered 116,950 (53.19%) and Scheduled Tribes numbered 3,069 (1.40%).[7]

As per the 2001 Census of India, Sonarpur CD block had a total population of 167,348, out of which 86,012 were males and 81,336 were females. Sonarpur CD block registered a population growth of -41.56% during the 1991-2001 decade. Decadal growth for South 24 Parganas district was 20.89%. Decadal growth in West Bengal was 17.84%. Scheduled Castes at 99,567 formed more than one-half the population. Scheduled Tribes numbered 4,348.[8][9][10]

Census Towns in Sonarpur CD block (2011 census figures in brackets): Radhanagar (6,675), Danga (6,766), Ramchandrapur (8,196), Bidyadharpur (4,630), Kalikapur (5,860), Chak Baria (4,914) and Sahebpur (7,109).[7]

Large villages (with 4,000+ population) in Sonarpur CD block (2011 census figures in brackets): Atghara (4,284), Ranabhutia (4,196), Bhagabanpur (11,177), Tardaha (4,706), Khurigochhi (6,023), Mali Puuria (5,858), Bhabanipur (4,007), Mathurapur (4,460), Joykrishnapur Chairi (6,436), Banhugli (11,103), Baruli (4,152) and Raypur (4,098).[7]

Other villages in Sonarpur CD block include (2011 census figures in brackets): Paighat (2,360), Pratapnagar (2,785) and Langalber (2,058).[7]

Literacy[edit]

As per the 2011 census, the total number of literates in Sonarpur CD block was 156,911 (79.66% of the population over 6 years) out of which males numbered 86,132 (85.62% of the male population over 6 years) and females numbered 70,779 (73.43% of the female population over 6 years). The gender disparity (the difference between female and male literacy rates) was 12.19%.[7]

In South 24 Parganas district, literacy was 77.51%.[11] Literacy in West Bengal was 77.08% in 2011.[12] Overall literacy in India in 2011 was 74.04%.[12]

In the 2001 Census of India, Sonarpur CD block had a total literacy of 70.74% for the 6+ age group. While male literacy was 79.87%, female literacy was only 61.07%. South 24 Parganas district had a total literacy rate of 69.45%, male literacy being 79.19% and female literacy being 59.01%.[8]

See also – List of West Bengal districts ranked by literacy rate


Language and religion[edit]

In the 2001 census, Bengali was the mother tongue for 97.9% of the population of the district, followed by Hindi with 1.5%, Urdu 0.3%, Odia and Telugu (0.1% each).[13]

The West Bengal Official Language (Second Amendment) Bill, 2012, included Hindi, Santhali, Odiya and Punjabi as official languages if it is spoken by a population exceeding 10 per cent of the whole in a particular block or sub-division or a district. Subsequently, Kamtapuri, Rajbanshi and Kurmali were also included in the list of minority languages by the West Bengal Official Language (Second Amendment) Bill, 2018.[14][15]However, as of 2019, there is no official / other reliable information about the areas covered.

Religion in Sonarpur CD block
Hindu
81.49%
Muslim
15.92%
Others
2.59%

In the 2011 Census of India, Hindus numbered 179,174 and formed 81.49% of the population in Sonarpur CD block. Muslims numbered 34,989 and formed 15.92% of the population. Others numbered 5,700 and formed 2.59% of the population. Amongst the others, Christians numbered 3,562.[16]

The proportion of Hindus in South Twenty-four Parganas district has declined from 76.0% in 1961 to 63.2% in 2011. The proportion of Muslims in South Twenty-four Parganas district has increased from 23.4% to 35.6% during the same period. Christians formed 0.8% in 2011.[17]

Rural poverty[edit]

As per the Human Development Report for South 24 Parganas district, published in 2009, in Sonarpur CD block the percentage of households below poverty line was 23.36%, a moderate level of poverty, second highest in the north-west portion of the district after Budge Budge II CD block. As per rural household survey in 2005, the proportion of households in South 24 Parganas with poverty rates below poverty line was 34.11%, way above the state and national poverty ratios. The poverty rates were very high in the Sundarban region with all thirteen CD blocks registering poverty ratios above 30% and eight CD blocks had more than 40% of the population in the BPL category.[18]

Economy[edit]

Livelihood[edit]

Livelihood
in Sonarpur CD block

  Cultivators (10.76%)
  Agricultural labourers (13.23%)
  Household industries (3.86%)
  Other Workers (72.14%)

In Sonarpur CD block in 2011, amongst the class of total workers, cultivators numbered 8,839 and formed 10.76%, agricultural labourers numbered 10,869 and formed 13.23%, household industry workers numbered 3,172 and formed 3.86% and other workers numbered 59,249 and formed 72.14%.[19]Total workers numbered 82,129 and formed 37.35% of the total population, and non-workers numbered 137,734 and formed 62.65% of the population.[20]

The District Human Development Report points out that in the blocks of region situated in the close proximity of the Kolkata metropolis, overwhelming majority are involved in the non-agricultural sector for their livelihood. On the other hand, in the Sundarban region, overwhelming majority are dependent on agriculture. In the intermediate region, there is again predominance of the non-agricultural sector. Though the region is not very close to Kolkata, many places are well connected and some industrial/ economic development has taken place.[21]

Note: In the census records a person is considered a cultivator, if the person is engaged in cultivation/ supervision of land owned by self/government/institution. When a person who works on another person's land for wages in cash or kind or share, is regarded as an agricultural labourer. Household industry is defined as an industry conducted by one or more members of the family within the household or village, and one that does not qualify for registration as a factory under the Factories Act. Other workers are persons engaged in some economic activity other than cultivators, agricultural labourers and household workers. It includes factory, mining, plantation, transport and office workers, those engaged in business and commerce, teachers, entertainment artistes and so on.[22]

Infrastructure[edit]

There are 65 inhabited villages in Sonarpur CD block, as per the District Census Handbook, South Twenty-four Parganas, 2011. 100% villages have power supply. 61 villages (93.85%) have drinking water supply. 7 villages (10.77%) have post offices. 64 villages (98.46%) have telephones (including landlines, public call offices and mobile phones). 50 villages (76.92%) have pucca (paved) approach roads and 17 villages (26.15%) have transport communication (includes bus service, rail facility and navigable waterways). 2 villages (3.08%) has agricultural credit societies and 5 villages (7.69%) have banks.[23]

Agriculture[edit]

South 24 Parganas had played a significant role in the Tebhaga movement launched by the Communist Party of India in 1946. Subsequently, Operation Barga was aimed at securing tenancy rights for the peasants. In Sonarpur CD block 3,020.43 acres of land was acquired and vested. Out of this 1,245.06 acres or 41.22% of the vested land was distributed among the peasants. The total number of patta (document) holders was 2,992.[24]

According to the District Human Development Report, agriculture is an important source of livelihood in South Twentyfour Parganas district. The amount of cultivable land per agricultural worker is only 0.41 hectare in the district. Moreover, the irrigation facilities have not been extended to a satisfactory scale. Agriculture mostly remains a mono-cropped activity.[25]

As per the District Census Handbook, the saline soil of the district is unfit for cultivation, but the non-salty lands are very fertile. While rice is the main food crop, jute is the main cash crop.[26]

In 2013-14, there were 42 fertiliser depots, 8 seed stores and 87 fair price shops in Sonarpur CD block.[27]

In 2013-14, Sonarpur CD block produced 1,343 tonnes of Aman paddy, the main winter crop from 1,763 hectares. [27]

Irrigation[edit]

In Sonarpur CD block, in 2013-14, 12.19 hectares were irrigated by deep tube wells.[27]

Pisciculture[edit]

In Sonarpur CD block, in 2013-14, net area under effective pisciculture was 1,432 hectares, engaging 10,280 persons in the profession, and with an approximate annual production of 41,300 quintals.[27]

Pisciculture is an important source of employment in South 24 Parganas district. As of 2001, more than 4.5 lakh people were engaged in Pisciculture. Out of this 2.57 lakhs were from the 13 blocks in the Sundarbans.[28]

Banking[edit]

In 2013-14, Sonarpur CD block had offices of 30 commercial banks and 3 gramin banks.[27]

Backward Regions Grant Fund[edit]

South 24 Parganas district is listed as a backward region and receives financial support from the Backward Regions Grant Fund. The fund, created by the Government of India, is designed to redress regional imbalances in development. As of 2012, 272 districts across the country were listed under this scheme. The list includes 11 districts of West Bengal.[29][30]

Transport[edit]

Sonarpur CD block has 13 originating/ terminating bus routes.[27]

Garia, Narendrapur, Sonarpur Junction and Subhashgram are stations on the Sealdah-Namkhana line.[31]

Garia, Narendrapur, Sonarpur Junction and Subhashgram are stations on the Sealdah-Diamond Harbour line.[32]

Garia, Narendrapur, Sonarpur Junction, Bidyadharpur and Kalikapur are stations on the Sealdah-Canning line.[33]

Education[edit]

In 2013-14, Sonarpur CD block had 86 primary schools with 7,131 students, 8 middle schools with 443 students, 3 high schools with 1,124 students and 9 higher secondary schools with 6,193 students. Sonarpur CD block had 2 technical/ professional institutions with 2,175 students and 533 institutions for special and non-formal education with 12,513 students. Rajpur-Sonarpur municipal area (outside the CD block) had 2 general degree colleges with 3,171 students. [27]

See also – Education in India

As per the 2011 census, in Sonarpur CD block, amongst the 65 inhabited villages, 4 villages did not have a school, 20 villages had two or more primary schools, 26 villages had at least 1 primary and 1 middle school and 8 villages had at least 1 middle and 1 secondary school.[34]

Healthcare[edit]

Certain areas of South 24 Parganas district have been identified where ground water is affected by Arsenic Contamination.[35] High levels of arsenic in ground water were found in twelve CD blocks of the district. Water samples collected from tubewells in the affected places contained arsenic above the normal level (10 micrograms per litre as specified by the World Health Organization). The affected CD blocks are Baruipur, Bhangar I, Bhangar II, Bishnupur I, Bishnupur II, Basanti, Budge Budge II, Canning I, Canning II, Sonarpur, Magrahat II and Jaynagar I.[36]

In 2014, Sonarpur CD block had 1 rural hospital, 4 primary health centres and 3 private nursing homes with total 84 beds and 19 doctors (excluding private bodies). It had 23 family welfare subcentres. 5,681 patients were treated indoor and 251,117 patients were treated outdoor in the hospitals, health centres and subcentres of the CD block.[27]

As per 2011 census, in Sonarpur CD block, 2 villages had primary health centres, 24 villages had primary health subcentres, 9 villages had maternity and child welfare centres, 1 village had a veterinary hospital, 14 villages had medicine shops and out of the 65 inhabited villages 22 villages had no medical facilities.[37]

Sonarpur Rural Hospital at Sonarpur with 25 beds is the major government medical facility in Sonarpur CD block. There are primary health centres at Kalikapur (with 10 beds ), Fartabad (PO Garia) (with 6 beds), Langolberia (PO Dakshin Govindapur) (with 6 beds) and Kheyada (?).[38][39][40]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "District Census Handbook: South 24 Parganas, Series 20, Part XII B" (PDF). Map of South 24 Parganas with CD block HQs and Police Stations (on the fourth page). Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  2. ^ "South Twenty-four Parganas". CD block/ tehsil map. Maps of India. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  3. ^ "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". Chapter 1 South 24 Parganas: An Overview, p 9-12. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2009. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
  4. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 South 24 Parganas". Table No. 2.1, 2.2. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  5. ^ "BDO Offices under South 24 Parganas District". West Bengal Public Library Network, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  6. ^ "Blocks and Gram Panchayats in South 24 Parganas". South 24 Parganas District Administration. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
  7. ^ a b c d e "C.D. block Wise Primary Census Abstract Data(PCA)". 2011 census: West Bengal – District-wise CD blocks. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
  8. ^ a b "District Statistical Handbook – 2010-11 – South 24 Parganas". South 24 Parganas at a glance, Tables 2.2, 2.4 (b), 4.5. Bureau of Applied Economics and Statistics, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  9. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal. Table 4". Census of India 2001 – South 24 Parganas. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  10. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal. Table 4". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  11. ^ "District Census 2011". Population Census 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  12. ^ a b "Provisional population tables and annexures" (PDF). Census 2011:Table 2(3) Literates and Literacy rates by sex. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 9 February 2016.
  13. ^ "Census of India 2011, West Bengal, District Census Handbook, South Twentyfour Parganas, Series – 20, Part XII-A, Village and Town Directory" (PDF). Page 53, Table 11: Population by Mother-tongue in South 24 Parganas district 1961-2001. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 23 September 2019.
  14. ^ "Multilingual Bengal". The Telegraph, 11 December 2012. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  15. ^ "Kamtapuri, Rajbanshi make it to the list of official languages in Bengal". Outlook, 28 February 2015. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  16. ^ "C1 Population by Religious Community". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 18 June 2016.
  17. ^ "District Census Handbook South Twentfour Parganas, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Pages 52-53: Religion. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 5 October 2018.
  18. ^ "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". Pages 42-43, Chapter 3.8: Poverty Scenario in South 24 Parganas. Department of Planning and Statistics, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 23 September 2019.
  19. ^ "District Census Handbook South Twentyfour Parganas, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Table 33: Distribution of Workers by Sex in Four Categories of Economic Activity in Sub-district 2011. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
  20. ^ "District Census Handbook South Twentyfour Parganas, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Table 30: Number and percentage of Main workers, Marginal workers and Non workers by Sex, in Sub-districts, 2011. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
  21. ^ "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". Page 69 , Chapter 4.3: Occupational Diversification. Department of Planning and Statistics, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 23 September 2019.
  22. ^ "District Census Handbook South Twentyfour Parganas, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Census Concepts and Definitions, Page 31. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
  23. ^ "District Census Handbook, South Twentyfour Parganas, 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Page 111, Table 36: Distribution of villages according to availability of different amenities, 2011. Directorate of Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 26 September 2019.
  24. ^ "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". (1) Chapter 1.2, South 24 Parganas in Historical Perspective, pages 7-9 (2) Chapter 3.4, Land reforms, pages 32-33. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2009. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
  25. ^ "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". Pages 28-30 , Chapter 3.2: Sectoral Composition of Output. Department of Planning and Statistics, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 23 September 2019.
  26. ^ "District Census Handbook, South Twentyfour Parganas, 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Page 21: Agriculture. Directorate of Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 26 September 2019.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h "District Statistical Handbook 2014 South 24 Parganas". Table No. 16.1, 18.1, 18.2, 18.3, 20.1, 21.2, 4.4, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 – arranged as per use. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  28. ^ "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". Pages 76 , Chapter 4.5.2: Non-agriculture, (i) Pisciculture. Department of Planning and Statistics, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 23 September 2019.
  29. ^ "Backward Regions Grant Funds: Programme Guidelines" (PDF). Ministry of Panchayati Raj, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 October 2017. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  30. ^ "Backward Regions Grant Fund". Press Release, 14 June 2012. Press Information Bureau, Government of India. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  31. ^ "34792 Sealdah-Namkhana Local". Time Table. India Rail Info. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
  32. ^ "34814 Sealdah-Diamond Harbour Local". Time Table. India Rail Info. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
  33. ^ "34520 Sealdah-Canning Local". Time Table. India Rail Info. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
  34. ^ "District Census Handbook, South 24 Parganas, 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Page 931-932, Appendix I A: Villages by number of Primary Schools and Appendix I B: Villages by Primary, Middle and Secondary Schools. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
  35. ^ "Groundwater Arsenic contamination in West Bengal-India (19 years study)". Groundwater arsenic contamination status of North 24-Parganas district, one of the nine arsenic affected districts of West Bengal-India. SOES. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
  36. ^ "High arsenic levels in South". The Statesman, 24 June 2007. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
  37. ^ "District Census Handbook, South Twentyfour Parganas, 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Pages 927-929, Appendix I: Summary showing total number of villages having Educational, Medical and other amenities – CD block level. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 4 October 2019.
  38. ^ "Health & Family Welfare Department" (PDF). Health Statistics – Rural Hospitals. Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 1 November 2019.
  39. ^ "Health & Family Welfare Department" (PDF). Health Statistics – Block Primary Health Centres. Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 1 November 2019.
  40. ^ "Health & Family Welfare Department" (PDF). Health Statistics – Primary Health Centres. Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 1 November 2019.