This is a good article. Follow the link for more information.

October 2015 Speaker of the United States House of Representatives election

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

October 2015 Speaker of the United States House of Representatives election
Flag of the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives.svg
← 2015 (January) October 29, 2015 (2015-10-29) 2017 →

Needed to Win: Majority of the votes cast
432 votes cast, 217 needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Paul Ryan 113th Congress.jpg Nancy Pelosi 113th Congress 2013.jpg
Candidate Paul Ryan Nancy Pelosi
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Wisconsin's 1st California's 12th
Members' vote 236 184
  Seal of the United States House of Representatives.svg
Candidate "Others"
Members' vote 12

Speaker before election

John Boehner
Republican

Elected Speaker

Paul Ryan
Republican

The October 2015 Speaker of the United States House of Representatives election took place on October 29, 2015, during the 114th United States Congress. This unusual intra-term election for Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives was necessitated by the impending resignation of John Boehner from the speakership and the House, set for October 30.[1] Boehner was the first speaker to resign in the middle of a Congressional term since Jim Wright in 1989.[2]

This was 124th speaker of the House election since the office was created in 1789. Republican congressman Paul Ryan, the chairman of the Ways and Means Committee, won the election, receiving 236 votes, an absolute majority of the 435-member chamber. Democrat Nancy Pelosi, the House Minority Leader, garnered 184 votes, with 12 more going to others. As 432 representatives cast a vote, the majority needed to win was 217.

Ryan (age 45) was the youngest person elected as speaker since James G. Blaine (age 39) in 1869. After the vote Ryan delivered his first remarks as speaker-elect and was sworn in by John Conyers, the dean of the House.[3]

Boehner had been speaker since January 5, 2011, and during his tenure had managed substantial friction within the House Republican Conference, most notably several high-profile disputes with the Freedom Caucus. On September 25, 2015, Boehner announced his decision to resign as speaker and from Congress. He scheduled a Republican Conference non-binding vote for speaker on October 8, and a full floor vote on October 29.

Several Republicans expressed interest in becoming Speaker. Kevin McCarthy, the House Majority Leader was initially viewed as the favorite, but withdrew his name from consideration on October 8, when the Freedom Caucus refused to support him, and the conference vote was postponed. Immediately afterwards, an effort was made to recruit the widely respected Paul Ryan, who had been the 2012 Republican vice presidential candidate, for the post; but he had repeatedly insisted that he was not interested in the job.[4] However, after receiving pledges of support from each of the various party factions, Ryan declared his candidacy. The several other Republicans interested in running for speaker promptly endorsed Ryan; only Daniel Webster remained in the race. Ryan won the rescheduled conference vote on October 28, and was elected speaker the next day.

Background[edit]

Process and conventions[edit]

The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the United States House of Representatives. The House elects its speaker at the beginning of a new Congress (i.e. biennially, after a general election) or when a speaker dies, resigns or is removed from the position intra-term. Since 1839, the House has elected speakers by roll call vote.[5] Traditionally, each party's caucus or conference selects a candidate for the speakership from among its senior leaders prior to the roll call. Representatives are not restricted to voting for the candidate nominated by their party, but generally do, as the outcome of the election effectively determines which party has the majority and consequently will organize the House.[6] Representatives that choose to vote for someone other than their party's nominated candidate usually vote for someone else in their party or vote "present".

Moreover, as the Constitution does not explicitly state that the speaker must be an incumbent member of the House, it is permissible for representatives to vote for someone who is not a member of the House at the time, and non-members have received a few votes in various speaker elections over the past several years.[7] Nevertheless, every person elected speaker has been a member.[6] Representatives that choose to vote for someone other than their party's nominated candidate usually vote for someone else in their party or vote "present".

To be elected speaker a candidate must receive an absolute majority of the votes cast, as opposed to an absolute majority of the full membership of the House – presently 218 votes, in a House of 435. There have only been a few instances during the past century where a person received a majority of the votes cast, and thus won the election, while failing to obtain a majority of the full membership. It happened most recently in January 2015 (114th Congress), when John Boehner was elected with 216 votes (as opposed to 218). Such a variation in the number of votes necessary to win a given election might arise due to vacancies, absentees, or members being present but not voting. If no candidate wins a majority of the "votes cast for a person by name," then the roll call is repeated until a speaker is elected.[6] Multiple roll calls have been necessary only 14 times since 1789; and not since 1923 (68th Congress), when a closely divided House needed nine ballots to elect Frederick H. Gillett speaker.[8] Upon winning election the new Speaker is immediately sworn in by the Dean of the United States House of Representatives, the chamber's longest-serving member.[9][10]

Speakership and resignation of John Boehner[edit]

John Boehner, a member of the Republican Party from Ohio, served as the Majority Leader of the United States House of Representatives from February 2006 until January 2007. As the Democratic Party assumed control of the House following the 2006 elections, Boehner served as Minority Leader from January 2007 until January 2011. When Republicans reassumed control of the House of Representatives in January 2011, Boehner was elected as Speaker, with the votes of all 241 of his fellow Republicans.[11] In 2014, some House Republicans reached out to Ben Carson about his interest in becoming Speaker should they be able to oust Boehner; Carson declined, citing his impending candidacy for president.[12] Boehner's Republican opponents formed a congressional caucus, called the Freedom Caucus, in January 2015 to focus their opposition.[13] Though Boehner was reelected as Speaker at the beginning of the 114th United States Congress that month, 25 conservative members of the Republican caucus did not vote for him. Daniel Webster, a Republican from Florida, received 12 votes.[14]

Throughout 2015, Boehner and the Freedom Caucus remained at odds. Boehner stripped his opponents of leadership posts and other perks, while the American Action Network, a group allied with Boehner, aired television ads against Freedom Caucus members in their home districts. Meanwhile, the Freedom Caucus opposing Boehner's plans, forcing him to rely on Democratic votes to pass bills.[13] Needing to pass a federal budget for the 2016 fiscal year beginning October 1, the Freedom Caucus, now consisting of approximately 40 conservative Republicans affiliated with the Tea Party movement, threatened to block a resolution from passing unless it would defund Planned Parenthood and to initiate a vote to vacate the speakership if Boehner did not support their demands.[15][16] The caucus sought the following promises: (1) the decentralization of the House Steering Committee, so that the Speaker and House Majority Leader are not solely in charge of committee assignments, (2) not supporting an increase in the U.S. debt ceiling without entitlement reform, (3) willingness to impeach John Koskinen, the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, and (4) passing spending bills approved by the caucus rather than a continuing resolution favored by Democrats in the United States Senate.[17]

On July 28, 2015, Mark Meadows, a member of the Freedom Caucus from North Carolina, filed a motion to vacate the speakership, only the second time the motion had been filed. The next day, Boehner referred to the motion as "no big deal".[13] However, following continued pressure from the Freedom Caucus, and to avoid the vacation of his speakership, Boehner announced on September 25 that he would resign the Speakership and retire from Congress effective October 30. Sources from his office indicated he chose to resign due to the increasing discord within the Republican caucus so that he could manage passage of a continuing resolution to fund the government and avoid a government shutdown.[1]

Candidates[edit]

On September 28, Kevin McCarthy of California, the House Majority Leader, and Webster announced that they would run for Speaker of the House.[18][19] McCarthy was considered the presumptive favorite in the race.[20][21] Jason Chaffetz, a Republican from Utah and the Chairman of the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee, announced his candidacy on October 4, claiming that McCarthy did not have the votes to win the election.[22] Several Republicans urged Paul Ryan of Wisconsin, the running mate of Mitt Romney in the 2012 presidential election, to run for Speaker, but he declined, saying he is a "policy guy" with a preference to focus on his role as Chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee.[23]

Democrat Nancy Pelosi, who served as the Speaker from January 2007 through January 2011, asked her Democratic colleagues for their vote in the election.[24] Steny Hoyer, the House Minority Whip, said that he expected that the "overwhelming majority" of Democrats to vote for Pelosi. He said that if a Republican could not get the votes needed, Democrats could consider their options.[25]

On October 7, the day before the Republican caucus scheduled a non-binding vote for speaker, Ryan and former Vice President Dick Cheney endorsed McCarthy,[26][27] as did 11 of the 13 House Republicans from Pennsylvania.[28] The Freedom Caucus decided to endorse Webster in the race.[29] Other Republicans said they would vote against McCarthy, including Thomas Massie of Kentucky, who called McCarthy "absolutely not an option" because of his previous role as Boehner's "right-hand man".[30] Also, Walter B. Jones, Jr. of North Carolina sent a letter to the Republican Conference Chairwoman Cathy McMorris Rodgers stating that any candidates for a leadership position with "misdeeds" should withdraw from the race. Jones has stated that his comment did not specifically refer to McCarthy,[31] but it was widely seen as referring to rumors that McCarthy had been committing an extramarital affair with a fellow Representative, a rumor that both have denied; the basis for such an allegation and interpretation is unclear.[32][33][34]

Citing opposition from within the Republican Party, as well as fallout from controversial comments he made about the United States House Select Committee on Benghazi, McCarthy dropped out of the race on October 8.[35][36] This unexpected move came without warning as House Republicans were preparing to vote on who would be their nominee for speaker, a vote which Boehner subsequently postponed.[37] Thomas Massie and Peter T. King referred to the House as a "banana republic".[38][39] Massie also criticized Boehner for postponing the election, saying they "called off the election because they didn’t like the result," which was echoed by Tom Rice, Louie Gohmert, and Justin Amash. McMorris Rodgers and Conference Vice Chairwoman Lynn Jenkins defended Boehner, saying the matter was handled properly, as conference rules give him sole discretion.[38] Rich Lowry of National Review asked McCarthy in a phone interview if the House was governable, to which McCarthy replied "I don’t know. Sometimes you have to hit rock bottom."[40] Charlie Dent, a Republican from Pennsylvania who had supported McCarthy, suggested that if Republicans are unable to agree on a candidate, the best option might be for a bipartisan coalition to select a Speaker.[41]

The announcement immediately set off a renewed effort to recruit Ryan as a candidate.[42] Boehner personally called Ryan twice to ask him to run,[43] and Chaffetz said that he would not run against Ryan if he chose to enter the race.[44] Ryan also received calls from Mitt Romney and Trey Gowdy, among others, encouraging him to run for Speaker.[45][46] Additional Ryan endorsements came from Wisconsin Senator Ron Johnson, 2016 Republican presidential frontrunner Donald Trump, and House Majority Whip Steve Scalise from Louisiana.[47][48][49] On October 9, close aides of Ryan confirmed that Ryan was reconsidering the possibility of a run.[43][50]

A possible Ryan candidacy received support from the same Freedom Caucus that opposed Boehner and McCarthy. Meadows said on October 11 that Ryan running would "definitely change the equation," and Chairman Jim Jordan described Ryan as "a good man," and stated that the Freedom Caucus would view a Ryan run "favorably".[51][52][53]

Others who expressed their interest in running included Texas Representatives Bill Flores[54][55][56] and Michael McCaul,[57] Georgia Representative Lynn Westmoreland,[58][59] Montana Representative Ryan Zinke,[60] and California Representative and former Oversight Committee Chairman Darrell Issa.[61][62] However, several candidates made clear that they would only run if Ryan chose not to, including Issa, McCaul, and Minnesota Representative John Kline.[63][64][65] On October 12, Flores confirmed that he would run for Speaker, but stated that he would run only if Ryan stayed out of the contest.[66]

Ryan held a closed-door meeting with the Republican Caucus on October 20, where he explained that he would run for Speaker if he could be guaranteed an overwhelming majority of the Republican caucus would support him.[67] Specifically, Ryan requested an increased threshold for the political maneuver of vacating the Speakership, stated that he would not lessen the amount of time he spends with his family, and requested an official endorsement from the Freedom Caucus, Republican Study Committee, and The Tuesday Group by October 23, before he could make his decision.[68][69] Immediately after Ryan's announcement, Chaffetz announced that he would be dropping out of the race to support Ryan.[70] The next day, the Freedom Caucus held a vote to determine which of its members would support Ryan; although the exact tally was not revealed, roughly two-thirds of the caucus voted to endorse Ryan. Although this was shy of the 80% vote needed for an official endorsement over Webster, both the caucus leaders and Ryan were satisfied with the result, and Ryan made efforts to move forward with a potential Speaker bid.[71][72]

On October 22, Ryan announced his bid for Speaker.[73][74][75] Flores, who chairs the Republican Study Committee, dropped out of the race and endorsed Ryan.[76] Mo Brooks of Alabama, a member of the Freedom Caucus, announced on the floor of the House on October 27 that Ryan had agreed not to advance immigration reform legislation while Barack Obama is President of the United States, or unless it meets the "Hastert Rule," as it has the support of the majority of Republicans.[77]

Once it appeared certain that Ryan would run, and win an overwhelming majority of the caucus's votes, Boehner rescheduled the Republican caucus vote for October 28.[78] Ryan won the nomination, defeating Webster 200 to 43 in the secret ballot voting.[79][80] Blackburn and McCarthy each received one vote.[81] The next day, Webster reportedly urged Republicans to vote for Ryan instead of him.[82]

Declared[edit]

The following officially declared their candidacy:

Publicly expressed interest[edit]

The following publicly expressed interest in becoming candidates:

Received speculation[edit]

The following received speculation about a possible candidacy in at least two reliable sources:

Withdrawn[edit]

The following were candidates, but subsequently withdrew:

Declined to run[edit]

The following received some speculation about a possible candidacy, but subsequently ruled themselves out:

Election of the speaker[edit]

Ryan watching the floor vote electing him as Speaker of the House

On October 29, 2015, Ryan was elected speaker, receiving 236 votes.[106] Following the election, Raúl Labrador, a Freedom Caucus member from Idaho, said that Ryan will need to "realize the honeymoon is over and start bringing us some conservative policy," and that "the final exam for Paul Ryan will be in January 2017, when there is a speaker election, and we will look at his body of work and determine whether he gets a passing grade or not."[13] The vote count in the October 2015 speaker of the House election was:[6]

Candidate Votes Percent
Paul Ryan (RWisconsin) Green tickY 236 54.63%
Nancy Pelosi (DCalifornia) 184 42.60%
Dan Webster (R–Florida) 9 2.08%
Colin Powell[a] (R) 1 0.23%
Jim Cooper (D–Tennessee) 1 0.23%
John Lewis (D–Georgia) 1 0.23%
Total votes: 432 100%
Votes necessary: 217 >50%
  1. ^ Not a member of the House at the time.

Representatives voting for someone other than their party's speaker nominee were:[107]
 Dave Brat of Virginia; Curt Clawson of Florida; Louie Gohmert of Texas; Paul Gosar of Arizona; Walter Jones; Thomas Massie of Kentucky; Bill Posey of Florida; Randy Weber of Texas; and Ted Yoho of Florida voted for Dan Webster;
 Jim Cooper of Tennessee voted for Colin Powell;
 Gwen Graham of Florida voted for Jim Cooper;
 Kyrsten Sinema of Arizona voted for John Lewis.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Steinhauer, Jennifer (September 25, 2015). "John Boehner Will Resign From Congress". The New York Times. Retrieved October 21, 2015.
  2. ^ Bomboy, Scott (September 30, 2015). "Why Boehner's resignation is truly historic for House speakers". National Constitution Center. Retrieved November 28, 2018.
  3. ^ House Session (Liner notes). C-SPAN. October 29, 2015. Retrieved January 27, 2019.
  4. ^ DeBonis, Mike; Costa, Robert; Helderman, Rosalind S. (October 8, 2015). "House Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy drops out of race for House speaker". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 27, 2019.
  5. ^ Forte, David F. "Essays on Article I: Speaker of the House". Heritage Guide to The Constitution. Heritage Foundation. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
  6. ^ a b c d Heitshusen, Valerie; Beth, Richard S. (January 4, 2019). "Speakers of the House: Elections, 1913–2019" (PDF). CRS Report for Congress. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, the Library of Congress. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
  7. ^ Grier, Peter (September 25, 2015). "John Boehner exit: Anyone can run for House speaker, even you". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
  8. ^ "Speaker Elections Decided by Multiple Ballots". history.house.gov. United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  9. ^ "Fathers/Deans of the House". history.house.gov. United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
  10. ^ "Election of the Speaker Overview". constitution.laws.com. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
  11. ^ "Boehner elected House speaker as 112th Congress convenes". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  12. ^ Easley, Jonathan (January 7, 2016). "Exclusive: House Republicans recruited Carson for Speaker". The Hill. Retrieved January 8, 2016.
  13. ^ a b c d Lizza, Ryan (December 14, 2015). "A House Divided: How a radical group of Republicans pushed Congress to the right". The New Yorker. Retrieved January 8, 2016.
  14. ^ "Boehner and House GOP Regroup After Tumultuous Speaker Election". Roll Call. Retrieved October 9, 2015.
  15. ^ Wong, Scott (September 23, 2015). "Boehner coup talk has House GOP on edge". The Hill. Retrieved October 14, 2015.
  16. ^ Newton-Small, Jay. "Jason Chaffetz Campaign for House Speaker Exposes McCarthy". Time. Retrieved October 8, 2015.
  17. ^ "Freedom Caucus suggests House rules changes". Politico. Retrieved October 9, 2015.
  18. ^ a b "House leadership race: Kevin McCarthy formally announces he's running for speaker". POLITICO. Retrieved October 8, 2015.
  19. ^ "U.S. Rep. Dan Webster 'running hard' to replace House Speaker John Boehner". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved October 8, 2015.
  20. ^ Newton-Small, Jay. "Meet Kevin McCarthy: The Frontrunner to Replace John Boehner". Time. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  21. ^ Cillizza, Chris (September 30, 2015). "McCarthy's comments about Benghazi should raise a red flag for Republicans". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 9, 2015.
  22. ^ Bradner, Eric (October 4, 2015). "Jason Chaffetz challenges Kevin McCarthy for speaker". CNN. Retrieved October 8, 2015.
  23. ^ Snell, Kelsey (October 8, 2015). "Why Paul Ryan doesn't want to be House speaker". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 8, 2015.
  24. ^ a b "House leadership: Nancy Pelosi seeks support for speaker". Politico. Retrieved October 8, 2015.
  25. ^ a b "House Leadership: Hoyer says GOP on its own for Speaker vote". Politico. Retrieved October 8, 2015.
  26. ^ "John Boehner replacement: Paul Ryan to give nominating speech for McCarthy". Politico. Retrieved October 9, 2015.
  27. ^ "Dick Cheney endorses Kevin McCarthy for House speaker". The Washingtion Times. Retrieved October 9, 2015.
  28. ^ "John Boehner replacement: Pennsylvania Republicans back McCarthy". POLITICO. Retrieved October 9, 2015.
  29. ^ Werner, Erica. "McCarthy withdraws candidacy for speaker, clears path for Utah's Chaffetz and others". Daily Herald. Associated Press. Retrieved October 8, 2015.
  30. ^ Cadei, Emily (October 8, 2015). "Tea Party Conservatives Take Aim at GOP Leaders". Newsweek. Retrieved October 9, 2015.
  31. ^ Doyle, Michael; Recio, Maria (October 8, 2015). "Rep. Walter Jones' letter clouds McCarthy's leadership withdrawal". McClatchy DC. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  32. ^ Hartmann, Margaret (October 9, 2015). "How the Media Is Handling Kevin McCarthy's Rumored Affair". New York. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  33. ^ Yglesias, Matthew (October 9, 2015). "The affair allegations that derailed Kevin McCarthy's quest for the speakership, explained". Vox. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  34. ^ Sherman, Jake; Palmer, Anna; French, Lauren (October 9, 2015). "Ellmers thanks lawmakers for 'prayers' amid affair rumors". Politico. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  35. ^ Steinhauer, Jennifer (October 8, 2015). "Kevin McCarthy Drops Out of House Speaker Race". The New York Times. Retrieved October 8, 2015.
  36. ^ Terkel, Amanda (October 5, 2015). "Kevin McCarthy And His Benghazi Gaffe Star In Hillary Clinton's New Ad "The Republicans finally admit it."". The Huffington Post. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  37. ^ Kopan, Tal; Walsh, Deirdre; Raju, Manu; Bash, Dana (October 8, 2015). "Kevin McCarthy drops out of House speaker race". CNN. Retrieved October 8, 2015.
  38. ^ a b Fuller, Matt (October 9, 2015). "Speaker Election Delay Stirs Conservative Anger". Roll Call. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  39. ^ Tumulty, Karen (October 8, 2015). "The GOP sinks deeper into chaos. Can it still function as a party?". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 9, 2015.
  40. ^ Lowry, Rich (October 8, 2015). "Sometimes You Have to Hit Rock Bottom". National Review. Retrieved October 9, 2015.
  41. ^ Olsen, Laura (October 8, 2015). "Charlie Dent says bipartisan coalition may pick next U.S. House speaker". The Morning Call. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  42. ^ "All eyes on Ryan amid search for House speaker". Reuters. October 9, 2015. Retrieved October 9, 2015.
  43. ^ a b DeBonis, Mike (October 9, 2015). "Wooing Chairman Ryan: Paul Ryan remains on sidelines as House GOP looks to regroup". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 9, 2015.
  44. ^ "Jason Chaffetz: 'I Would Not Run Against Paul Ryan' for Speaker". NBC News. Retrieved October 9, 2015.
  45. ^ "Romney endorse Ryan to run for Speaker". The Boston Herald. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  46. ^ "GOP urging Paul Ryan to run for Speaker". Newsmax.com. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  47. ^ "Paul Ryan considering running for House Speaker". NBC 15. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  48. ^ "Trump: 'OK' with Ryan as House Speaker". Politico. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  49. ^ a b "House Majority Whip Steve Scalise backs Paul Ryan for House Speaker". The Advocate. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  50. ^ "Paul Ryan considering running for speaker". CNN. October 9, 2015. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  51. ^ "Why House conservatives may support Paul Ryan for Speaker". The Daily Signal. Retrieved October 11, 2015.
  52. ^ "House Freedom Caucus would look 'favorably' on Ryan as speaker". Politico. Retrieved October 11, 2015.
  53. ^ "Jordan said powerful House Freedom Caucus is open to Ryan as next Speaker". Fox News Channel. Retrieved October 11, 2015.
  54. ^ "U.S. Rep. Bill Flores tells The Eagle that he's still considering running for the House Speaker post". The Eagle.com. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  55. ^ a b "Report: Conaway weighing in on Speaker bid". MRT.com. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  56. ^ a b "Sources: Flores, Conaway Weighing Bids for U.S. House Speaker". Texas Tribune.com. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  57. ^ a b "McCaul plans to run for House Speaker". KeyeTV.com. Retrieved October 15, 2015.
  58. ^ a b "Lynn Westmoreland, 'Considering' Running for Speaker". Politics.com. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  59. ^ a b "Lynn Westmoreland Considering Running for Speaker". Sputnik News.com. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  60. ^ a b "Zinke says he is considering running for House speaker". Star Tribune.com. Retrieved October 14, 2015.
  61. ^ a b "House Speaker spotlight may swivel around Rep. John Kline". Inforum.com. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  62. ^ a b "Issa: I'm considering running for House Speaker". CNBC. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  63. ^ a b "Darrell Issa: "I May Run for House Speaker"". The Daily Beast.com. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  64. ^ a b "Rep. John Kline in running for speaker, but says he supports Paul Ryan". Star Tribune.com. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  65. ^ a b "U.S. Rep McCaul to run if Paul Ryan doesn't". WFAA.com. Retrieved October 15, 2015.
  66. ^ Lane, Sylvan (October 12, 2015). "Rep. Bill Flores announces run for U.S. House speaker". Dallas Morning News. Retrieved October 13, 2015.
  67. ^ "Ryan to make pitch for Speaker run, under conditions". The Washington Post. October 20, 2015. Retrieved October 20, 2015.
  68. ^ "Ryan tells GOP he'll run for speaker – with conditions". The Hill. Retrieved October 20, 2015.
  69. ^ French, Lauren (October 20, 2015). "Freedom Caucus wary of Ryan's demands: Some conservatives complain he's setting them up to be blamed if he decides not to run". Politico. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  70. ^ a b "Ryan to run for House Speaker if he gets full party support". Fox News Channel. Retrieved October 20, 2015.
  71. ^ "Ryan wins Freedom Caucus majority, but not endorsement for Speaker". USA Today. Retrieved October 21, 2015.
  72. ^ "Ryan to proceed with speaker bid". Politico. Retrieved October 21, 2015.
  73. ^ Walsh, Deirdre; Diamond, Jeremy (October 22, 2015). "Paul Ryan officially running for speaker". CNN. Retrieved October 22, 2015.
  74. ^ Steinhauer, Jennifer (October 22, 2015). "Paul Ryan Will Seek to Become House Speaker". The New York Times. Retrieved October 22, 2015.
  75. ^ DeBonis, Mike (October 22, 2015). "Paul Ryan goes all in: 'I am ready and eager to be our speaker'". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 22, 2015.
  76. ^ Fullhart, Steve (October 22, 2015). "Flores-Chaired Committee Backs Ryan for House Speaker". KBTX-TV. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  77. ^ Gattis, Paul (October 27, 2015). "Mo Brooks, Freedom Caucus strike hardline immigration deal with Paul Ryan". AL.com. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  78. ^ Walsh, Deirdre; Kopan, Tal (October 21, 2015). "John Boehner sets speaker election date: October 28". CNN. Retrieved October 21, 2015.
  79. ^ Kelly, Erin (October 28, 2015). "House Republicans choose Paul Ryan to be speaker". USA Today. Retrieved October 28, 2015.
  80. ^ Walsh, Deirdre (October 28, 2015). "Republicans back Paul Ryan as speaker". CNN. Retrieved October 28, 2015.
  81. ^ Shabad, Rebecca (October 28, 2015). "House Republicans nominate Paul Ryan for speaker". CBS News. Retrieved October 28, 2015.
  82. ^ Sherman, Jake (October 29, 2015). "Webster encouraging House Republicans to not vote for him for speaker". Politico. Retrieved October 29, 2015.
  83. ^ "Paul Ryan officially running for Speaker". CNN. Retrieved October 22, 2015.
  84. ^ "Could Daniel Webster lose his house seat just as he's running for Speaker?". Hot Air.com. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  85. ^ "Daniel Webster Wins Conservative Republicans' Endorsement for House Speaker". The New York Times. October 9, 2015. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  86. ^ "Gingrich open to return to Speakership". The Hill.com. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  87. ^ Chasmar, Jessica (October 8, 2015). "Newt Gingrich open to House speaker run after Kevin McCarthy withdraws". The Washington Times. Retrieved October 23, 2015.
  88. ^ "Mike Pompeo won't rule out running for speaker". Kansas Eagle.com. Retrieved October 17, 2015.
  89. ^ "Pompeo considering race for speaker". Angri-pulse.com. Retrieved October 16, 2015.
  90. ^ "Zinke says he is considering running for House Speaker". Missoulian.com. Retrieved October 14, 2015.
  91. ^ "Two Republican Women from Tennessee talked up for Speaker race". Times Free Press.com. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
  92. ^ "Could a Tennessean be the next Speaker". WRCBtv.com. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
  93. ^ "Rep. Mike Kelly Considers House Speaker Bid". ErieTVNews.com. Retrieved October 21, 2015.
  94. ^ "Representative Mike Kelly May Run for House Speaker". YourErie.com. Retrieved October 21, 2015.
  95. ^ "Chaffetz enters speaker's race, pans McCarthy". Politico. October 4, 2015. Retrieved January 8, 2016.
  96. ^ "Most Texas Republicans backing Paul Ryan for House speaker". Dallas Morning News. Retrieved October 22, 2015.
  97. ^ Steinhauer, Jennifer (October 8, 2015). "Kevin McCarthy Drops Out of House Speaker Race". The New York Times. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  98. ^ "House Speaker Race – Marsha Blackburn, Peter Roskam, Dark Horses". National Review.com. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
  99. ^ Marsha Blackburn says Speaker job not on her 'to-do list', WSMV (October 28, 2015).
  100. ^ "Gowdy says he won't run". The Hill. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  101. ^ "Texas conservative Jeb Hensarling won't run for House Speaker". iPR Newswire. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  102. ^ "Tom Price gets support, Cathy McMorris Rodgers is out". CNN. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  103. ^ Kevin P. Craver, U.S. Rep. Peter Roskam says he won't run for House speaker, Northwest Herald (October 13, 2015).
  104. ^ Katherine Skiba, Rep. Roskam could vie again for GOP leadership post as Boehner exits, Chicago Tribune (September 26, 2015).
  105. ^ "Steve Scalise: Next speaker of the House?". WNRO. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  106. ^ Steinhauer, Jennifer (October 29, 2015). "Paul Ryan Is Elected House Speaker, Hoping to Manage Chaos". The New York Times. Retrieved October 29, 2015.
  107. ^ "161 Cong. Rec. H7337–38 (2015)" (PDF). Washington, D.C.: United States Government Publishing Office. October 29, 2015. Retrieved March 12, 2019.