A squat is a strength exercise in which the trainee lowers their hips from a standing position and then stands back up. During the descent of a squat, the hip and knee joints flex while the ankle joint dorsiflexes; conversely the hip and knee joints extend and the ankle joint plantarflexes when standing up.
Squats are considered a vital exercise for increasing the strength and size of the lower body muscles as well as developing core strength. The primary agonist muscles used during the squat are the quadriceps femoris, the adductor magnus, and the gluteus maximus. The squat also isometrically uses the erector spinae and the abdominal muscles, among others.
The squat is one of the three lifts in the strength sport of powerlifting, together with the deadlift and the bench press. It is also considered a staple exercise in many popular recreational exercise programs.
The movement begins from a standing position. Weight is often added; typically in the form of a loaded barbell but dumbbells and kettlebells may also be used. When a barbell is used, it may be braced across the upper trapezius muscle, termed a high bar squat, or held lower across the rear deltoids, termed a low bar squat. The movement is initiated by moving the hips back and bending the knees and hips to lower the torso and accompanying weight, then returning to the upright position.
Squats can be performed to varying depths. The competition standard is for the crease of the hip (top surface of the leg at the hip joint) to fall below the top of the knee; this is colloquially known as "parallel" depth. Confusingly, many other definitions for "parallel" depth abound, none of which represents the standard in organized powerlifting. From shallowest to deepest, these other standards are: bottom of hamstring parallel to the ground; the hip joint itself below the top of the knee, or femur parallel to the floor; and the top of the upper thigh (i.e., top of the quadriceps) below the top of the knee. Squatting below parallel qualifies a squat as deep while squatting above it qualifies as shallow. Some authorities caution against deep squats; though the forces on the ACL and PCL decrease at high flexion, compressive forces on the menisci and articular cartilages in the knee peak at these same high angles. This makes the relative safety of deep versus shallow squats difficult to determine.
As the body descends, the hips and knees undergo flexion, the ankle extends (dorsiflexes) and muscles around the joint contract eccentrically, reaching maximal contraction at the bottom of the movement while slowing and reversing descent. The muscles around the hips provide the power out of the bottom. If the knees slide forward or cave in then tension is taken from the hamstrings, hindering power on the ascent. Returning to vertical contracts the muscles concentrically, and the hips and knees undergo extension while the ankle plantarflexes.
Common errors of squat form include descending too rapidly and flexing the torso too far forward. Rapid descent risks being unable to complete the lift or causing injury. This occurs when the descent causes the squatting muscles to relax and tightness at the bottom is lost as a result. Over-flexing the torso greatly increases the forces exerted on the lower back, risking a spinal disc herniation. Another error is when the knee is not aligned with the direction of the toes, entering a valgus position, which can adversely stress the knee joint. Another error is the raising of heels off the floor, which reduces the contribution of the gluteus muscles.
- Erector spinae
- Rectus abdominis
- Internal and external obliques
- Gluteus medius and minimus
Various types of equipment can be used to perform squats.
A power cage can be used to reduce risk of injury and eliminate the need for a spotting partner. By putting the bar on a track, the Smith machine reduces the role of hip movement in the squat and in this sense resembles a leg press. The monolift rack allows an athlete to perform a squat without having to take a couple of steps back with weight on as opposed to conventional racks. Not many powerlifting federations allow monolift in competitions (WPO, GPC, IPO).
Other equipment used can include a weight lifting belt to support the torso and boards to wedge beneath the ankles to improve stability and allow a deeper squat (weightlifting shoes also have wooden wedges built into the sole to achieve the same effect). Wrist straps are another piece of recommended equipment; they support the wrist and help to keep it in a straightened position. They should be wrapped around the wrist, above and below the joint, thus limiting movement of the joint. Heel wedges and related equipment are discouraged by some as they are thought to worsen form over the long term. The barbell can also be cushioned with a special padded sleeve.
The squat has a number of variants, some of which can be combined:
- Back squat – the bar is held on the back of the body upon the upper trapezius muscle, near to the base of the neck. Alternatively, it may be held lower across the upper back and rear deltoids. In powerlifting the barbell is often held in a lower position in order to create a lever advantage, while in weightlifting it is often held in a higher position which produces a posture closer to that of the clean and jerk. These variations are called low bar (or powerlifting squat) and high bar (or Olympic squat), respectively.
- Sumo squat – A variation of the back squat where the feet are places slightly wider than shoulder width apart and the feet pointed outwards.
- Box squat – at the bottom of the motion the squatter will sit down on a bench or other type of support then rise again. The box squat is commonly utilized by powerlifters to train the squat.
- Front squat – the barbell is held in front of the body across the clavicles and deltoids in either a clean grip, as is used in weightlifting, or with the arms crossed and hands placed on top of the barbell. In addition to the muscles used in the back squat, the front squat also uses muscles of the upper back such as the trapezius to support the bar.
- Hack squat – the barbell is held in the hands just behind the legs; this exercise was first known as Hacke (heel) in Germany. According to European strength sports expert and Germanist Emmanuel Legeard this name was derived from the original form of the exercise where the heels were joined. The hack squat was thus a squat performed the way Prussian soldiers used to click their heels ("Hacken zusammen"). The hack squat was popularized in the English-speaking countries by early 1900s wrestler, George Hackenschmidt. It is also called a rear deadlift.
- Overhead squat – the barbell is held overhead in a wide-arm snatch grip; however, it is also possible to use a closer grip if balance allows.
- Zercher squat – the barbell is held in the crooks of the arms, on the inside of the elbow. One method of performing this is to deadlift the barbell, hold it against the thighs, squat into the lower portion of the squat, and then hold the bar on the thighs as you position the crook of your arm under the bar and then stand up. This sequence is reversed once the desired number of repetitions has been performed. Named after Ed Zercher, a 1930s strongman.
- Deep knee bend on toes - it is similar to a normal back squat only the lifter is positioned on their forefeet and toes, with their heels raised, throughout the repetition. Usually, the weight used is not more than moderate in comparison to a flat footed, heavy back squat.
- Loaded squat jump - the barbell is positioned similarly to a back squat. The exerciser squats down, before moving upwards into a jump, and then landing in approximately the same position. The loaded squat jump is a form of loaded plyometric exercise used to increase explosive power. Variations of this exercise may involve the use of a trap bar or dumbbells.
- Split squat – an assisted one-legged squat where the non-lifting leg is rested on the ground a few steps behind the lifter, as if it were a static lunge.
- Bulgarian squat – performed similarly to a split squat, but the foot of the non-lifting leg is rested on a platform behind the lifter.
- Belt squat – is an exercise performed the same as other squat variations except the weight is attached to a hip belt i.e. a dip belt
- Goblet squat – a squat performed while holding a kettlebell next to one's chest and abdomen with both hands.
- Smith squat – a squat using a Smith machine.
- Trap bar squat - a trap bar is held in the hands while squats are performed.
- Bodyweight squat – done with no weight or barbell, often at higher repetitions than other variants.
- Overhead squat – a non-weight bearing variation of the squat exercise, with the hands facing each other overhead, biceps aligned with the ears, and feet hip-width apart. This exercise is a predictor of total-body flexibility, mobility, and possible lower body dysfunction.
- Hindu squat – also called a baithak, or a deep knee bend on toes. It is performed without weight, with the heels raised, and body weight placed on the forefeet and toes; during the movement, the knees track far past the toes. The baithak was a staple exercise of ancient Indian wrestlers.
- Jump squat – a plyometrics exercise where the squatter engages in a rapid eccentric contraction and jumps forcefully off the floor at the top of the range of motion.
- Pistol squat – a bodyweight single leg squat done to full depth, while the other leg is extended off the floor. Sometimes dumbbells, kettlebells or medicine balls are added for resistance.
- Shrimp squat – also called the flamingo squat, a version of the pistols squat where instead of extending the non-working leg out in front, it is bent and placed behind the working leg while squatting, perhaps held behind in a hand.
Although the squat has long been a basic element of weight training, it has not been without controversy over its safety. Some trainers allege that squats are associated with injuries to the lumbar spine and knees. Others, however, continue to advocate the squat as one of the best exercises for building muscle and strength. Some coaches maintain that incomplete squats (those terminating above parallel) are both less effective and more likely to cause injury than a full squat (terminating with hips at or below knee level). A 2013 review concluded that deep squats performed with proper technique do not lead to increased rates of degenerative knee injuries and are an effective exercise. The same review also concluded that shallower squats may lead to degeneration in the lumbar spine and knees in the long-term.
Squats used in physical therapy
Squats can be used for some rehabilitative activities because they hone stability without excessive compression on the tibiofemoral joint and anterior cruciate ligament.
Deeper squats are associated with higher compressive loads on patellofemoral joint and it is possible that people who suffer from pain in this joint cannot squat at increased depths. For some knee rehabilitation activities, patients might feel more comfortable with knee flexion between 0 and 50 degrees because it places less force compared to deeper depths. Another study shows that decline squats at angles higher than 16 degrees may not be beneficial for the knee and fails to decrease calf tension. Other studies have indicated that the best squat to hone quadriceps, without inflaming the patellofemoral joint, occurs between 0 and 50 degrees.
Combining single-limb squats and decline angles have been used to rehabilitate knee extensors. Conducting squats at a declined angle allows the knee to flex despite possible pain or lack of mobilization in the ankle. If therapists are looking to focus on the knee during squats, one study shows that doing single-limb squats at a 16 degree decline angle has the greatest activation of the knee extensors without placing excessive pressure on the ankles. This same study also found that a 24 degree decline angle can be used to strengthen ankles and knee extensors.
- The world record with a squat suit is 575 kg (1268 lb) performed by Jonas Rantanen of Finland on 8 October 2011.
- The raw world record with knee wraps is 525 kg (1157 lb) performed by Vlad Alhazov on 23 December 2018.
- The raw world record without knee wraps belongs to Ray Williams who lifted 490 kg (1080 lb) in March 2019, at the Arnold Classic in Columbus, Ohio.
- The women world record belongs to Olga Gemaletdinova who lifted 310.0 kg (684 lb) on 5 May 2011.
- The most squats with 130 kg in two minutes was Netherlands woman Maria Strik. She squatted a weight of 130 kg, 29 times within two minutes.
- The most bodyweight squats performed in one hour is 4,708 by Paddy Doyle (UK) on November 2007.
- The most bodyweight sumo squats in one hour is 5,135, and was achieved by Dr. Thienna Ho (Vietnam) on December 2007.
Silvio Sabba from Italy has :
- the most single leg squats (pistols) in one minute: 47 on January 2012
- the most squats in one minute carrying a 60 lb pack: 47 on June 2016 (the previous was 44 by Paddy Doyle)
- the most squats in one minute carrying an 80 lb pack: 42 on July 2016
- the most pistol squats on a scaffold pole in one minute: 30 on October 2013
- the most pistol squats on an American football in one minute: 23 on July 2015
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