Urban rail transit in India

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Urban rail transit in India consists of suburban rail, rapid transit, monorail, light rail, and tram systems.

Rapid transit (metro)[edit]

There are currently 13 operational rapid transit (also called 'metro') systems in 12 cities in India. For instance Delhi Metro itself is connected to few other nearby cities in the National Capital Territory.[1] As of August 2019, India has 659.41 kilometres (409.74 miles) of operational metro lines and 502 stations.[2] A further 500+ km of lines are under construction. Metro rail lines in India are composed of mainly standard gauge. Projects like the Kolkata Metro and Delhi Metro used broad gauge for their earliest lines but all new projects in India are on standard gauge as rolling stock imported is of standard gauge.

Apart from the Kolkata metro (which forms its own zone of Indian Railways), these rapid transit metro lines are not operated by Indian Railways but by separate local authorities. In addition to their metro systems, the cities of Chennai and Hyderabad have mass transit systems operated by the Indian Railways, known as the Chennai MRTS and the Hyderabad MMTS, respectively.

The first rapid transit system in India is the Kolkata Metro, which started operations in 1984. The Delhi Metro has the largest network in the entire country.[3] The newest metro opened is Nagpur Metro on 8 March 2019.

In 2006, the National Urban Transport Policy proposed the construction of a metro rail system in every city with a population of 20 lakh (2 million).[4][5] On 11 August 2014, Union Government announced that it would provide financial assistance, for the implementation of a metro rail system, to all Indian cities having a population of more than 1 million.[6][7] In May 2015, the Union Government approved the Union Urban Development Ministry's proposal to implement metro rail systems in 50 cities. The majority of the planned projects will be implemented through special purpose vehicles, which will be established as 50:50 joint ventures between the Union and respective State Government. The Union Government will invest an estimated 5 lakh crore (US$72 billion).[8][9] In a new draft policy unveiled in March 2017, the Central Government stated that it wanted state governments to consider metro rail as the "last option" and implement it only after considering all other possible mass rapid transit systems. The decision was taken due to the high cost of constructing metro rail systems.[10] In August 2017, the Union Government announced that it would not provide financial assistance to new metro rail project, unless some sort of private partnership is involved.[11][12][13]

  • White background In service
  • Green background Under construction
  • Blue background In planning
  • Yellow background Proposed
  • Pink background Defunct
  • Red background Scrapped
System City State Opening
Year
System length (km) No of lines[a] No of stations[b] Gauge Traction Notes
IO[c] UC[d] P[e]
Kolkata Metro Kolkata West Bengal 24 October 1984 27.22 113.42 1 24 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge
1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
750 V DC Third rail First metro in India. It is first in India to have the third rail for power supply and the first to use fully metro coaches made in India by ICF & BEML.
Delhi Metro Delhi NCR Delhi, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh 24 December 2002 343.36[14] 18.11[15] 103.9 8 250 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge
1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
25 kV AC OHE India's largest rapid transit/metro system.
Rapid Metro Gurgaon Haryana 14 November 2013 11.7 1 12 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 750 V DC Third rail India's first fully privately financed metro. Currently undertaken by Delhi Metro
Noida Metro Uttar Pradesh 25 January 2019 29.7 15 1 22 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 25 kV AC OHE Currently undertaken by Delhi Metro
Namma Metro Bengaluru Karnataka 20 October 2011 42.30 34.37 57.07 2 41 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 750 V DC third rail First metro in southern India, the first to have the third rail for power supply in southern India, and the first to introduce Wi-Fi onboard trains.[16]
Mumbai Metro Mumbai Maharashtra 8 June 2014 11.4 163 209 1 12 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 25 kV AC OHE India's first public private partnership (PPP) metro system with Reliance group. 14 lines and line extensions are at different stages of execution.
Jaipur Metro Jaipur Rajasthan 3 June 2015 9.63 2.4 23.01 1 9 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 25 kV AC OHE Double-story elevated road and Metro track project for the first time in the country.
Chennai Metro Chennai Tamil Nadu 29 June 2015 45.1 9.1 118.9 2 32 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 25 kV AC OHE First metro rail in the country to connect two lines (blue & green) through loop line to run direct service from the airport to central even though had interchange station at Alandur. First metro in India for underground stations with sliding doors.
Kochi Metro Kochi Kerala 17 June 2017[17] 27.8 28.1  59.2 1 21 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 750 V DC Third rail First Indian metro to go live with CBTC signalling.[18]
Lucknow Metro Lucknow Uttar Pradesh 5 September 2017 23.7 11.10  140 1 21 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 25 kV AC OHE The fastest built and commissioned metro system in the world.[19][20][21] Opened to the public on 5 September 2017.[22][23][24]
Hyderabad Metro Hyderabad Telangana 29 November 2017[25] 56.5 15.7 168 2 47 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 25 kV AC OHE India's first metro to have CBTC and integrated telecommunications and supervision systems, i.e. driver less metro.
Ahmedabad Metro Ahmedabad Gandhinagar
Gujarat 6 March 2019[26] 6.5[27] 40.03[28] 28.26[29][30] 1 6 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 750 V DC Third rail Inaugurated by PM Narendra Modi on 4 March 2019.
Nagpur Metro Nagpur Maharashtra 8 March 2019[31] 13.5 29.5 93 1 5 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 25 kV AC OHE Inaugurated by PM Narendra Modi on 7 March 2019.
Navi Mumbai Metro Navi Mumbai Maharashtra August 2020[32] 11.10 12.30[33] 1 20 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 25 kV AC OHE Two sets of 3 cars train arrived at Mumbai Port from China[34]
Pune Metro Pune Maharashtra June 2022[35] 31.5 54 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 25 kV AC Construction began in May 2017. 30% work completed as of June 2018.[36]
Bhopal Metro Bhopal Madhya Pradesh 2023[37] 27.87 2 30 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 25 kV AC Construction began in December 2018.[38]
Indore Metro Indore Madhya Pradesh August 2023[39] 31.55 1 30 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 25 kV AC Foundation stone laid on 14 September 2019.[40]
Kanpur Metro Kanpur Uttar Pradesh 2024[41] 24 38 2 24 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 25 kv AC OHE Approved by the Union Cabinet on 28 February 2019.[23]
Agra Metro Agra Uttar Pradesh 2024[41] 27[42] 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge N/A Approved by the Union Cabinet on 28 February 2019.[43]
Patna Metro Patna Bihar 2024[44] 31 2 24 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 25 kV AC OHE Construction is expected to begin by March 2020.[45]
Surat Metro Surat Gujarat 2024[46] 40.35 2 38 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge N/A Union govt approved DPR on 10 March 2019.[47]
Srinagar Metro Srinagar Jammu & Kashmir 2024[48] 25 2 24 N/A N/A Construction will start from 2020.[49]
Meerut Metro Meerut Uttar Pradesh 2024[50] 30 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge N/A Foundation stone laid in March 2019.
Varanasi Metro Varanasi Uttar Pradesh 13 1 13 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge N/A Detailed project report completed.[51]
Guwahati Metro Guwahati Assam 61.4 TBD N/A DPR approved by the state cabinet.[52]
Gorakhpur Metro Gorakhpur Uttar Pradesh 27.41 2 27 Proposed
Visakhapatnam Metro Visakhapatnam Andhra Pradesh 39 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge N/A [53]
Coimbatore Metro Coimbatore Tamil Nadu 3 24 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 25 kv AC

OHE

Under feasibility study.[54]
Greater Gwalior Metro Gwalior Madhya Pradesh 105 N/A N/A Subject to a feasibility study.[55]
Jabalpur Metro Jabalpur Madhya Pradesh N/A N/A Subject to a feasibility study.[55]
Bareilly Metro Bareilly Uttar Pradesh Proposed
Thane Metro Thane Maharashtra Proposed
Prayagraj Metro Prayagraj Uttar Pradesh Proposed
Ranchi Metro Ranchi Jharkhand Proposed
Chandigarh Metro Chandigarh Tricity Punjab 37.5 Rejected because of commercial viability.[56]
Kozhikode Light Metro Kozhikode Kerala 22 [57]
Thiruvananthapuram Light Metro Thiruvananthapuram Kerala 22 [58]
Western Railway Elevated Corridor Mumbai Maharashtra 63.27 Rejected because of infeasibility.
Ludhiana Metro Ludhiana Punjab 28.83 Rejected due to lack of funds

Suburban rail[edit]

Suburban rail plays a major role in the public transport system of many major Indian cities. These service are operated by Indian Railways. Suburban rail is a rail service between a central business district and the suburbs, a conurbation or other locations that draw large numbers of people on a daily basis. The trains are called suburban trains. These trains are also referred to as "local trains" or "locals". The suburban rail systems in Hyderabad, Pune, Barabanki–Lucknow, Lucknow–Kanpur and Bengaluru do not have dedicated suburban tracks but share tracks with long distance trains. The suburban rail system of Chennai and Mumbai have both dedicated tracks and tracks shared with long distance trains.

The first suburban rail system in India is Mumbai Suburban Railway which started operations in 1853. The Kolkata Suburban Railway has the largest network in the entire country.

Suburban trains that handle commuter traffic are all electric multiple units (EMUs). They usually have nine or twelve coaches, sometimes even fifteen to handle rush hour traffic. One unit of an EMU train consists of one power car and two general coaches. Thus a nine coach EMU is made up of three units having one power car at each end and one at the middle. The rakes in the suburban rails run on 25 kV AC.[59] Ridership on India's suburban railways has risen from 1.2 million in 1970–71 to 4.4 million in 2012–13. The suburban railways of Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai account for about 7.1% of the Indian Railways 20819.3  million train kilometres but contribute 53.2% of all railway passengers.[60] In some cities of India, the opening of rapid transit systems have led to a decline in the use of the suburban rail system.

  • White background In service
  • Green background Under construction
  • Blue background In planning
  • Yellow background Proposed but not planned
  • Pink background Proposed to be scrapped
System City State Opening Year System Length (km) No of Lines No of Stations Gauge Traction Notes
Mumbai Suburban Railway Mumbai Maharashtra 16 April 1853 427.5 6 140 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge 25 kV AC
OHE
First suburban railway
Kolkata Suburban Railway Kolkata West Bengal 15 August 1854 1243 25 365+ 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge 25 kV AC
OHE
Largest suburban railway
Lucknow–Kanpur Suburban Railway Lucknow
Kanpur
Uttar Pradesh 23 April 1867 72 2 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge 25 kV AC
OHE
Chennai Suburban Railway Chennai Tamil Nadu 2 April 1931 509 4 150+ 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge 25 kV AC
OHE
Largest Suburban Railway in South India
Delhi Suburban Railway(excluding NCR) Delhi Delhi 1 October 1975 85-100 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge 25 kV AC
OHE
Pune Suburban Railway Pune Maharashtra 16 April 1978 63 2 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge 25 kV AC
OHE
Hyderabad Multi-Modal Transport System Hyderabad Telangana 9 August 2003 43 3 36 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge 25 kV AC
OHE
Barabanki–Lucknow Suburban Railway Barabanki
Lucknow
Uttar Pradesh 9 August 2013 36 2 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge 25 kV AC
OHE
Pernem–Karwar Suburban Railway Goa
Karwar
Goa, Karnataka 1 April 2015 100 1 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge 25 kV AC
OHE
Bengaluru Commuter Rail Bengaluru Karnataka Planned 200 2 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge 25 kV AC
OHE
Ahmedabad Suburban Railway Ahmedabad Gujarat Planned 52.96 2 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge 25 kV AC
OHE
Delhi–Alwar Regional Rapid Transit System Delhi
Alwar
Delhi, Rajasthan Planned 164 22 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge 25 kV AC
OHE
Delhi–Meerut Regional Rapid Transit System Delhi
Meerut
Delhi, Uttar Pradesh Planned 82 16 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge 25 kV AC
OHE
PM Modi laid the foundation stone on 8 March 2019
Delhi–Panipat Regional Rapid Transit System Delhi
Panipat
Delhi, Haryana Planned 103 16 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge 25 kV AC
OHE
Coimbatore Suburban Railway Coimbatore Tamil Nadu Proposed 2 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge 25 kV AC
OHE

Monorail[edit]

The Mumbai Monorail, which opened on 2 February 2014, is the first operational monorail system used for rapid transit in independent India.[61] Many other Indian cities have monorail projects, as a feeder system to the metro, in different phases of planning.

  • White background In service
  • Green background Under construction
  • Blue background In planning
  • Yellow background Proposed but not planned
  • Pink background Defunct
System City State Opening year System length (km) No of lines No of stations Traction Notes
Mumbai Monorail Mumbai Maharashtra 2 February 2014 19.52 1 17 750 V DC Third rail World's sixth longest monorail after Phase 2 opened on 3 March 2019.
Chennai Monorail Chennai Tamil Nadu 57 3 37 Centre approved Chennai monorail project, to be implemented under DBFOT model.[62][63][64][65][66]
Kolkata Monorail Kolkata West Bengal 72 2
Allahabad monorail Allahabad Uttar Pradesh 70.4 2
Kanpur Monorail Kanpur Uttar Pradesh 63 3
Aizawl Monorail Aizawl Mizoram
Bhubaneswar Monorail Bhubaneswar Odisha
Jodhpur Monorail Jodhpur Rajasthan [67][68][69][70][71]
Kota Monorail Kota Rajasthan [67][68][69][70][71]
Tiruchirappalli Monorail Tiruchirappalli Tamil Nadu Proposed.
Coimbatore Monorail Coimbatore Tamil Nadu Proposed.
Warangal Monorail Warangal Telangana Proposed.
Chandigarh Monorail Chandigarh Tricity Haryana Proposed.
Shimla Monorail Shimla Himachal Pradesh Proposed

Light rail[edit]

Light rail or light rail transit (LRT) is a form of urban rail transit using rolling stock similar to a tramway, but operating at a higher capacity, and often on an exclusive right-of-way. Two light rail projects have been proposed respectively in Delhi and Kolkata. There would be a total number of 68 stations of light rail in India.

  • White background In service
  • Green background Under construction
  • Blue background In planning
  • Yellow background Proposed but not planned
  • Pink background Defunct
System City State Opening year System length (km) No of lines No of stations Gauge Traction Notes
Vijayawada Metro Vijayawada Andhra Pradesh 2020 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge [72]
Greater Nashik Metro Nashik Maharashtra N/A N/A DPR being prepared by MahaMetro.[73]
Kolkata Light Rail Transit Kolkata West Bengal 2 12 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 750 V DC Third rail
Delhi Light Rail Transit Delhi Delhi 45 3

Tram[edit]

In addition to trains, trams were introduced in many cities in the late 19th century, though almost all of these were phased out. The Trams in Kolkata is currently the only tram system in the country. The Calcutta Tramways Company (now under WBTC) is in the process[when?] of upgrading the existing tramway network at a cost of 240 million (US$3.5 million).[74]

  • White background In service
  • Green background Under construction
  • Blue background In planning
  • Yellow background Proposed but not planned
  • Pink background Defunct
System City State Opening year System length (km) No of lines No of stations Gauge Traction Notes
Kolkata Tram Kolkata West Bengal 1873 57.17 25 NA 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 550 V DC
OHE
The only operational tram system in India
Mumbai Tram Mumbai Maharashtra 1874 Discontinued in 1964
Nashik Tram Nashik Maharashtra 1889 762 mm (2 ft 6 in) narrow gauge Discontinued in 1931
Chennai Tram Chennai Tamil Nadu 1895 Discontinued in 1953
Patna Tram Patna Bihar Discontinued in 1903
Kanpur Tram Kanpur Uttar Pradesh 1907 6.04 Discontinued on 16 May 1933
Kochi Tram Kochi Kerala 1907 1000 mm (3 ft ⅜ in) metre gauge Discontinued in 1963
Delhi Tram Delhi Delhi 1908 Discontinued in 1963
Bhavnagar Tram Bhavnagar Gujarat 1926 762 mm (2 ft 6 in) narrow gauge Discontinued in 1960s

Rolling stock manufacturers[edit]

There are three metro rolling stock manufacturers in India under the Union Government's Make in India program, 75% of the rolling stock procured for use on Indian metro systems are required to be manufactured in India.[75]

Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML)

BEML is a Bangaluru-based Public Sector Undertaking company which manufactures mining equipment, heavy engineering as well as metro rail coaches. It manufactures of Rolling Stock consortium with Hyundai, Mitsubishi, Rotem.

  • Delhi Metro – 200 coaches
  • Hyderabad Metro – 171 coaches
  • Namma Metro – 150 coaches
  • Kolkata Metro – 84 coaches
  • Jaipur Metro – 40 coaches
  • Mumbai Metro – 378 coaches[76]
Bombardier India

Bombardier built a £26m factory in Savli, Gujarat after it won a contract to supply 614 cars to the Delhi Metro.[77] Production at Savli began in June 2009.[78] In June 2012, the plant won an order to supply semi-finished bogies to Australia.[78]

  • Delhi Metro – 614 coaches
Alstom India

In 2013, Alstom built a factory in Sri City, Andhra Pradesh after it won a €243 million contract to supply 168 cars to the Chennai Metro.[79] The 156-acre plant will be used to supply trains to cities in India and abroad.[80] It also provides signalling & telecommunications systems.

  • Chennai Metro – 168 coaches
  • Lucknow Metro – 80 coaches
  • Kochi Metro – 75 coaches
  • Mumbai Metro – 248 coaches[81]
Integral Coach Factory

Integral Coach Factory manufactures rolling stock (under Kolkata Urban Transit), ICF has manufactured "Medha Rakes" and is in the process of supplying them to various suburban systems.

Others

Legislation[edit]

The subject of Railways is in the Union List of the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution, giving Parliament the exclusive power to enact legislation concerning it. According to former Minister of Urban Development Kamal Nath, "Since the Metro rail is a central subject, it has been decided that all such projects in the country, whether within one municipal area or beyond, shall be taken up under the Central Metro Acts."[85]

Construction of metros in India is governed by the centrally enacted The Metro Railways (Construction of Works) Act, 1978 which defines itself as an act to provide for the construction of works relating to metro railways in the metropolitan cities and for matters connected therewith.[86] Operation and maintenance of metros are governed by The Delhi Metro Railway (Operation and Maintenance) Act, 2002. Both laws were amended in 2009 with the passing of The Metro Railways (Amendment) Act, 2009.[87] The amendment expanded the coverage of both the acts to all metropolitan areas of India.

Initially, state governments attempted to implement metro rail projects through various Tramways Act. However, the Commissioner of Railways Safety (CRS), who operates under the Ministry of Civil Aviation, is tasked with providing safety certification for metro rail projects. The CRS refused safety certification unless the projects were implemented under a Metro Act enacted by the state government and published in The Gazette of India.[88] Research Design and Standards Organization (RDSO), another railway entity, also refused certification to projects not implemented under the criteria. Subsequently, several state governments have enacted their own Metro Acts.[88]

See also[edit]

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Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Indicates lines that are in operation for operational systems, lines that are under construction for under construction systems and proposed lines for proposed systems.
  2. ^ Indicates stations that are in operation for operational systems, stations that are under construction for under construction systems and proposed stations for proposed systems.
  3. ^ In operation – The length of the system currently in operation.
  4. ^ Under construction – The length of the system currently under construction.
  5. ^ Planned – The length of the system currently planned to be built, but construction has not yet started.