Tawalisi

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Tawalisi (ca. 1350 C.E - 1400 C.E.) is a Southeast Asian kingdom described in the journals of Ibn Battuta.[1] Ibn Battuta said he reached Tawalisi after a sea voyage of 71 days, 34 of which were spent rowing due to no wind. He said he reached China from Tawalisi after a voyage of 17 days. The commentators have never been able to decide the port of departure for the 71-day voyage, and so have concentrated on the 17-day voyage from Tawalisi to China.[2]

A long list of guesses to the location of Tawalisi have included Pangasinan, Luzon, Sulu, Celebes (Sulawesi), Cambodia,[3] Cochin-China, the mainland Chinese province of Guangdong, and practically every island in South Asia beginning with ta. The most known location, however, is Pangasinan in the Philippines.[4]

Ibn Battuta's description[edit]

Thereafter, we reached the land of Tawalisi, it being their king who is called by that name. It is a vast country and its king is a rival of the king of China. He possesses many junks, with which he makes war on the Chinese until they come to terms with him on certain conditions. The inhabitants of this land are idolaters; they are handsome men and closely resemble the Turks in figure. Their skin is commonly of a reddish hue, and they are brave and warlike. Their women ride on horseback and are skillful archers, and fight exactly like men.

— Ibn Battuta

[citation needed]

Fiction theory[edit]

Both Sir Henry Yule and William Henry Scott consider Tawilisi and its warrior-princess Urduja to be "fabulous, fairy-tale, fiction".[5]

Java theory[edit]

Based on linguistics and considering the Chinese perspective in the 13th-14th centuries A.D., Tawalisi might be a Chinese pronunciation of jawa rsi which could mean Kingdom of Java or King of Java.[citation needed] While the original name of the duchess of the said land was actually spelled in Arabic by Ibn Battuta as WHR DJ in his Rihlah which might be misread as Urduja instead of reading it as Wahre Daja (Bhre Daha) due to the lack of geographical perspective and the lack of knowledge in the Arabic script congruent to the period when it happened. Bhre Daha was a title given to Dayah Wiyat (literally means "princess vagina"), the twin sister of Bhre Kahuripan, as duchess of Daha (also known as Kediri). Both duchesses were daughters of Raden Wijaya and Gayatri. After the death of Kala Gemet both duchesses assumed power as rajah kembars (twin rulers) and both were given the title Tribhuana tungga dewi (meaning Majapahit empress).

Java had been attacked by Mongols they called Tatars for several times, first in the last part of the 13th century A.D. (the 1293 invasion), second during the reign of Kala Gemet. and few more unrecorded invasions.[6] Hence, it is very clear that Java at that time especially the royal court had also been linguistically influenced by the Turkic speaking Tatars. Thus, the Bhre Daha could talk in Turkic as been observed by Ibn Battuta during his visit in her court.[7]

Majapahit also possessed one of the most powerful navy of Javanese junks (jong) during its era. Each junk is able to carry 500-1000 men, and several hundred horses. The number of junks possessed by Majapahit is unknown, but the largest expedition mobilized 400 large junks.[8]

Pangasinan theory[edit]

In the Philippines, it is widely believed that Tawalisi is in present-day Pangasinan Province. A priceless Ding (Exclusive Symbol of Imperial Power) made entirely of pure Platinum estimated to be at least 3000 Year Old has been recently unearthed in Luzon near Pangasinan.[9] This may be proof that the legend of Warrior Princess Urduja had legitimate precedence.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ibn Battuta, The Travels of Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, A.D. 1325–1354, vol. 4, trans. H. A. R. Gibb and C. F. Beckingham (London: Hakluyt Society, 1994), pp. 884–5.
  2. ^ William Henry Scott, Prehispanic Source Materials for the Study of Philippine History, ISBN 971-10-0226-4, p.83
  3. ^ Yule, Henry (1866). Cathay and the Way Thither. London. p. 158. ISBN 978-1-4094-2166-5.
  4. ^ William Henry Scott, Prehispanic Source Materials for the Study of Philippine History, ISBN 971-10-0226-4, p.83
  5. ^ William Henry Scott, Prehispanic Source Materials for the Study of Philippine History, ISBN 971-10-0226-4, p.83
  6. ^ da Pordenone, Odoric (2002). The Travels of Friar Odoric. W.B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.
  7. ^ Ibn Battuttah, "Rihlah"; M. C. Das, "Outline of Indo-Javanese History", pp. 1-173; "Sejarah Melayu"; Dr. Jose Rizal in his letter to Blumentritt; and Ibn Battuta, The Travels of Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, A.D. 1325–1354, vol. 4, trans. H. A. R. Gibb and C. F. Beckingham (London: Hakluyt Society, 1994), pp. 884–5.
  8. ^ Nugroho, Irawan Djoko (2011). Majapahit Peradaban Maritim. Jakarta: Suluh Nuswatara Bakti. ISBN 9786029346008.
  9. ^ "5 Things Why This Artifact May Change World History" By Kasaysayan Hunters. (2018) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VuRI30YeQj8