Taxation in the Philippines
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|An aspect of fiscal policy|
- Constitution: Article VI, Section 28 of the Constitution states that “the rule of taxation shall be uniform and equitable” and that “Congress shall evolve a progressive system of taxation.”
- national law: National Internal Revenue Code—enacted as Republic Act No. 8424 or the ‘’Tax Reform Act of 1997’’ and subsequent laws amending it; the law was most recently amended by Republic Act No. 10963 or the ‘’Tax Reform for Acceleration and Inclusion Act‘’; and,
- local laws: major sources of revenue for the local government units (LGUs) are the taxes collected by virtue of Republic Act No. 7160 or the ‘’Local Government Code of 1991’’, and those sourced from the proceeds collected by virtue of a local ordinance.
Taxes imposed at the national level are collected by the Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR), while those imposed at the local level (i.e., provincial, city, municipal, barangay) are collected by a local treasurer’s office.
- 1 National taxes
- 1.1 Income tax
- 1.2 Estate tax
- 1.3 Donor’s tax
- 1.4 Value-added tax
- 1.5 Percentage tax
- 1.6 Excise taxes
- 2 Local taxes
- 3 References
The taxes imposed by the national government of the Philippines include, but are not limited to:
Income tax for individuals
Citizens of the Philippines and resident aliens must pay taxes for all income they have derived from various sources, which include, but are not limited to:
Compensation and self-employment income
Individuals, including nonresident aliens, earning compensation income are taxed based only on the income tax schedule for individuals. On the other hand, self-employed individuals and professionals are taxed based on the income tax schedule for individuals, applicable percentage taxes, and value-added tax (VAT). However, if their gross sales (or gross receipts plus other non-operating income) does not exceed the VAT threshold, they have the option to be taxed either on the basis of the income tax schedule for individuals and the applicable percentage taxes, or just with a flat tax rate of 8% on their gross sales (or gross receipts plus other non-operating income).
Interests, royalties, prizes and other winnings
Interest income from bank deposits, deposit substitutes, trust funds, and other similar products (except for its long-term variants) is taxed at the rate of 20%.
Royalties, except on books, literary works and musical compositions, are taxed at the rate of 10%.
Prizes and winnings from Philippine Charity Sweepstakes Office (PCSO) Lotto in excess of P10,000 (upon which individual prizes and winnings P10,000 or below are taxed on the basis of the income tax schedule for individuals) are taxed at the rate of 20%.
Interest income from a depository bank under the expanded foreign currency deposit system is taxed at the rate of 15%.
Income from long-term deposits and investments, when pre-terminated in less than three years after making such deposit or investment, is taxed at the rate of 20%; less than four years, 12%; and, less than five years, 5%.
Capital gains from the sale of real property are taxed at the rate of 6%, except when such proceeds would be used to construct a new principal residence within eighteen months after the sale of a previous principal residence had occurred.
Income tax for corporations
In general, the income tax rate for corporations is 30%. However, nonprofit educational institutions and hospitals enjoy a much lower rate of 10%.
The transfer of the net estate is taxed at a flat rate of 6%. There is a standard deduction amounting to P5,000,000.
The total value of gifts made in a calendar year shall be taxed at a flat rate of 6%. There is a standard deduction amounting to P250,000.
The following goods, services and transactions are exempted from the VAT:
Percentage tax is a business tax imposed on persons or entities/transactions:
- who sell or lease goods, properties or services in the course of trade or business and are exempt from value-added tax (VAT) under Section 109 (w) of the National Internal Revenue Code, as amended, whose gross annual sales and/or receipts do not exceed Php 3,000,000 and who are not VAT-registered; and,
- engaged in businesses specified in Title V of the National Internal Revenue Code.
Real property tax
One of main sources of revenues of the local government units is the real property tax, which is a tax imposed on all types of real properties including lands, buildings, improvements, and machinery.
- "The Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines". The Corpus Juris. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
- "Republic Act 8424—Tax Reform Act of 1997". The Corpus Juris. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
- "Republic Act 10963—Tax Reform for Acceleration and Inclusion Act of 2017". The Corpus Juris. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
- "Republic Act 7160—Local Government Code of 1991". The Corpus Juris. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
- "12% VAT now in effect". GMA News. 1 February 2006. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
- RR No. 13-2018, www.bir.gov.ph, 2018 Revenue Regulations
- How to Compute Income Tax Due Under the TRAIN Law, www.cpadavao.com, Posted 22 May 2019