Testicular atrophy

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Testicular atrophy is a medical condition in which the male reproductive organs (the testes, which in humans are located in the scrotum) diminish in size and may be accompanied by loss of function.

Testicular atrophy may be brought on by surgical repairs to certain types of hernias.[1]

Causes[edit]

Research has found testicular atrophy to be caused by scrotal trauma,[2] inguinal hernia repair (rarely, and more often in very young children),[3][4] anabolic steroid use,[5][6][7] and oestrogen therapy,[8] varicocele,[9][10] and ischaemia (most often secondary to testicular torsion).[11]

Phthalate esters,[12] and Zika virus infection[13] have been found to cause testicular atrophy in animals.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Robert J. Fitzgibbons; A. Gerson Greenburg; Lloyd Milton Nyhus (2002). Nyhus and Condon's Hernia. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 294. ISBN 978-0-7817-1962-9.
  2. ^ Cross, J. J.; Berman, L. H.; Elliott, P. G.; Irving, S. (May 1999). "Scrotal trauma: a cause of testicular atrophy". Clinical Radiology. 54 (5): 317–320. doi:10.1016/S0009-9260(99)90562-7. ISSN 0009-9260. PMID 10362239.
  3. ^ Sonderman, Kristin A.; Wolf, Lindsey L.; Armstrong, Lindsey B.; Taylor, Kathryn; Jiang, Wei; Weil, Brent R.; Koehlmoos, Tracey P.; Ricca, Robert L.; Weldon, Christopher B. (May 2018). "Testicular atrophy following inguinal hernia repair in children". Pediatric Surgery International. 34 (5): 553–560. doi:10.1007/s00383-018-4255-z. ISSN 1437-9813. PMID 29594470.
  4. ^ Reid, I.; Devlin, H. B. (January 1994). "Testicular atrophy as a consequence of inguinal hernia repair". The British Journal of Surgery. 81 (1): 91–93. doi:10.1002/bjs.1800810132. ISSN 0007-1323. PMID 8313133.
  5. ^ Lamb, D. R. (January 1984). "Anabolic steroids in athletics: how well do they work and how dangerous are they?". The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 12 (1): 31–38. doi:10.1177/036354658401200105. ISSN 0363-5465. PMID 6367501.
  6. ^ Nieschlag, Eberhard; Vorona, Elena (August 2015). "MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Medical consequences of doping with anabolic androgenic steroids: effects on reproductive functions". European Journal of Endocrinology. 173 (2): R47–58. doi:10.1530/EJE-15-0080. ISSN 1479-683X. PMID 25805894.
  7. ^ Hoffman, Jay R.; Ratamess, Nicholas A. (2006-06-01). "Medical Issues Associated with Anabolic Steroid Use: Are They Exaggerated?". Journal of Sports Science & Medicine. 5 (2): 182–193. ISSN 1303-2968. PMC 3827559. PMID 24259990.
  8. ^ Venizelos, I. D.; Paradinas, F. J. (April 1988). "Testicular atrophy after oestrogen therapy". Histopathology. 12 (4): 451–454. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2559.1988.tb01961.x. ISSN 0309-0167. PMID 3371900.
  9. ^ Pinto, K. J.; Kroovand, R. L.; Jarow, J. P. (August 1994). "Varicocele related testicular atrophy and its predictive effect upon fertility". The Journal of Urology. 152 (2 Pt 2): 788–790. doi:10.1016/s0022-5347(17)32710-6. ISSN 0022-5347. PMID 8022015.
  10. ^ Akbay, E.; Cayan, S.; Doruk, E.; Duce, M. N.; Bozlu, M. (September 2000). "The prevalence of varicocele and varicocele-related testicular atrophy in Turkish children and adolescents". BJU International. 86 (4): 490–493. doi:10.1046/j.1464-410X.2000.00735.x. ISSN 1464-4096. PMID 10971279.
  11. ^ Herzog, B.; Hadziselimovic, F.; Strebel, C. (1987). "Primary and secondary testicular atrophy". European Journal of Pediatrics. 146 Suppl 2: S53–55. ISSN 0340-6199. PMID 2891525.
  12. ^ Gray, T. J.; Butterworth, K. R. (1980). "Testicular atrophy produced by phthalate esters". Archives of Toxicology. Supplement. = Archiv Fur Toxikologie. Supplement. Archives of Toxicology. 4: 452–455. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-67729-8_106. ISBN 978-3-540-10191-8. ISSN 0171-9750. PMID 6776936.
  13. ^ Uraki, Ryuta; Hwang, Jesse; Jurado, Kellie Ann; Householder, Sarah; Yockey, Laura J.; Hastings, Andrew K.; Homer, Robert J.; Iwasaki, Akiko; Fikrig, Erol (2017-02-22). "Zika virus causes testicular atrophy". Science Advances. 3 (2): e1602899. Bibcode:2017SciA....3E2899U. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1602899. ISSN 2375-2548. PMC 5321463. PMID 28261663.