Home video release poster
|Narrated by||Julia Fletcher|
|Edited by||Christopher S. Capp|
|Distributed by||Warner Home Video|
The Animatrix (アニマトリックス Animatorikkusu) is a 2003 American–Japanese animated science fiction anthology film produced by the Wachowskis. It is a compilation of nine animated short films based on The Matrix trilogy, which was written and directed by the Wachowskis. Four of the shorts were also written by the Wachowskis. The film details the backstory of the Matrix universe, including the original war between man and machines which led to the creation of the titular Matrix.
- 1 Short film plots
- 2 Production
- 3 Music
- 4 Release
- 5 Reception
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes and references
- 8 External links
Short film plots
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Final Flight of the Osiris
Final Flight of the Osiris was written by The Wachowskis and directed by Andy Jones, with CG-animation production and design by Square Pictures, this segment is rated PG-13 by the MPAA for "Sci-Fi Violence, Sensuality and Language". The short is a direct prequel leading into the events of The Matrix Reloaded.
Captain Thadeus (Kevin Michael Richardson) and Jue (Pamela Adlon) engage in a blindfolded sword fight in a virtual-reality dojo. With each slice of their swords, they remove another part of each other's clothing. Immediately after cutting the other down to their underwear, they lift their blindfolds to peek at the other. As the two are about to kiss, they are interrupted by an alarm and the simulation ends.
In the next scene, the hovercraft Osiris is headed for Junction 21 when Robbie (Tom Kenny), the operator, picks up an army of Sentinels on his HR scans. The ship flees into an uncharted tunnel, where it encounters a smaller group of Sentinels patrolling the area. The crew members man the onboard guns and destroy the patrol. The ship then emerges on the surface, four kilometers directly above Zion and close to the Sentinel army. There, the crew members see that the Machines are using gigantic drills to tunnel their way down to Zion. The Sentinel army soon detects the Osiris and pursues the ship.
Thadeus decides Zion must be warned, and his shipmate Jue volunteers to broadcast herself into the Matrix to deliver the warning while the ship is doggedly pursued. Knowing that they are not going to make it, Jue and Thadeus admit to peeking at each other in the VR simulation before kissing farewell. Entering the Matrix on a high rooftop, Jue jumps off and acrobatically makes her way down through power poles between two buildings. When she lands in the alley below, a ripple effect is created by her impact. She drops off a package into a mail box; the package sets the prologue for the video game Enter the Matrix. She attempts to contact Thadeus via a cell phone as the Osiris is overrun by Sentinels and crashes. The Sentinels tear their way into the ship. At the time of the call, Thadeus is making a last stand to hold off the Sentinels. Shortly after Jue says "Thadeus" over her cell phone, the Osiris explodes, destroying many of the pursuing Sentinels and the crew. In the Matrix, Jue falls to the ground, dead, her body having been destroyed on the ship.
The Second Renaissance Part I
The Second Renaissance is a two-part film directed by Mahiro Maeda. He used Bits and Pieces of Information written by The Wachowskis as a prequel to the series as a base for the first part. The production is made by the Studio 4°C.
In the early-to-mid twenty-first century, humanity falls victim to its vanity and corruption. They successfully develop artificial intelligence, and soon build an entire race of sentient AI robots to serve them. Many of these robots are domestic servants meant to interact with humans, so they are built in "man's own image" (a humanoid form). With increasing numbers of people released from all labor, much of the human population has become slothful, conceited, and corrupt. Despite this, the machines were content with serving humanity and, as the narrator states, "for a time, it [the status quo] was good". This is a direct quote of the most famous phrases of Genesis, consistent with the Biblical references seeded throughout the original Matrix films, and is one of many references to Genesis in "Second Renaissance" itself.
The relationship between humans and machines changes in the year 2090, when a domestic android is threatened by its owner. The android, named B1-66ER (a reference to Bigger Thomas), then kills the owner, his pets, and a mechanic instructed to deactivate the robot. This murder is the first incident of an artificially intelligent machine killing a human. B1-66ER is arrested and put on trial, but justifies the crime as self-defense, stating that it "simply did not want to die". During the trial scene, there is a voice-over of Clarence Drummond (the defense attorney; whose name is a dual reference to Clarence Darrow and Henry Drummond, the Darrow analogue from Inherit the Wind) quoting a famous line from the Dred Scott v. Sandford case in 1856 in his closing statement, which implicitly ruled that African Americans were not entitled to citizenship under United States law. Using this as a precedent, the prosecution argues that machines are not entitled to the same rights as human beings, and specifically that human beings have a right to destroy their property, while the defense urges the listener not to repeat history, and to judge B1-66ER as a human and not a machine (a longer version of Drummond's closing statement can be read in the comic Bits and Pieces of Information from The Matrix Comics Volume 1).
We think they are not, and were not intended to be included, under the word 'citizens' in the Constitution, and can therefore claim none of the rights and privileges which that instrument provides for and secures to citizens of the United States. On the contrary, they were at that time considered as a subordinate and inferior class of beings...
B1-66ER loses the court case and is destroyed. Across the industrialized world, mass civil disturbances erupt when robots along with their human supporters and sympathizers all rise in protest. Rioting and protests such as The Million Machine March unfold across the United States and the authorities start to use deadly force against the machines and their human supporters. World leaders fear a robot rebellion as well as a schism with humanity, and governments across the world initiate a major program to destroy all humanoid machines and purge their human supporters. Some robots escape destruction, however, because humans still want or need them to produce things. The surviving robots leave in a mass exodus with the aid of their human allies and build their own new nation together in Mesopotamia (according to the narration, "the cradle of civilization"). They name their new nation Zero One (or "01", the numerals used in binary notation). Zero One prospers, and the machines begin to produce efficient, highly advanced artificial intelligence that finds itself in all facets of global consumer products, which further bolsters the fledgling nation's economy, while the economies of high class human nations suffer severely.
The United Nations Security Council calls an emergency economic summit at the UN headquarters in New York City, resulting in UN delegates approving of a global economic blockade of Zero One. Zero One sends two ambassadors to the UN (which, at that time, has become the unified world government) to request the admission of their state to the United Nations, to peacefully solve the crisis, but their application is rejected. However, it is narrated, this would not be the last time the machines would take the floor there. World nations, their power waning, agree to start an economic blockade of Zero One.
The Second Renaissance Part II
Eventually the United Nations would dispatch their aircraft to unleash a massive nuclear bombardment on Zero One, devastating the nation; but failing to wipe out the robotic race as the machines, unlike their former masters, were much less harmed by the radiation and heat. Zero One’s leaders retaliate by declaring war on the rest of the world, and their armies advance in all directions. The United Nations-affiliated human nations are hampered by the fact that so much of their industrial base had already become so heavily reliant upon Zero One, and one by one, the rest of mankind surrendered each of its territories.
As the machines advance into Eastern Europe, the desperate human leaders seek a final solution, codenamed: "Operation Dark Storm", which will cover the sky in a shroud of nanites, blocking out the sun to deprive the machines of solar energy, their primary energy source, whilst also starting a universal famine and total collapse of the biosphere. To coincide with the deployment of Dark Storm, the United Nations-affiliated human armies simultaneously launch a massive ground offensive against the robots. The human forces also deployed advanced weaponry like mech suits, atomic-powered tanks, high-intensity lasers, EMP flash cannons, antimatter beams, neutron bombs, countless rocket artillery, thousands of naval warships, and swarms of nuclear planes powered by machine-made hoverpads. All waiting for Operation Dark Storm to commence.
However, the initial effects of operation dark storm inevitably backfires on human armies as half of their equipment and weaponry were dependent on solar energy. This forced human commanders to resort in brutal and primitive close-quarter infantry engagements, where human infantry conduct full frontal assaults against the machines. Humanity initially has the upper hand and heavy losses are suffered by both sides during the ensuing struggle, but the machines begin to overwhelm them. The original robots are destroyed early on in the conflict, having been originally designed as domestic models armed with conventional human weapons, unlike the more war-like and sinister types to follow.
Legions of new models of machines, no longer in humanoid form and appearing more like the insectoid or cephalopod-like Sentinels and others of the Matrix films, overrun the enemy human armies. This coincides with the destruction of original man-made robots at the hands of the United Nations-affiliated human forces and, as a result, the further dehumanization of the rapidly emerging machine collective. As the war drags on, the machines began to use their human prisoners as military power sources and psychological weapons. The machines programmed their harvesters and sentinel units to capture human soldiers whenever possible and deposit them to massive human-powered artillery machines.
When the war reaches its final years, colossal machine artillery began to outrange the now dwindling human artillery. Human counter-offensives were always repulsed by swarms of nuclear bomb-proof machines, and humanity’s advanced weaponry like the EMP cannons and particle beam arrays are rendered inoperable due to waning power sources. As the machine armies, now armed with their new power source via their new symbiotic connection with their human prisoners, swarm across the United Nations-affiliated human defences; human commanders finally gave up most of their territories on the surface and were forced to use guerrilla tactics against the machines, relocating most of their defences and equipment into underground sewers of human megacities. Meanwhile the United Nations, in desperation, has its last nuclear warheads fired directly at the approaching machine armies, vaporizing their own troops in the process.
Machine armies took heavy losses as they were forced to root out dug-in human forces in underground battles. The armies of Zero-One eventually unleash lethal biological weapons which further ravage the rest of humanity who, by then, have grown weary, tired, and incapable of continuing the war and promptly surrender despite the United Nations' demands for the war to continue. Mankind's rulers surrender at the United Nations headquarters, with the representative of Zero One stating "Your flesh is a relic, a mere vessel. Hand over your flesh, and a new world awaits you. We demand it." After the terms of surrender are signed, Zero One's representative detonates a hidden nuclear bomb within itself, destroying the UN headquarters and New York City. One of the last human bastion left on the surface of the earth. The machines, having won a Pyrrhic victory, turn to the defeated humans, and begin repurposing the bio-electric, chemical and kinetic energy of their human batteries as a major energy source of machine society alongside nuclear fusion. While the machines were more than capable of generating power from alternative power sources, the collective sedation of humankind was a final act of mercy to keep the humans down without outright destroying them.
To keep their prisoners sedated, the machines create the computer-generated virtual reality of the Matrix, by feeding the virtual world into the prisoners' brains, starting with the first prototype Matrix and presumably erasing the memories of their former lives.
Kid's Story was written and directed by Shinichiro Watanabe (based on a story by The Wachowskis), with animations by Shinya Ohira and Shinji Hashimoto production design by Studio 4°C, Tokyo. It is the only one of the animated shorts contained in The Animatrix in which Neo appears. The scene takes place during the six-month gap between The Matrix and The Matrix: Reloaded, during which time Neo has joined the crew of the Nebuchadnezzar and is helping the rebels to free other humans from the Matrix. Kid (Clayton Watson) is a disaffected teenager who feels there is something wrong with the world, frequenting hacker chat rooms on the internet and wondering if he is alone and questioning about reality. In school, he absent-mindedly scribbles "Neo lives" and other references to Morpheus and Trinity in his notebook. That day, he receives a call from his turned-off cell phone, warning him that a band of Agents is coming for him and is chased through his high school, before ultimately being cornered on the roof. He asserts his faith in Neo, and throws himself from the roof, whereupon the other characters are shown holding his funeral. The scene fades up from black as the Kid awakens in the real world to see Neo and Trinity watching over him. They remark that he has achieved "self substantiation" (removing oneself from the Matrix without external aid), which was considered impossible. In both the scene itself and The Matrix Reloaded, however, the Kid seems to believe it was Neo's actions, not his own, that saved him.
Program was written and directed by Yoshiaki Kawajiri and produced by Madhouse. The character designs were done by Yutaka Minowa. It follows the protagonist, "Cis" (Hedy Burress), who is engaged in her "favorite simulation": a battle program set in feudal Japan. After she successfully eliminates an attacking enemy cavalry, a lone samurai appears whom Cis recognizes as "Duo" (Phil LaMarr). "Cis" made her first appearance as an image in The Matrix Revisited.
Initially, the two duel as allies, testing one another's fighting abilities. During the course of their duel, Duo briefly disarms Cis. He questions her concentration and wonders whether she regrets taking the Red Pill that took them out of the "peaceful life of the virtual world". They continue fighting until she finally overpowers Duo and is poised for the 'kill'. It is at this point that Duo states that he has "something to say". She sarcastically assumes that he wants to propose [marriage]; but instead he admits a desire to return to the Matrix; incredulous, Cis nevertheless responds that doing so is impossible as 'the truth' is already known to them, forbidding their re-integration. Duo reasons that reality is harsh and that he is tired of it. He adds that the Machines can make both of them forget the truth.
Duo then states that he has contacted the Machines. He asks Cis to return with him to the Matrix, but she continues to refuse. As Duo becomes more aggressive in his arguments for returning, Cis attempts to escape while simultaneously warding off his attacks. Becoming increasingly uncomfortable with the situation, Cis requests an operator in order to exit the simulation. Duo tells her that no one can hear her and reiterates that it "is already done...[the machines] are on their way". Thereafter their fighting becomes much more serious and forceful as they move from rooftop to rooftop.
Duo, in a flying leap, attacks her from above with his sword. As the blade comes towards her, Cis, standing her ground, concentrates and halts its forward motion inches from her face and breaks it. She takes the broken end of the blade and thrusts it into Duo. Duo states his love for her as he dies.
Suddenly, she wakes from the program and discovers that the encounter with Duo was a test program devised for training purposes. A man named "Kaiser" (John DiMaggio) unsuccessfully assures her that she acted appropriately during the test and met the test's targets. Clearly upset, she punches him in the face and walks away. He remarks that "aside from that last part", she passed the test.
World Record was created by Madhouse and directed by Takeshi Koike, with a screenplay by Yoshiaki Kawajiri. The beginning of this short includes a short narration from the Instructor (implying that this short is a Zion Archive file) explaining details behind the discovery of the Matrix by "plugged-in" humans. Only exceptional humans tend to become aware of the Matrix: those who have "a rare degree of intuition, sensitivity, and a questioning nature", all qualities which are used to identify inconsistencies in the Matrix. This is not without exceptions, given that "Some attain this wisdom through wholly different means."
The story is about Dan Davis, a track athlete, who is competing in the 100 m in the Summer Olympic Games. He has set a world record time of 8.99 seconds, but his subsequent gold medal was revoked for drug use. He decides to compete again and break his own record to "prove them wrong." Despite support from his father and a young reporter, Dan's trainer tells him that he is physically unfit to race and that pushing himself too hard will cause a career-ending injury. Dan is adamant on racing.
On the day of the race, he is monitored by four Agents located in the stadium. The race begins and Dan starts off strong. However, the muscles in his leg violently rupture, putting him at a setback and scaring many of the people in the stands. Through strong willpower, Dan ignores the injury and runs much faster than he did before, easily passing the other athletes. Before he can cross the finish line, the Agents detect that his signal is getting unstable in the Matrix due to his massive burst of energy. Three of the agents possess the three closest runners and try to stop him, but are unable to catch up to him.
The pressure energy causes Dan's real-world counterpart (in the power-station pods) to rip apart the plug connecting him to the Matrix, causing him to see the real world through his pod. A Sentinel employs electrical restraints to secure him back in his pod.
Dan's mind is thrown back into the Matrix, but his body is exhausted from the race and what he has just seen, causing him to tumble to the ground at high speeds. Despite this, he easily wins the race and breaks his original time of 8.99 seconds with a time of 8.72 seconds.
The next scene shows a crippled Dan being wheeled through a hospital. A nearby agent calls his other agents to tell them that they erased Dan's memory of the race and that he will never walk again, nor be an issue for them. However, Dan quietly whispers the word "Free", angering the agent. Dan then effortlessly stands, breaking the metal screws that bind his restraints to his wheelchair, and takes a few steps before falling down again and being helped up by a nurse.
Beyond was written and directed by Kōji Morimoto and produced by Studio 4°C. It follows a teenage girl, Yoko (Hedy Burress), looking for her cat Yuki. While asking around the neighborhood, evidently somewhere in Mega City that resembles Japan, she meets some younger boys. One of them tells her Yuki is inside a "haunted house" where they usually play.
The children have stumbled across an amalgamation of anomalies within an old, dilapidated building. They have learned to exploit them (revealed to be glitches in the Matrix) for their own enjoyment, through several areas which seem to defy real-world physics: glass bottles reassemble after being shattered, rain falls from a sunny sky, broken lightbulbs flicker briefly (during which they seem intact), a door which opens into an endless dark void, shadows which do not align with their physical origins, and a dove's feather that rotates rapidly in place in mid-air. There is a large open space in the middle of the run-down building where they take turns jumping off a high point and falling towards the ground, yet somehow stopping inches before impact. This proves amusing and they do not seem to be bothered by the inherent strangeness of the place.
Throughout the film, brief sequences show that Agents are aware of the problem in the Matrix, and a truck is seen driving toward the site to presumably deal with the problem. It arrives while the children are still playing, and an Agent-led team of "rodent exterminators" moves in to clear everybody out of it. The story ends when Yoko and the others return to the area the next day and find the site has been turned into an unremarkable parking lot. They unsuccessfully attempt to re-create the bizarre occurrences of yesterday and soon go in search of something else to do.
A Detective Story
"A Detective Story" was written and directed by Shinichiro Watanabe, with animation by Kazuto Nakazawa and is a direct prequel to the first film. It is produced by Studio 4°C. It follows the story of a private detective, Ash (James Arnold Taylor), on what he calls the "case to end all cases". Ash dreamed to follow the steps of hard-boiled characters Sam Spade and Philip Marlowe but is a down-on-his-luck detective. One day, he receives an anonymous phone call to search for a hacker going by the alias "Trinity" (Carrie-Anne Moss). Ash traces Trinity and learns that other detectives have failed in the same task before him; one committed suicide, one went missing, and one went insane. He then attempts to speak with the insane detective but cannot get anything substantial out of him.
Eventually, Ash finds Trinity after deducing that he should communicate using phrases and facts from Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. She proposes a meeting, and he successfully finds the location. At the meeting she removes a "bug" from his eye, planted by Agents earlier in an "eye exam dream." Agents appear and attempt to apprehend Trinity in a shoot-out with her and Ash. While the two fugitives are trying to escape the train, an Agent attempts to take over Ash's body, forcing Trinity to shoot him in order to prevent the Agent from appearing. Ash is wounded, whereupon he and Trinity bid farewells without malice. Trinity escapes, telling Ash that she thinks he could have handled the truth. Agents enter the car to find Ash, who points his gun at them while looking in the other direction and lighting a cigarette. The Agents turn to Ash who, even though he is armed, will likely die. With this apparent no-win situation, the film ends with Ash's line ("A case to end all cases") as his lighter flame goes out.
Matriculated was written and directed by director Peter Chung, widely known for his work on Aeon Flux. It is produced by DNA Productions. The film starts with one of the humans looking out over the sea, watching for incoming machines. The film deals with a group of above-ground human rebels who lure hostile intelligent machines to their laboratory in order to capture them and insert them into a "matrix" of their own design. Within this matrix, the humans attempt to teach the captured machines some of the positive traits of humanity, primarily compassion and empathy. The ultimate goal of this project is to help the intelligent machines develop free will in order to overcome their original "search-and-destroy" programming, rather than reprogramming it by force.
The rebels' hope is that, once converted of its own volition (a key point discussed in the film), an "enlightened" machine will assist Zion in its struggle against the machine-controlled totalitarianism which currently dominates the Earth. After capturing one of the most intelligent "runner" robots, the rebels insert the machine into their matrix. The experience of the robot leads it to believe it may have an emotional bond with one of the female rebels, Alexa (Melinda Clarke).
However, the rebel laboratory is attacked by the Machine reinforcements. The rebels unplug themselves to defend their headquarters, along with the help of other captured machines (indicated by the machine's mechanical eyes changing from red to green). However the rebels and the attacking machines are killed or destroyed, except the single Runner robot. The robot plugs the dying Alexa into the rebels' matrix with itself. Much to the Runner's dismay, when Alexa realizes she is trapped inside the matrix with the robot, she is horrified and her avatar dissolves screaming as she clutches her head, and the robot exits from the rebels' matrix to see a motionless Alexa in front of him in the real world.
The film ends with the "converted" robot standing outside, looking out over the sea, the same shot used at the intro with Alexa, as the robot pulled her consciousness into his hardware.
Development of the Animatrix project began when the film series' writers and directors, The Wachowskis, were in Japan promoting the first Matrix film. While in the country, they visited some of the creators of the anime films that had been a strong influence on their work, and decided to collaborate with them.
The Animatrix was conceived and overseen by the Wachowskis, but they only wrote four of the segments themselves, and did not direct any of their animation; most of the project's technical side was overseen by notable figures from the world of Japanese animation.
The English language version of The Animatrix was directed by Jack Fletcher, who brought on board the project the voice actors who provided the voices for the English version of Square Enix's Final Fantasy X, including Matt McKenzie, James Arnold Taylor, John DiMaggio, Tara Strong, Hedy Burress, and Dwight Schultz. The English version also features the voices of Victor Williams (TV's The King of Queens), Melinda Clarke (TV's The O.C.), Olivia d'Abo (TV's The Wonder Years), Pamela Adlon (TV's King of the Hill), and Kevin Michael Richardson of the Xbox game Halo 2, who also plays the voice of the Deus Ex Machina in The Matrix Revolutions.
Four of the films were originally released on the series' official website; one (Final Flight of the Osiris) was shown in cinemas with the film Dreamcatcher. The others first appeared with the VHS and DVD release of all nine shorts on June 3, 2003. The DVD also includes the following special features:
- A documentary on Japanese animation. The on-screen title is "Scrolls to Screen: A Brief History of Anime," but in the DVD menu and packaging, and on the series' official website, it is referred to as "Scrolls to Screen: The History and Culture of Anime."
- Seven featurettes with director profiles, interviews, and behind-the-scenes footage of each of the films.
- Audio commentaries on World Record, Program, and both parts of The Second Renaissance
- A trailer for the video game Enter the Matrix.
To coincide with the DVD release, a print of the film premiered in June 2003 in New York City at the New York Tokyo Film Festival.
It was broadcast on Adult Swim on April 17, 2004 (albeit with edits done to remove nudity and gory violence in The Second Renaissance, parts I and II), and has received airplay on Teletoon several months after its American broadcast. In the UK, Final Flight of the Osiris was broadcast on Channel 5 just before the DVD release, along with The Second Renaissance Parts 1 and 2, Kid's Story and World Record broadcast after the DVD release.
In May 2006, The Animatrix was aired in Latin America and in Spain by Cartoon Network on Toonami.
The Animatrix was also screened in select cinemas around the world for a short period of time, a week or two before the sequel The Matrix Reloaded, as a promotional event.
One day before the release of The Matrix Reloaded on cinemas the Brazilian television channel SBT, which have a contract with Warner Brothers, aired the Final Flight of the Osiris, after airing The Matrix, to promote the movie. The same thing happened on French TV (France 2).
The cinema running order for The Animatrix (at least in Australia) differed from the DVD release, placing the Final Flight of the Osiris last instead of first. The cinema release-order:
- The Second Renaissance, Part I (June 3, 2003)
- The Second Renaissance, Part II (June 7, 2003)
- Kid's Story (June 14, 2003)
- Program (June 21, 2003)
- World Record (July 5, 2003)
- Beyond (July 12, 2003)
- A Detective Story (August 30, 2003)
- Matriculated (September 20, 2003)
- Final Flight of the Osiris (September 27, 2003)
To coincide with the Blu-ray edition of The Ultimate Matrix Collection, The Animatrix was also presented for the first time in high definition. The film was released on the 4 Film Favorites WB Collection along with the Trilogy on October 14, 2008.
The Animatrix sold 2.7 million copies, grossing $68 million in sales revenue.
The Animatrix received mostly positive reviews from critics. It has a freshness rating of 89% on Rotten Tomatoes. Helen McCarthy in 500 Essential Anime Movies stated that "unlike many heavily promoted franchise movies, it justifies its hype". She praised Maeda's Second Renaissance, noting that it "foreshadows the dazzling visual inventiveness of his later Gankutsuou".
Notes and references
- Credited as Larry and Andy Wachowski.
- "THE ANIMATRIX (15)". British Board of Film Classification. June 5, 2003. Retrieved May 18, 2015.
- This is a quotation from Dred Scott v. Sandford, spoken by the defense at the trial of B1-66ER in Part I.
- Maeda confirms the references to Eastern Europe and that Dark Storm is a nanite cloud in the DVD commentary.
- "What is The Animatrix?" feature on The Matrix Revisited DVD.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 19, 2008. Retrieved February 4, 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Pulley, Brett (November 10, 2003). "Cliff-Hanger". Forbes. Forbes, Inc. Retrieved May 5, 2017.
- "Rotten Tomatoes". Rottentomatoes.com. June 3, 2003. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
- McCarthy, Helen. 500 Essential Anime Movies: The Ultimate Guide. — Harper Design, 2009. — P. 40. — 528 p. — ISBN 978-0061474507
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