Timeline of Solar System exploration

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Charted timeline of Solar System exploration, as of December 2014

This is a timeline of Solar System exploration ordered by date of spacecraft launch. It includes:

  • All spacecraft that have left Earth orbit for the purposes of Solar System exploration (or were launched with that intention but failed), including lunar probes.
  • A small number of pioneering or notable Earth-orbiting craft.[vague]

It does not include:

  • Centuries of terrestrial telescopic observation.
  • The great majority of Earth-orbiting satellites.
  • Space probes leaving Earth orbit that are not concerned with Solar System exploration (such as space telescopes targeted at distant galaxies, cosmic background radiation observatories, and so on).
  • Probes that failed at launch.

The dates listed are launch dates, but the achievements noted may have occurred some time later—in some cases, a considerable time later (for example, Voyager 2, launched 20 August 1977, did not reach Neptune until 1989).

1950s[edit]

Sputnik 1 – First Earth orbiter
Mission name Launch date Description Ref(s)
Soviet Union Sputnik 1 4 October 1957 First Earth orbiter [1][2]
Soviet Union Sputnik 2 3 November 1957 Earth orbiter, first animal in orbit, a dog named Laika [2][3][4]
United States Explorer 1 1 February 1958 Earth orbiter; first American orbiter, discovered Van Allen radiation belts [5]
United States Vanguard 1 17 March 1958 Earth orbiter; oldest spacecraft still in Earth orbit [6]
Soviet Union Luna 1 2 January 1959 First lunar flyby (attempted lunar impact?); first artificial satellite in heliocentric orbit. [7][8][9][10]
United States Pioneer 4 3 March 1959 Lunar flyby [11][12]
Soviet Union Luna 2 12 September 1959 First lunar impact, First artificial object on Moon [10][13]
Soviet Union Luna 3 4 October 1959 Lunar flyby; First images of far side of Moon [10][14]

1960s[edit]

Vostok 1 – First manned Earth orbiter
Mariner 2 – First successful Venus flyby
Mariner 4 – First successful Mars flyby
Luna 9 – First lunar lander
Venera 4 – First Venus atmospheric probe
Zond 5 – First lunar flyby and return to Earth
Apollo 8 – First manned lunar orbiter
Apollo 11 – First manned lunar landing
Mission name Launch date Description Ref(s)
United States Pioneer 5 11 March 1960 Interplanetary space investigations [15][16]
Soviet Union Venera 1 12 February 1961 First probe to another planet; Venus flyby (contact lost before flyby) [17][18][19]
Soviet Union Vostok 1 12 April 1961 First manned Earth orbiter [20][21]
United States Mercury-Redstone 3 5 May 1961 First American in space [22]
United States Ranger 1 23 August 1961 Attempted lunar test flight (failed to leave Earth orbit) [23][24][25]
United States Ranger 2 18 November 1961 Attempted lunar test flight (failed to leave Earth orbit) [25][26][27]
United States Ranger 3 26 January 1962 Attempted lunar impact (missed Moon) [25][28][29]
United States Mercury-Atlas 6 20 February 1962 First American manned Earth orbiter [30]
United States Ranger 4 23 April 1962 Lunar impact (but unintentionally became the first spacecraft to hit the lunar farside and returned no data) [25][31][32][33]
United States Mariner 2 27 August 1962 First successful planetary encounter, First successful Venus flyby [34][35][36]
United States Ranger 5 18 October 1962 Attempted lunar impact (missed Moon) [25][37][38]
Soviet Union Mars 1 1 November 1962 First probe to Mars: flyby (contact lost) [39][40]
Soviet Union Luna 4 2 April 1963 Attempted lunar lander (missed Moon) [41][42]
Soviet Union Cosmos 21 11 November 1963 Attempted Venera test flight? [43]
United States Ranger 6 30 January 1964 Lunar impact (cameras failed) [44][45]
Soviet Union Zond 1 2 April 1964 Venus flyby (contact lost) [46][47][48]
United States Ranger 7 28 July 1964 Lunar impact [49][50]
Soviet Union Voskhod 1 12 October 1964 First orbiter with multimember crew [51][52]
United States Mariner 3 5 November 1964 Attempted Mars flyby (failed to attain correct trajectory) [53][54]
United States Mariner 4 28 November 1964 First successful Mars flyby [55][56]
Soviet Union Zond 2 30 November 1964 Mars flyby (contact lost) [48][57][58]
United States Ranger 8 17 February 1965 Lunar impact [59][60]
Soviet Union Voskhod 2 18 March 1965 First space walk by Alexei Leonov [52][61]
United States Ranger 9 21 March 1965 Lunar impact [62][63]
United States Lincoln Calibration Sphere 1 6 May 1965 Oldest spacecraft still in use[citation needed] [64]
Soviet Union Luna 5 9 May 1965 Lunar impact (attempted soft landing) [65]
Soviet Union Luna 6 8 June 1965 Attempted lunar lander (missed Moon) [66]
Soviet Union Zond 3 18 July 1965 Lunar flyby [48][67][68]
Soviet Union Luna 7 4 October 1965 Lunar impact (attempted soft landing) [69]
Soviet Union Venera 2 12 November 1965 Venus flyby (contact lost) [70][18]
Soviet Union Venera 3 16 November 1965 Venus lander (contact lost) – First spacecraft to reach another planet's surface, First Venus impact [71][18]
Soviet Union Luna 8 3 December 1965 Lunar impact (attempted soft landing?) [72]
United States Pioneer 6 16 December 1965 "Space weather" observations [73][74][75][76]
Soviet Union Luna 9 31 January 1966 First lunar lander [10][77]
United States AS-201 26 February 1966 Lunar programme test flight [78]
Soviet Union Luna 10 31 March 1966 First lunar orbiter [79]
United States Surveyor 1 30 May 1966 Lunar lander [80][81][82]
United States Explorer 33 1 July 1966 Attempted lunar orbiter (failed to attain lunar orbit) [83][84]
United States Lunar Orbiter 1 10 August 1966 Lunar orbiter [85][86][87]
United States Pioneer 7 17 August 1966 "Space weather" observations [76][88][89]
Soviet Union Luna 11 24 August 1966 Lunar orbiter [90]
United States Surveyor 2 20 September 1966 Attempted lunar lander (crashed into Moon) [91][92]
Soviet Union Luna 12 22 October 1966 Lunar orbiter [93]
United States Lunar Orbiter 2 6 November 1966 Lunar orbiter [94][95]
Soviet Union Luna 13 21 December 1966 Lunar lander [96]
United States Lunar Orbiter 3 5 February 1967 Lunar orbiter [97][98]
United States Surveyor 3 17 April 1967 Lunar lander [99][100]
United States Lunar Orbiter 4 4 May 1967 Lunar orbiter [101][102]
Soviet Union Venera 4 12 June 1967 First Venus atmospheric probe [18][103]
United States Mariner 5 14 June 1967 Venus flyby [104][105]
United States Surveyor 4 14 July 1967 Attempted lunar lander (crashed into Moon) [106][107]
United States Explorer 35 (IMP-E) 19 July 1967 Lunar orbiter [108]
United States Lunar Orbiter 5 1 August 1967 Lunar orbiter [87][109][110]
United States Surveyor 5 8 September 1967 Lunar lander [111][112]
United States Surveyor 6 7 November 1967 Lunar lander, first lift-off from an extraterrestrial body [81][113][114]
United States Apollo 4 9 November 1967 Lunar programme test flight in Earth orbit (unmanned) [115]
United States Pioneer 8 13 December 1967 "Space weather" observations [76][116][117]
United States Surveyor 7 7 January 1968 Lunar lander [118][119]
United States Apollo 5 22 January 1968 Lunar programme test flight in Earth orbit (unmanned) [120][121]
Soviet Union Zond 4 2 March 1968 Lunar programme test flight out of Earth orbit (unmanned) [48][122][123][124]
Soviet Union Luna 14 7 April 1968 Lunar orbiter [125]
Soviet Union Zond 5 14 September 1968 First lunar flyby and return to Earth, first life forms to circle the Moon [48][126][127][128][129]
United States Apollo 7 11 October 1968 Lunar programme test flight in Earth orbit (manned) [130][131]
United States Pioneer 9 8 November 1968 "Space weather" observations [76][132][133]
Soviet Union Zond 6 10 November 1968 Lunar flyby and return to Earth [48][134][135]
United States Apollo 8 21 December 1968 First manned lunar orbiter [131][136][137]
Soviet Union Venera 5 5 January 1969 Venus atmospheric probe [18][138]
Soviet Union Venera 6 10 January 1969 Venus atmospheric probe [18][139]
United States Mariner 6 25 February 1969 Mars flyby [140][141]
United States Apollo 9 3 March 1969 Manned lunar lander (LEM) flight test in Earth orbit [131][142]
United States Mariner 7 27 March 1969 Mars flyby [143][144]
United States Apollo 10 18 May 1969 Manned lunar orbiter [131][145][146]
Soviet Union Luna 15 13 July 1969 Second attempted lunar sample return [147][148]
United States Apollo 11 16 July 1969 First manned lunar landing and first successful sample return mission [149][150][151][152][153]
Soviet Union Zond 7 7 August 1969 Lunar flyby and return to Earth [48][154][155]
United States Apollo 12 14 November 1969 Manned lunar landing [156][157][158]

1970s[edit]

Venera 7 – First Venus lander and the first spacecraft to land on another planet
Mars 3 – First Mars lander
Pioneer 10 – First Jupiter flyby
Mariner 10 – First Mercury flyby
Voyager 2 – First Uranus/first Neptune flyby
Mission name Launch date Description Ref(s)
United States Apollo 13 11 April 1970 Manned lunar flyby and return to Earth (manned lunar landing aborted) Farthest from Earth a human has gone (401,056 km) [159][160][161][162]
Soviet Union Venera 7 17 August 1970 First Venus lander and the first spacecraft to land on another planet [18][163][164]
Soviet Union Luna 16 12 September 1970 First robotic lunar sample return [10][165]
Soviet Union Zond 8 20 October 1970 Lunar flyby and return to Earth [48][166][167]
Soviet Union Luna 17/Lunokhod 1 10 November 1970 First remote controlled rover [10][168]
United States Apollo 14 31 January 1971 Manned lunar landing [169][170][171]
Soviet Union Salyut 1 19 April 1971 First space station [172][173]
Soviet Union Mars 2 19 May 1971 First Mars impact, Mars orbiter and attempted lander; First rover on Martian surface (Prop-M unsuccessful) [174][175][176][177][178]
Soviet Union Mars 3 28 May 1971 Mars orbiter, First Mars lander (lost contact after 14.5s) [179][180][181][182][183]
United States Mariner 9 30 May 1971 First Mars orbiter [184][185]
United States Apollo 15 26 July 1971 Manned lunar landing; First manned lunar rover [131][186][187][188]
Soviet Union Luna 18 2 September 1971 Attempted lunar sample return (crashed into Moon) [189][190]
Soviet Union Luna 19 28 September 1971 Lunar orbiter [191]
Soviet Union Luna 20 14 February 1972 Lunar robotic sample return [192]
United States Pioneer 10 3 March 1972 First Jupiter flyby [193][194][195]
Soviet Union Venera 8 27 March 1972 Venus lander [18][196][197]
United States Apollo 16 16 April 1972 Manned lunar landing [198][199][200]
United States Apollo 17 7 December 1972 Last manned lunar landing [201][202][203][204]
Soviet Union Luna 21/Lunokhod 2 8 January 1973 Lunar rover [205]
United States Pioneer 11 5 April 1973 Jupiter flyby and First Saturn flyby [195][206][207]
United States Skylab 14 May 1973 First American space station [208][209]
United States Explorer 49 (RAE-B) 10 June 1973 Lunar orbiter/radio astronomy [210][211]
Soviet Union Mars 4 21 July 1973 Mars flyby (attempted Mars orbiter) [212][213]
Soviet Union Mars 5 25 July 1973 Mars orbiter [214][215]
Soviet Union Mars 6 5 August 1973 Mars flyby and attempted lander (failed due to damage on Mars landing) [216][217]
Soviet Union Mars 7 9 August 1973 Mars flyby and attempted lander (missed Mars) [218][219]
United States Mariner 10 3 November 1973 Venus flyby and First Mercury flyby [220][221][222]
Soviet Union Luna 22 29 May 1974 Lunar orbiter [10][223]
Soviet Union Luna 23 28 October 1974 Attempted lunar sample return (failed due to damage on lunar landing) [224]
United States West Germany Helios-A 10 December 1974 Solar observations [225][226]
Soviet Union Venera 9 8 June 1975 First Venus orbiter and lander; First images from surface of Venus [18][227][228][229]
Soviet Union Venera 10 14 June 1975 Venus orbiter and lander [18][230][231][232]
United States Viking 1 20 August 1975 Mars orbiter and lander; First pictures from Martian surface [233][234][235][236]
United States Viking 2 9 September 1975 Mars orbiter and lander [236][237][238][239]
United States West Germany Helios-B 15 January 1976 Solar observations [240][241]
Soviet Union Luna 24 9 August 1976 Lunar robotic sample return [10][242]
United States Voyager 2 20 August 1977 Jupiter/Saturn/first Uranus/first Neptune flyby [243][244][245]
United States Voyager 1 5 September 1977 Jupiter/Saturn flyby, first to exit the heliosphere [245][246][247]
United States Pioneer Venus 1 20 May 1978 Venus orbiter [248][249]
United States Pioneer Venus 2 8 August 1978 Venus atmospheric probes [250][251]
United States European Union ISEE-3 12 August 1978 Solar wind investigations; later redesignated International Cometary Explorer and performed Comet Giacobini-Zinner and Comet Halley flybys – First comet flyby [252][253][254]
Soviet Union Venera 11 9 September 1978 Venus flyby and lander [18][255][256][257]
Soviet Union Venera 12 14 September 1978 Venus flyby and lander [18][258][259][260]

1980s[edit]

Giotto – Comet Halley flyby
Galileo – Mission to Jupiter
Mission name Launch date Description Ref(s)
Soviet Union Venera 13 30 October 1981 Venus flyby and lander [18][261][262][263]
Soviet Union Venera 14 4 November 1981 Venus flyby and lander [18][264][265][266]
Soviet Union Venera 15 2 June 1983 Venus orbiter [18][267][268]
Soviet Union Venera 16 7 June 1983 Venus orbiter [18][269][270]
Soviet Union Vega 1 15 December 1984 Venus flyby, lander and first balloon; continued on to Comet Halley flyby [271][272][273][274][275]
Soviet Union Vega 2 21 December 1984 Venus flyby, lander and balloon; continued on to Comet Halley flyby [275][276][277][278][279]
Japan Sakigake 8 January 1985 Comet Halley flyby [280][281]
European Union Giotto 2 July 1985 First close observation of comet (distance 596 kilometers), Comet Halley flyby [282][283][284]
Japan Suisei (Planet-A) 18 August 1985 Comet Halley flyby [285][286]
Soviet Union Mir 19 February 1986 First modular space station (operational 1986–2000; last module added 1996) [287][288][289]
Soviet Union Phobos 1 7 July 1988 Attempted Mars orbiter/Phobos landers (contact lost) [290][291]
Soviet Union Phobos 2 12 July 1988 Mars orbiter/attempted Phobos landers (contact lost) [292][293]
United States Magellan 4 May 1989 Venus orbiter [294][295]
United States Galileo 18 October 1989 Venus flyby, first Asteroid flyby (Gaspra), first Asteroid moon discovery (Dactyl), first Jupiter orbiter, first Jupiter atmospheric probe [296][297][298][299]

1990s[edit]

Mars Pathfinder – Mars lander and first successful Mars rover
Cassini–Huygens – First Saturn orbiter and first Titan lander
Mission name Launch date Description Ref(s)
Japan Hiten (MUSES-A) 24 January 1990 Lunar flyby and orbiter [300][301]
United States European Union Hubble Space Telescope 24 April 1990 Orbital space telescope (operational since 1990) [302][303][304]
United States European Union Ulysses 6 October 1990 Solar polar orbiter [305][306][307]
Japan United States Yohkoh (Solar-A) 30 August 1991 Solar observations (1991–2001) [308][309]
United States Mars Observer 25 September 1992 Attempted Mars orbiter (contact lost) [310][311]
United States Clementine 25 January 1994 Lunar orbiter/attempted asteroid flyby (contact lost) [312][313][314]
United States WIND 1 November 1994 Solar wind observations [315][316]
European Union United States SOHO 2 December 1995 Solar observatory (operational since 1996) [317][318][319]
United States NEAR Shoemaker 17 February 1996 Eros orbiter, first near-Earth asteroid flyby, first asteroid orbit and first asteroid landing [320][321][322]
United States Mars Global Surveyor 7 November 1996 Mars orbiter [323][324]
Russia Mars 96 16 November 1996 Attempted Mars orbiter/landers (failed to escape Earth orbit) [325][326]
United States Mars Pathfinder 4 December 1996 Mars lander and first successful planetary rover [327][328][329]
United States ACE 25 August 1997 Solar wind and "space weather" observations (operational since 1998) [330][331]
United States European Union Italy Cassini–Huygens 15 October 1997 First Saturn orbiter and first outer planet lander [332][333][334][335][336]
China AsiaSat 3/HGS-1 24 December 1997 Lunar flyby (correction of failed geosynchronous orbit) [337][338]
United States Lunar Prospector 7 January 1998 Lunar orbiter
Japan Nozomi (also known as Planet-B) 3 July 1998 Attempted Mars orbiter (failed to enter Mars orbit)
United States Deep Space 1 (DS1) 24 October 1998 Asteroid and comet flyby
United States Russia European Union Japan Canada 20 November 1998 International Space Station (completed 2013)
United States Mars Climate Orbiter 11 December 1998 Attempted Mars orbiter (orbit insertion failed)
United States Mars Polar Lander/Deep Space 2 (DS2) 3 January 1999 Attempted Mars lander/penetrators (contact lost)
United States Stardust 7 February 1999 First comet coma sample return – returned 15 January 2006

2000s[edit]

Mars Express/Beagle 2 – First planetary mission by the ESA
MESSENGER – First Mercury orbiter
Chandrayaan-1 – Water Around Fresh Moon Crater
Mission name Launch date Description Ref(s)
United States 2001 Mars Odyssey 7 April 2001 Mars orbiter
United States Genesis 8 August 2001 First solar wind sample return
United States CONTOUR 3 July 2002 Attempted flyby of three comet nuclei (lost in space)
Japan Hayabusa (MUSES-C) 9 May 2003 Asteroid lander and first sample return from asteroid
European Union United Kingdom Mars Express/Beagle 2 1 June 2003 Mars orbiter/lander (lander failure)
United States Mars Exploration Rover Spirit 10 June 2003 Mars rover
United States Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity 7 July 2003 Mars rover
European Union SMART-1 27 September 2003 Lunar orbiter
China Shenzhou 5 15 October 2003 China's first manned Earth orbiter
European Union Rosetta/Philae 2 March 2004 First comet orbiter and lander (Landed in November 2014)
United States MESSENGER 3 August 2004 First Mercury orbiter (Achieved orbit 18 March 2011)
United States Deep Impact 12 January 2005 First comet impact
United States Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter 12 August 2005 Mars orbiter
European Union Venus Express 9 November 2005 Venus polar orbiter
United States New Horizons 19 January 2006 First Pluto/Charon flyby (on 14 July 2015) [339]
Japan United States United Kingdom Hinode (Solar-B) 22 September 2006 Solar orbiter
United States STEREO 26 October 2006 Two spacecraft, solar orbiters
United States Phoenix 4 August 2007 Mars polar lander (Mars landing on 25 May 2008)
Japan SELENE (Kaguya) 14 September 2007 Lunar orbiters
United States Dawn 27 September 2007 Asteroid Ceres and Vesta orbiter (Entered orbit around Vesta on 16 July 2011 and around Ceres on 6 March 2015)
China Chang'e 1 24 October 2007 Lunar orbiter
India Chandrayaan-1 22 October 2008 Lunar orbiter and impactor – Discovered water on the Moon
Europe Herschel Space Observatory 14 May 2009 Infrared space telescope
United States Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter/LCROSS 18 June 2009 Lunar polar orbiter and lunar impactor
United StatesWISE(NEOWISE) 14 December 2009 Near-Earth object survey

2010s[edit]

Mars Science Laboratory — Mars lander and large rover
Mangalyaan — First Indian Mars orbiter
Trace Gas Orbiter, ESA/Roscosmos Mars orbiter


Mission name Launch date Description Ref(s)
United States Solar Dynamics Observatory 11 February 2010 Continuous solar monitoring
Japan Akatsuki (Planet-C) 20 May 2010 Venus orbiter (orbit insertion failed in 2010 / successful orbit insertion on 7 December 2015)
France PICARD 15 June 2010 Solar monitoring
China Chang'e 2 1 October 2010 Lunar orbiter, Asteroid 4179 Toutatis flyby
United States Juno 5 August 2011 Jupiter orbiter
United States GRAIL 10 September 2011 Two spacecraft, Lunar orbiters
China Tiangong (Project 921-2) 29 September 2011 First Chinese space station [340]
Russia China Fobos-Grunt and Yinghuo-1 8 November 2011 failed to escape Earth orbit
United States Mars Science Laboratory (Curiosity Rover) 26 November 2011 large Mars 900 kg Rover (landed 6 August 2012)
United States Van Allen Probes (RBSP) 30 August 2012 Earth Van Allen radiation belts study
United States IRIS 27 June 2013 Solar observations
United States LADEE 6 September 2013 Lunar orbiter
Japan Hisaki 14 September 2013 Planetary atmosphere observatory
India Mars Orbiter Mission (Mangalyaan) 5 November 2013 Mars orbiter
United States MAVEN 18 November 2013 Mars orbiter
China Chang'e 3 1 December 2013 First Chinese lunar lander and rover (first lander since Soviet Luna 24 in 1976)
China Chang'e 5-T1 23 October 2014 Lunar flyby/orbiter and Earth reentry probe; technology demonstration to prepare for Chang'e 5 mission
Japan Germany France Hayabusa2 / MASCOT 3 December 2014 Asteroid lander and sample return, first asteroid rover
Japan PROCYON 3 December 2014 Comet observer and failed asteroid flyby
United States Exploration Flight Test 1 5 December 2014 Unmanned Earth orbital test of Orion interplanetary vehicle.
United States DSCOVR 11 February 2015 Solar observation
India Astrosat 28 September 2015 Space observatory
European Union LISA Pathfinder 3 December 2015 Test mission for proposed LISA gravitational wave observatory
European Union Russia ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter and EDM lander 14 March 2016 Mars orbiter and lander (lander failure)
United States OSIRIS-REx 8 September 2016 Asteroid sample return mission
United States InSight 5 May 2018 Mars lander
United States Parker Solar Probe 12 August 2018 Solar corona probe, closest solar approach (0.04 AU)
European Union Japan BepiColombo 20 October 2018 two Mercury orbiters
China Chang'e 4 7 December 2018 Lunar lander and rover, first landing on the lunar far side
Israel SpaceIL Beresheet 22 February 2019 Private lunar lander, mission unsuccessful but impacts moon returning no pictures.

Planned or scheduled[edit]

Rosalind Franklin rover of Euro-Russian ExoMars mission
American Mars 2020 rover


Mission name Launch date Description Ref(s)
United States Moon Express Lunar Scout April 2019 Private lunar lander
India Chandrayaan-2 (early 2019) Lunar orbiter and rover [341]
China Chang'e 5 December 2019 China's first lunar sample return mission (and first since Luna 24 in 1976)
European Union SolO February 2020 Solar Orbiter, moving as close as 0.28 AU of the Sun [342]
United States Exploration Mission 1 June 2020 Unmanned lunar orbital test of Orion spacecraft and Space Launch System
European Union Russia ExoMars 25 July 2020 European carrier module, Russian lander and first non-American planetary rover, Rosalind Franklin rover
United Arab Emirates Mars Hope July 2020 Emirati Mars orbiter [343][344]
Japan Mars Terahertz Microsatellite July 2020 Japanese Mars orbiter, first microsatellite to Mars [345][346]
United States Mars 2020 July or August 2020 Mars rover [347]
China Mars Global Remote Sensing Orbiter and Small Rover July or August 2020 Mars orbiter, lander and rover
South Korea Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter December 2020 Korean lunar orbiter
United States Japan Mexico Chile Ecuador Colombia Astrobotic Technology Mission One / AEM rover / Uni / EXA-AEC lunar orbiter 2020 Private lunar lander, multiple rovers, lunar orbiter
Japan ispace M1 2020 Private lunar orbiter
Germany PTScientists 2020 Private lunar lander and rovers
United States European Union Canada James Webb Space Telescope 30 March 2021 Orbital space telescope
Russia Luna 25 May 2021 First mission of the Luna-Glob Moon exploration programme, lunar south pole lander
United States Lucy October 2021 Flyby six Jupiter trojan asteroids [348]
India Gaganyaan December 2021 First Indian manned orbiter
India Aditya-L1 2021 Solar observations
Japan ispace M2 2021 Private lunar lander and rover
Japan SLIM 2021 Lunar lander and rover
United States Italy DART / LICIA 2021 Kinetic impactor for 65803 Didymos to test asteroid deflection and flyby [349]
European Union JUICE June 2022 Mission to explore Jupiter's moons Ganymede, Callisto and Europa [350]
Japan DESTINY+ 2022 Multiple flyby of a rock comet and its separated objects
United States Exploration Mission-2 June 2023 Manned lunar flyby and return to Earth
United States Psyche October 2023 Orbit the metallic asteroid 16 Psyche [348]
Russia Luna 26 2023 Lunar orbiter
China Chang'e 7 2023 Lunar orbiter and rover [351]
United States SpaceX dearMoon 2023 Manned circumlunar tourism mission
Russia Luna 27 2024 Lunar south pole lander and rover
China Chang'e 6 2024 Lunar sample return mission
United States Exploration Mission 3 2024 Manned lunar orbiter and return to Earth
United States Blue Origin Blue Moon 2024 Private lunar south polar landing capable of delivering 4,500 kg
United States SpaceX BFR 2024 first human mission to Mars
Japan France Germany MMX 2024 Phobos lander, sample return mission and Deimos flyby / Phobos rover [352]
United States Europa Lander 2025 Europa lander
Russia Luna 28 2025 Lunar south pole lander, rover, and sample return
Russia Federation spacecraft 2025 manned lunar orbit
United States Europa Clipper 2022–2025 Europa moon orbiter
Russia Venera-D 2026 Venus orbiter and lander
Russia Intergelio-Zond 2026 Solar orbiter [353]
China Chang'e 8 2028 Lunar lander
China (before 2030) Mars sample return [354]
China (early 2030s) Manned landing on the Moon [355]
Russia Mercury-P 2031 First Mercury lander[speculation?]
Russia M1 2031 Manned lunar landing [356]
Russia M2 2032 Manned lunar landing and rover [356]
Russia M3 2033 Manned lunar landing and cosmonauts will undertake long-distance trips on lunar rover [356]
Russia M4 2034 Manned lunar landing and beginning of building of a human colony [356]
Russia M5 2035 Manned lunar landing and completion of robotic lunar base [356]
United States 2037 First human mission to Mars by NASA
China 2040–2060 Manned phase of the Chinese Mars exploration program [357]
Russia 2040–2060 Manned phase of the Russian Mars exploration program [358]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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