Timeline of Tanzanian history
This is a timeline of Tanzanian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Tanzania and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Tanzania. See also the list of Presidents of Tanzania.
|1180||The Kilwa Sultanate, under Suleiman Hassan (c. 1178–1195), conquers the rival nation of Sofala.|
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|1498||25 February||The Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama is the first known European to reach the East African coast, landing at Kilimane, where he stayed for 32 days.|
|1505||August||Captain John Homere, part of Francisco de Almeida's fleet, captures the archipelago of Zanzibar, making it part of the Portuguese Empire.|
|1698||Zanzibar falls under the control of the Sultan of Oman.|
|1700||Over 100,000 slaves pass through Zanzibar as part of the Arab slave trade. (to 1800)|
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|1822||United Kingdom signs a treaty with Sultan Seyyid Said to begin the abolition of slavery in Zanzibar.||−1839 second world war||1840||December||Omani Sultan Seyyid Said moves his capital to Zanzibar City.|
|1848||11 May||German missionary Johannes Rebmann, accompanied by Johann Ludwig Krapf, become the first Europeans to report seeing Mount Kilimanjaro.|
|1856||Sultan Seyyid Said dies at sea and is succeeded by his sons Thuwaini bin Said, in Muscat and Oman and Majid bin Said, in Zanzibar.|
|1857||26 June||British explorers Richard Burton and John Speke travel from Zanzibar to the East African coast and begin their exploration of continental East Africa.|
|1858||13 February||Burton and Speke reach Lake Tanganyika, the first known Europeans to do so.|
|1861||2 April||Zanzibar and Oman are split into two separate principalities with Majid bin Said becoming the first Sultan of Zanzibar.|
|1873||Zanzibari Sultan Barghash bin Said stops the export of slaves over the sea.|
|1876||Barghash bin Said closes Zanzibar's slave market.|
|1884||28 March||The Society for German Colonization is formed by Karl Peters in order to acquire German colonial territories in overseas countries. Peters signs treaties with several native chieftains on the mainland opposite Zanzibar.|
|1885||3 March||The German government announces its intention to establish a protectorate in East Africa.|
|2 April||The German East Africa Company is formed by Karl Peters to govern German East Africa.|
|1886||1 November||An agreement is reached between Britain and Germany designating a 10-mile (16 km) wide strip of land along the coast as being controlled by Sultan Barghash bin Said, along with Zanzibar, Pemba, and Mafia. The area that is to become Tanganyika is assigned to Germany while the area to become Kenya is assigned to Britain.|
|1888||April||The German East Africa Company leases the coastal strip opposite Zanzibar from Sultan Khalifah bin Said for 50 years.|
|1890||1 July||The Heligoland–Zanzibar Treaty makes Zanzibar and Pemba a British protectorate.|
|1 August||The Sultan of Zanzibar signs an anti-slavery decree.|
|1896||27 August||The Anglo-Zanzibar War is fought between Zanzibar and the United Kingdom. It lasted approximately 38 minutes and is the shortest war in history.[C]|
|1897||5 April||Sultan Hamoud bin Mohammed issues a decree making slavery illegal in Zanzibar.|
|1898||19 July||Following years of resistance, Chief Mkwawa of the Hehe is cornered by German soldiers and commits suicide in lieu of capture.|
|1905||July||The Maji Maji Rebellion starts as a violent resistance to colonial rule in Tanganyika.|
|1907||August||The Maji Maji Rebellion ends, leaving between 200,000 and 300,000 rebels dead.[D]|
|1914||8 August||The East African Campaign of the First World War begins.|
|3 November||The Battle of Tanga, the first major military engagement of the First World War, takes place. (to 5 November)|
|1916||4 September||Dar es Salaam is occupied by troops from the United Kingdom and South Africa.|
|1919||28 June||Following the First World War, the Treaty of Versailles divides German East Africa, with the United Kingdom acquiring the largest section which it names the Tanganyika Territory.|
|1920||Sir Horace Byatt is appointed the first governor of Tanganyika.|
|10 January||The British mandate over Tanganyika comes into force.|
|1929||The Tanganyika African Association is founded by members of the Tanganyika Territory African Civil Service association.|
|1946||13 December||British mandate over Tanganyika is converted to a United Nations Trusteeship.|
|1954||9 June||Germany returns the skull of Hehe chief Mkwawa (died 1898) to Tanzania and it is put on display near Iringa.|
|7 July||Julius Nyerere forms the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) and becomes its first president.|
|1961||October||The University College, Dar es Salaam is established as one of three constituent colleges of the University of East Africa, with 14 law students.|
|9 December||Tanganyikan independence; Julius Nyerere as Prime Minister.|
|14 December||Tanganyika becomes a member of the United Nations.|
|1962||22 January||Julius Nyerere resigns as Prime Minister and is succeeded by Rashidi Kawawa.|
|9 December||Tanganyika becomes a republic with Julius Nyerere as its first president.|
|1963||16 December||Zanzibar becomes a member of the United Nations.|
|19 December||Zanzibar receives independence from the United Kingdom, becoming a constitutional monarchy.|
|1964||12 January||The Zanzibar Revolution by local Africans overthrows the Sultan of Zanzibar and his primarily Arab government. Sheikh Abeid Karume becomes the first President of Zanzibar.|
|26 April||The Republic of Tanganyika and the Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba unite to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar.|
|1 November||The United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar changes its name to the United Republic of Tanzania.|
|1965||21 September||President Nyerere is returned to power in a one-party election.|
|1 October||Nyerere is sworn in for his second presidential term.|
|1967||5 February||President Nyerere issues the Arusha Declaration, outlining the principles of Ujamaa.|
|1969||24 September||The Arusha Agreement is signed between the European Union and the East African states of Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda.|
|1970||1 July||Tanzania's first university, the University of Dar es Salaam is founded from the split of the University of East Africa into three national universities.|
|1971||1 January||The Arusha Agreement is enacted.|
|1972||7 April||Vice President Abeid Karume is assassinated in Zanzibar Town.|
|11 April||Aboud Jumbe becomes the second President of Zanzibar and Vice President of Tanzania.|
|1976||Archaeologist Mary Leakey and her team discover homoinid fossil footprints at Laetoli, south of the Olduvai Gorge.|
|1977||5 February||Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) and Zanzibar's Afro-Shirazi Party merge to become Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM).|
|18 April||The border between Tanzania and Kenya is closed.|
|25 April||The constitution of Tanzania is adopted.|
|1978||27 October||Ugandan forces under Idi Amin invade Tanzania, starting the Uganda–Tanzania War, also known as the Liberation War.|
|1979||11 April||Tanzanian troops capture the Ugandan capital of Kampala, heralding the end of the Uganda–Tanzania War and Amin's regime.|
|1983||Tanzania's first AIDS diagnosis is made in Bukoba district, Kagera Region.|
|17 November||The Tanzania–Kenya border reopens.|
|1984||31 January||Ali Hassan Mwinyi is sworn in as the third President of Zanzibar and Vice President of Tanzania.|
|1985||5 November||Julius Nyerere retires and Ali Hassan Mwinyi becomes the second President of Tanzania. Mwinyi is succeeded as Vice President by Joseph Sinde Warioba.|
|1990||October||Ali Hassan Mwinyi wins a single-party election with 95.5% of the vote and is sworn in for a second presidential term.|
|1992||28 May||The Civic United Front is formed.|
|1995||29 October||Tanzania holds its first multi-party election.|
|23 November||Benjamin Mkapa is sworn in as the third President of Tanzania.|
|1973||February||The Tanzanian parliament moves from Dar es Salaam to the new capital of Dodoma.|
|1998||7 August||The United States embassies in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Nairobi, Kenya are simultaneously bombed.|
|1999||14 October||Julius Nyerere dies of leukaemia in London.|
|30 November||The East African Community Treaty between Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda is signed in Arusha.|
|2000||7 July||The East African Community Treaty comes into force.|
|29 October||Benjamin Mkapa is re-elected as President of Tanzania, with 72 percent of the vote.|
|2001||28 January||Demonstrators in Zanzibar protesting the 2000 elections, clash with police and 32 people are killed.|
|5 July||Ali Mohamed Shein becomes Vice President of Tanzania.|
|December||The government controversially decides to spend £28m on a new air traffic control system.|
|2002||24 June||The Igandu train disaster kills more than 200 people and is Tanzania's worst train crash.|
|July||Mkapa's government is criticized for purchasing a £15m presidential jet shortly before reaching an agreement with the UK for £270m in aid.|
|2003||December||The Kipunji, a new species of monkey, is found in Tanzania—the first new African monkey species since 1974. It is also independently discovered in July 2004.|
|2005||14 December||General elections are held. Anna Senkoro of the Progressive Party of Tanzania–Maendeleo is the first woman in Tanzania to run for president.|
|21 December||Jakaya Kikwete is sworn in as the fourth President of Tanzania.|
|30 December||Edward Lowassa is sworn is as Prime Minister.|
|2006||11 May||Scientists announce that the Kipunji monkey found in 2003 belongs to a new genus of African monkey—the first to be discovered since 1923.|
|9 August||$642m of Tanzania's debt is cancelled by the African Development Bank.|
|2008||6 February||A parliamentary committee reports on corruption within the cabinet.|
|7 February||Prime Minister Edward Lowassa and two other ministers resign following the report on corruption. President Kikwete dissolves the cabinet.|
- Sources vary as to the exact timescale of the migration of Khoisan from Southern Africa. Nurse & Spear say "as long as twenty thousand years ago".
- The Bantu expansion from West Africa likely happened in several stages. Sources vary as to the exact timescale of the arrival of Bantu people to East Africa. Nurse & Spear say from "twenty-five hundred years ago". Ndembwike says 100–200 AD.
- Several durations are given by sources, including 38, 40 and 45 minutes, but the 38 minute duration is the most often quoted. The variation is due to confusion over what actually constitutes the start and end of a war. Some sources take the start of the war as the order to open fire at 09:00 and some with the start of actual firing at 09:02. The end of the war is usually put at 09:40 when the last shots were fired and the palace flag struck, but some sources place it at 09:45. The logbooks of the British ships also suffer from this with St George indicating that cease-fire was called and Khalid entered the German consulate at 09:35, Thrush at 09:40, Racoon at 09:41 and Philomel and Sparrow at 09:45.
- There is no exact figure for the number of deaths in the Maji Maji Rebellion. German officials at the time estimated 75,000. Most sources say over 200,000.
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