250 BCE

Archimedes' principle: Archimedes

500

Theory of Impetus: John Philoponus

1514

Heliocentrism: Nicholas Copernicus

1589

Galileo's Leaning Tower of Pisa experiment: Galileo Galilei

1613

Inertia: Galileo Galilei

1621

Snell's law: Willebrord Snellius

1660

Pascal's Principle: Blaise Pascal

1660

Hooke's law: Robert Hooke

1676

Rømer's determination of the speed of light traveling from the moons of Jupiter.

1687

Laws of Motion and Law of Gravitation and calculus: Isaac Newton

1782

Conservation of matter: Lavoisier

1785

Inverse square law for electric charges confirmed: CharlesAugustin de Coulomb

1801

Wave theory of light: Thomas Young

1803

Atomic theory of matter: John Dalton

1806

Kinetic energy: Thomas Young

1814

Wave theory of light, interference: Fresnel

1820

Evidence for electromagnetic interactions: AndréMarie Ampère, JeanBaptiste Biot, Félix Savart

1827

Electrical resistance, etc.: Ohm

1831

Electromagnetic induction: Michael Faraday

1838

Lines of Force, Fields: Michael Faraday

1838

Earth's magnetic field: Wilhelm Eduard Weber and Carl Friedrich Gauss

1843

Conservation of energy: Julius Robert von Mayer, William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin

1845

Faraday Rotation (light and electromagnetic): Michael Faraday

1847

Conservation of energy 2: James Prescott Joule, Hermann von Helmholtz

1851

Second law of thermodynamics: Rudolf Clausius, William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin


1859

Kinetic theory: James Clerk Maxwell

1861

Black body: Gustav Kirchhoff

1863

Entropy: Rudolf Clausius

1864

A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field: James Clerk Maxwell

1867

Dynamic Theory of Gases, James Clerk Maxwell

1871–89

Statistical Mechanics: Ludwig Boltzmann, Josiah Willard Gibbs

1884

Boltzmann derives Stefan's radiation law

1887

Michelson–Morley experiment

1887

Electromagnetic Waves: Heinrich Rudolf Hertz

1893

Radiation Law: Wilhelm Wien

1895

XRays discovered: Wilhelm Röntgen

1896

Radioactivity: Henri Becquerel

1897

Electron discovered: J. J. Thomson

1900

Formula for BlackBody Radiation: Max Planck Quantum Hypothesis: Max Planck

1905

Special Relativity: Albert Einstein Photoelectric Effect: Albert Einstein Brownian Motion: Albert Einstein

1911

Equivalence Principle: Albert Einstein Discovery of the Atomic Nucleus: Ernest Rutherford Superconductivity: Kamerlingh Onnes

1913

Bohr Model of the atom: Niels Bohr

1916

General Relativity: Albert Einstein

1923

Stern–Gerlach experiment Matter waves: Louis de Broglie Galaxies: Edwin Hubble

1925

Matrix Mechanics: Werner Heisenberg

1926

Schrödinger Equation: Erwin Schrödinger

1927

Big Bang: Georges Lemaître

1927

Uncertainty Principle: Werner Heisenberg

1928

Antimatter predicted: Paul Dirac

1929

Expansion of the Universe Confirmed: Edwin Hubble

1932

Antimatter discovered: Carl David Anderson Neutron discovered: James Chadwick

1937

Muon discovered: Carl David Anderson & Seth Neddermeyer

1938

Superfluidity discovered: Pyotr Kapitsa Nuclear Fission discovered: Otto Hahn

1947

Pion discovered: C.F. Powell, Giuseppe Occhialini, César Lattes

1948

Quantum Electrodynamics: Richard Feynman

1956

Electron neutrino discovered

1957

Parity violation discovered

1957

Theory of Superconductivity

1962

Theory of strong interactions Muon neutrino discovered

1964

Bell's Theorem initiates quantitative study of quantum entanglement

1967

Theory of Weak interaction Pulsars discovered

1974

Charmed quark discovered

1975

Tau lepton discovered

1977

Bottom quark discovered

1980

Quantum Hall effect discovered

1980

Richard Feynman proposes quantum computing


1981

Theory of cosmic inflation Fractional quantum Hall effect discovered

1984

W and Z bosons directly observed

1984

First laboratory implementation of quantum cryptography

1993

Quantum teleportation of unknown states proposed

1994

shor's algorithm discovered, initiating the serious study of quantum computation.

1995

Top quark discovered

1995

BoseEinstein condensation observed

1998

Accelerating universe discovered

1998

Atmospheric neutrino oscillation established

2000

Tau neutrino discovered

2012

Higgs Boson discovered

2014

First direct evidence of cosmic inflation

2015

Gravitational waves detected
