Timeline of second-wave feminism

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This is a Timeline of second-wave feminism, from its beginning in the mid-twentieth century, to the start of Third-wave feminism in the early 1990s.

Timeline[edit]

1960s[edit]

1960[edit]

  • Enovid is approved for sale in the United States 9 May 1960 as a contraceptive pill by the Food and Drug Administration. (It had been approved three years earlier for menstrual symptoms.) Within three years, 2.3 million women are using "The Pill", as it became known, in the United States.[1] The arrival of the pill ushered in and coincided with the second wave of feminism.[2]

1961[edit]

1962[edit]

  • The non-fiction book Sex and the Single Girl is released in the U.S. and sells two million copies in three weeks. Author Helen Gurley Brown encouraged women to become financially independent, and to become sexually active before marriage.[5]

1963[edit]

  • Twenty years after it was first proposed, the Equal Pay Act became law in the U.S., and it established equality of pay for men and women performing equal work. However, it did not originally cover executives, administrators, outside salespeople, or professionals.[6] In 1972, Congress enacted the Educational Amendments of 1972, which (among other things) amended the Fair Labor Standards Act to expand the coverage of the Equal Pay Act to these employees, by excluding the Equal Pay Act from the professional workers exemption of the Fair Labor Standards Act.[citation needed]
  • Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique was published, became a best-seller, and laid the groundwork for the second-wave feminist movement in the U.S.[4][7]
  • Alice S. Rossi presented "Equality Between the Sexes: An Immodest Proposal" at the American Academy of Arts and Sciences conference.[4][8]
  • Gloria Steinem went undercover as a Playboy bunny in a New York Playboy Club, and published the exposé "A Bunny's Tale" in Show magazine in two installments in May and June, 1963.[9][10]

1964[edit]

1965[edit]

1966[edit]

  • Twenty-eight women, among them Betty Friedan, founded the National Organization for Women (NOW) to function as a civil rights organization for women. Betty Friedan became its first president. The group is now one of the largest women's groups in the U.S. and pursues its goals through extensive legislative lobbying, litigation, and public demonstrations.[21]
  • Barbara Jordan was elected to the Texas Senate. She was the first African-American woman in the Texas legislature.[22]
  • Flight attendants filed Title VII complaints about being forced to quit when they married, got pregnant or reached age 35.[22]

1967[edit]

1968[edit]

  • Robin Morgan led members of New York Radical Women to protest the Miss America Pageant of 1968, which they decried as sexist and racist.[4]
  • The first American national gathering of women's liberation activists was held in Lake Villa, a suburb of Chicago, Illinois.[37]
  • The EEOC issued revised guidelines on sex discrimination, making it clear that the widespread practice of publishing "help wanted" advertisements that use "male" and "female" column headings violates Title VII.[38]
  • New York feminists buried a dummy of "Traditional Womanhood" at the all-women's Jeannette Rankin Brigade demonstration against the Vietnam War in Washington, D.C.[4]
  • For the first time, feminists used the slogan "Sisterhood is Powerful."[39]
  • The first public speakout against abortion laws was held in New York City.[4]
  • Notes from the First Year, a women's liberation theoretical journal, was published by New York Radical Women.[40]
  • NOW celebrated Mother's Day with the slogan "Rights, Not Roses".[41]
  • Mary Daly, professor of theology at Boston College, published a scathing criticism of the Catholic Church's view and treatment of women entitled "The Church and the Second Sex."[42][43]
  • 850 sewing machinists at Ford in Dagenham, which is in Britain, went on strike for equal pay and against sex discrimination. This ultimately led to the passing of the Equal Pay Act 1970, the first legislation in the United Kingdom aimed at ending pay discrimination between men and women.[23]
  • Journalist Martha Lear coins the terms 'first-wave' and 'second-wave' feminism in a New York Times Magazine article entitled "The Second Feminist Wave: What do these women want?"[44]

1969[edit]

  • The American radical organization Redstockings organized.[45]
  • Members of Redstockings disrupted a hearing on abortion laws of the New York Legislature when the panel of witnesses turned out to be 14 men and a nun. The group demanded repeal, not reform, of laws restricting abortion.[4]
  • NARAL Pro-Choice America, then called The National Association for the Repeal of Abortion Laws (NARAL), was founded.[46]
  • California adopted a "no fault" divorce law, allowing couples to divorce by mutual consent. It was the first state to do so; by 2010 every state had adopted a similar law. Legislation was also passed regarding equal division of common property.[39]
A Women's Liberation march in Washington, D.C., 1970

1970s[edit]

Cover of Kate Millett's 1970 book Sexual Politics.

 

Photo of feminist Robin Morgan, author of Sisterhood is Powerful.

 

Congresswoman Bella Abzug of New York in the 1970s.

 

Publicity photo of Helen Reddy from The Carol Burnett Show.

1970[edit]

1971[edit]

  • Switzerland allowed women to vote in national elections. However, some cantons did not allow women to vote in local elections until 1994.[23]
  • Jane O'Reilly's article "The Housewife's Moment of Truth" was published in the first edition of Ms. Magazine, which appeared as an insert to New York Magazine. The O'Reilly article introduced the idea of "Click!," which O'Reilly described as the following: "The women in the group looked at her, looked at each other, and ... click! A moment of truth. The shock of recognition. Instant sisterhood... Those clicks are coming faster and faster. They were nearly audible last summer, which was a very angry summer for American women. Not redneck-angry from screaming because we are so frustrated and unfulfilled-angry, but clicking-things-into-place-angry, because we have suddenly and shockingly perceived the basic disorder in what has been believed to be the natural order of things."
  • Linda Nochlin's essay "Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?" was published in ARTnews. This essay is largely considered a pioneering text of the feminist art history movement.
  • The first women's liberation march in London occurred.[23]
  • In the U.S. Supreme Court Case Reed v Reed, for the first time since the Fourteenth Amendment went into effect in 1868, the Court struck down a state law on the ground that it discriminated against women in violation of the Equal Protection Clause of that amendment. The law in question—enacted in Idaho in 1864—required that when the father and mother of a deceased person both sought appointment as administrator of the estate, the man had to be preferred over the woman.[64]
  • The Westbeth Playwrights Feminist Collective was founded in New York. It was one of the first feminist theater groups formed to write and produce plays about women's issues and to provide work experience in theatrical professions which had been dominated by men.[65][66][67]
  • The song "I Am Woman" was published. It was a popular song performed by Australian singer Helen Reddy, which became an enduring anthem for the women's liberation movement.[68]
  • Women's Equality Day resolution was passed in 1971 designating August 26 of each year as Women's Equality Day[69]

1972[edit]

Cover of Preview issue of Ms. magazine.
  • Britain's first second-wave feminist magazine, Spare Rib, was launched by Marsha Rowe and Rosie Boycott.
  • Egyptian feminist Nawal El-Saadawi published her book Women and Sex.[23]
  • American feminists Gloria Steinem and Letty Cottin Pogrebin co-founded Ms. magazine.[70][71]
  • The National Action Committee (NAC) was established to spur action by the Canadian government to implement recommendations made by the Royal Commission on the Status of Women (1970). Funded in part by the federal government and founded as a wide coalition of women's groups, NAC was seen as the voice of Canadian women.
  • The Equal Rights Amendment was sent to the U.S. states for ratification. The amendment reads: "Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex".[72]
Feminist Movement leader Gloria Steinem.

1973[edit]

  • Women are allowed on the floor of the London Stock Exchange for the first time.[23]
  • American tennis player Billie Jean King defeated Bobby Riggs in the "Battle of the Sexes" tennis match in 1973. This match is remembered for its effect on society and its contribution to the women's movement.[80]
Symbol used for signs and buttons by ERA opponents
  • The Supreme Court of the United States ruled in Roe v. Wade that laws prohibiting abortion are unconstitutional. States are constitutionally allowed to place regulations on abortion which fall short of prohibition after the first trimester.[81]
  • The U.S. Supreme Court held that sex-segregated help wanted ads are illegal in Pittsburgh Press Co. v. Pittsburgh Commission on Human Relations, 413 U.S. 376.[82]
  • AT&T agreed to end discrimination in women's salaries and to pay retroactive compensation to women employees.[4]
  • The [American] National Black Feminist Organization was formed.[4]
  • The term "sexual harassment" was used in 1973 in "Saturn's Rings", a report authored by Mary Rowe to the then President and Chancellor of MIT about various forms of gender issues.[83] Rowe has stated that she believes she was not the first to use the term, since sexual harassment was being discussed in women's groups in Massachusetts in the early 1970s, but that MIT may have been the first or one of the first large organizations to discuss the topic (in the MIT Academic Council), and to develop relevant policies and procedures. MIT at the time also recognized the injuries caused by racial harassment and the harassment of women of color which may be both racial and sexual.

1974[edit]

  • Five all-male colleges at University of Oxford opened admissions to women.[84]
  • Contraception became free for women in the United Kingdom.[23]
  • Virago Press, a British feminist press, was set up by the publisher Carmen Callil. Its first title, Life As We Have Known It, was published in 1975.[23]
  • The Women's Aid Federation was set up to unite battered women's shelters in Britain.[23]
Betty Ford, former First Lady of the United States.

1975[edit]

  • The Equal Pay Act 1970 took effect in the UK.[23]
  • The Sex Discrimination Act 1975 became law in the UK, making it illegal to discriminate against women in education, recruitment, and advertising.[23]
  • The Employment Protection Act 1975 became law in the UK, introducing statutory maternity provision and making it illegal to fire a woman because she is pregnant.[23]
  • In Taylor v. Louisiana, the U.S. Supreme Court held that women could not be excluded from a venire, or jury pool, on the basis of having to register for jury duty, thus overturning Hoyt v. Florida, the 1961 case that had allowed such a practice.[94]
  • The U.N. sponsored the First International Conference on Women in Mexico City.[95]
  • U.S. federal employees' salaries could be garnished for child support and alimony.[96]
  • Tish Sommers, chairwoman of NOW's Older Women Task Force, coined the phrase "displaced homemaker".[97]
  • American feminist Susan Brownmiller published the landmark book Against Our Will, about rape.[98] She later became one of TIME's "Women of the Year" (see below).[98][99]
  • NOW sponsored "Alice Doesn't" Day, asking women across the country to go on strike for one day.[100]
  • Joan Little, who was raped by a guard while in jail, was acquitted of murdering her offender. The case established a precedent in America for killing as self-defense against rape.[101]
  • In New York City, the first women's bank opened.[102]
  • The United States armed forces opened its military academies to women.[94]
  • Time declared: "[F]eminism has transcended the feminist movement. In 1975 the women's drive penetrated every layer of society, matured beyond ideology to a new status of general—and sometimes unconscious—acceptance." The Time Person of the Year award goes to American Women, celebrating the successes of the feminist movement.[99]
  • The Equal Opportunities Commission came into effect in the UK (besides Northern Ireland, where it came into effect in 1976) to oversee the Sex Discrimination and Equal Pay Acts.[23]
  • The first "Take Back the Night" march was held.[103] It was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in October 1975, after the murder of a microbiologist, Susan Alexander Speeth, who was stabbed to death while walking home alone.[103]

1976[edit]

Barbara Jordan giving keynote address before the 1976 Democratic National Convention in New York City.

1977[edit]

  • The Canadian Human Rights Act was passed, prohibiting discrimination based on characteristics including sex and sexual orientation, and requiring "equal pay for work of equal value".[110]
German poster for International Women's Day, March 8, 1914.

1978[edit]

  • The Oregon v. Rideout jury decision, in which Rideout was acquitted of raping his wife, led many American states to allow prosecution for marital and cohabitation rape.[116]
  • The Pregnancy Discrimination Act banned employment discrimination against pregnant women in the U.S., stating a woman cannot be fired or denied a job or a promotion because she is or may become pregnant, nor can she be forced to take a pregnancy leave if she is willing and able to work.[117]
  • The Equal Rights Amendment's deadline arrived with the ERA still three states short of ratification; there was a successful bill to extend the ERA's deadline to 1982, but it was still not ratified by then.[72]


1979[edit]

  • The feminist art piece The Dinner Party, by American feminist artist Judy Chicago, was first put on display at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art.[23]
  • Duren v. Missouri, 439 U.S. 357 (1979), was a United States Supreme Court case in which the court ruled that the exemption on request of women from jury service under Missouri law, resulting in an average of less than 15% women on jury venires in the forum county, violated the "fair-cross-section" requirement of the Sixth Amendment as made applicable to the States by the Fourteenth.

1980s[edit]

  • In the U.S., the early 1980s were marked by the end of the second wave and the beginning of the feminist sex wars. Many historians view the second-wave feminist era in America as ending in the early 1980s with the intra-feminism disputes of the feminist sex wars over issues such as sexuality and pornography, which ushered in the era of third-wave feminism in the early 1990s.[118]
  • In the 1980s the second wave spread to Turkey[119] and to Israel.[120]
Yvette Roudy, former French Minister of Women's Rights.
  • The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms was enacted by the Canada Act of 1982, and it declares (among other things), "15. (1) Every individual is equal before and under the law and has the right to the equal protection and equal benefit of the law without discrimination and, in particular, without discrimination based on race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age or mental or physical disability. (2) Subsection (1) does not preclude any law, program or activity that has as its object the amelioration of conditions of disadvantaged individuals or groups including those that are disadvantaged because of race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age or mental or physical disability....28. Notwithstanding anything in this Charter, the rights and freedoms referred to in it are guaranteed equally to male and female persons."[121]
  • In 1983, the women's minister of France, Yvette Roudy, passed a law obliging all companies with more than 50 employees to carry out a comparative salary survey between men and women.[122]
  • The Japanese Equal Employment Opportunity Law of 1985, effective in April 1986, prohibits gender discrimination with respect to recruitment, hiring, promotion, training, and job assignment.[123]
  • The Guerrilla Girls formed in the early 1980s as a response to sexism and racism in the art world. Known for their protest art and their usage of gorilla masks to remain anonymous, the group actively calls out issues within the contemporary art world.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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